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GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN, COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01101 0375 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/collectionss4v2mass 



COLLECTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



VOL II. 

OF THE FOURTH SERIES 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

By CROSBY, NICHOLS, AND COMPANY. 

1854. 



CAMBRIDGE.' 
METCALP AND COMPANY, PRINTERS TO THE UNIVERSITY. 



CONTENTS 



1163890 



PAGE 



Act of Incorporation, ........ v 

By-Laws, vii 

Officers of the Society, ........ xvi 

Resident Members, ........ xvii 

III Newes from New-England : or a Narative of New-Englands 
Persecution. By John Clark Physician of Rode Island in 
America, .......... 1 

Letter from Certain Ministers and others of New England to 
Cromwell, upon his Application to Persons here to settle in 

Ireland, . .115 

Letter from William Bradford to John Winthrop, . . . 119 
Letter from Emanuel Downing to James Usher, . . . 120 

Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather, D. D., . . . 122 
Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, D. D., ... 130 

The First Plymouth Patent, 156 

Letters from Dr. William Douglass to Cadwallader Golden of New 

York, 164 

The Dunster Papers, . . 190 

Correspondence relating to a Memoir of the Hon. John Quincy Adams, 199 
Memoir of the late Thomas L. Winthrop, ..... 202 

Memorials of the Whites, ....... 215 

The Leverett Papers, . . . . . . . .221 

Detail of the Patent of Beauchamp and Leverett, . . . 226 

Instructions from O. Cromwell, 230 

The Dudley Papers, 234 



iv Contents. 

Correspondence between Rev. Thomas Prince and Rev. Charles 

Chauncy, 238 

David Trumbull to Jeremy Belknap, ..... 240 

Memoir of Rev. Alexander Young, D. D., by Rev. Chandler Robbins, 241 
Exemplification of the Judgment for vacating the Charter of the 

Massachusetts Bay in New England, 246 

Orders in Council, 1660-1 to 1692-3, 279 

Governor Bradstreet to Sir Lionel Jenkins, .... 305 

Increase Mather to the Earl of Nottingham, .... 307 

Letter of Governor Joseph Dudley, 308 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



ACT OF INCORPORATION. 



In the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-four. 

An Act to incorporate a Society, by the name of The Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. 

Whereas the collection and preservation of materials for a 
political and natural history of the United States is a desirable 
object, and the institution of a Society for those purposes will 
be of public utility : 

Be it therefore enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of 
the same, That William Baylies, Esq., Jeremy Belknap, D. D., 
the Rev. Alden Bradford, Peleg Coffin, Esq., Manasseh Cutler, 
D. D., John Davis, Esq., Daniel Davis, Esq., Aaron Dexter, Doc- 
tor in Physic, the Rev. John Eliot, Nathaniel Freeman, Esq., 
the Rev. James Freeman, the Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, 
Isaac Lothrop, Esq., George Richards Minot, Esq., the Rev. 
John Mellen, Jun., Thomas Pemberton, William Dandridge 
Peck, the Rev. John Prince, Ezekiel Price, Esq., James Sullivan, 
Esq., David Sewall, Esq., Peter Thacher, D. D., William Tudor, 
Esq., Samuel Turell, Dudley Atkins Tyng, Esq., James Win- 
throp, Esq., Thomas Wallcut, Redford Webster, and William 
Wetmore, Esq., who have associated for the purposes aforesaid, 
and have requested an Act of Incorporation, be, and hereby are, 
formed into and constituted a Society and Body Politic and 
Corporate, by the name of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society ; and that they and their successors, and such other 
persons as shall be legally elected by them, shall be and con- 
tinue a Body Politic and Corporate, by that name, for ever. 



vi Act of Incorporation. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the 
members of said Society shall have power to elect a President, 
and all other necessary officers ; and that the said Society shall 
have one common seal, and the same may break, change, and 
renew at pleasure ; and that the same Society, by the name 
aforesaid, as a Body Politic and Corporate, may sue and be 
sued, prosecute and defend suits to final judgment and execu- 
tion. 

And be it further enacted, That the said Society shall have 
power to make orders and by-laws for governing its members 
and property, not repugnant to the laws of the Commonwealth, 
and may expel, disfranchise, or suspend any member, who, by 
his misconduct, shall be rendered unworthy. 

And be it further enacted, That the said Society may, from 
time to time, establish rules for electing officers and members, 
and also times and places for holding meetings ; and shall be 
capable to take and hold real or personal estate, by gift, grant, de- 
vise, or otherwise, and the same, or any part thereof, to alien and 
convey : Provided, That the annual income of any real estate, 
by said Society holden, shall never exceed the sum of five hundred 
pounds ; and that the personal estate thereof, besides books, 
papers, and articles in the Museum of said Society, shall never 
exceed the value of two thousand pounds. 

And be it further enacted, That the members of said Society 
shall never be more than sixty (except honorary members, resid- 
ing without the limits of this Commonwealth), and that James 
Sullivan, Esq. be, and hereby is, authorized and empowered 
to notify and warn the first meeting of said Society ; and that 
the same Society, when met, shall agree upon a method for 
calling future meetings, and may have power to adjourn from 
time to time, as may be found necessary. 

And be it further enacted, That either branch of the Legis- 
lature shall and may have free access to the Library and Mu- 
seum of said Society. 

This Act passed Feb. 19, 1794. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

January Meeting, 1853. A Committee, consisting of Messrs. ,Young, Tick- 
NOR, and Shurtleff, appointed to revise the Rules and Regulations of the So- 
ciety, reported the same in a new draft, which was laid on the table, and ordered 
to be printed under direction of the Publishing Committee. 

February Meeting, 1853. Ordered, That five hundred copies of the By- 
Laws, as adopted this day, together with the Act of Incorporation, be printed. 
Attest, JOSEPH WILLARD, 

Recording Secretary. 



BY-LAWS. 



CHAPTER I 

OF MEMBERS. 



Article 1. — The Regular, or Resident, Members of the So- 
ciety shall be elected from among the citizens of this Common- 
wealth, and shall cease to be members whenever they cease to 
be citizens ; the Honorary, or Corresponding Members, shall be 
elected from among those persons who are not citizens of this 
Commonwealth, and shall cease to be members if at any time 
they become citizens. 

Article 2. — A book shall be kept by the Recording Secre- 
tary, in which any Resident Member of the Society may at any 
monthly meeting enter the name of any person, whom he may 
regard as suitable to be elected a Resident Member ; it being 
understood, that each member is bound in honor not to make 
known abroad the name of any person so proposed, while the 
person proposed may continue to be a candidate. But no nomi- 
nation of a Resident Member shall be made except by a report 
of the Standing Committee, and no nomination thus made shall 
be acted upon at the same meeting to which it is reported. 

Article 3. — Nominations of Corresponding Members may 
be made by any member of the Society, and shall be entered in 
the record of the meeting at which each may be made ; but no 
member shall nominate more than one candidate at one and the 
same meeting, and no candidate shall be voted for at the same 
meeting at which he may have been nominated. 

Article 4. — All members shall be elected by ballot, and 
in balloting for members, the law and custom of our forefathers 
shall be observed, by taking the question with Indian corn and 
beans, — the corn expressing yeas, and the beans nays ; but no 
person shall be deemed chosen, unless there be nine members 
present at the election, nor unless two thirds of all the members 
present shall have voted affirmatively. 

Article 5. — Each Resident Member shall pay eight dollars 
at the time of his admission, and three dollars annually after- 
wards, into the Treasury of the Society, for its general purposes ; 
h 



vi Act of Incorporation. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the 
members of said Society shall have power to elect a President, 
and all other necessary officers ; and that the said Society shall 
have one common seal, and the same may break, change, and 
renew at pleasure ; and that the same Society, by the name 
aforesaid, as a Body Politic and Corporate, may sue and be 
sued, prosecute and defend suits to final judgment and execu- 
tion. 

And be it further enacted, That the said Society shall have 
power to make orders and by-laws for governing its members 
and property, not repugnant to the laws of the Commonwealth, 
and may expel, disfranchise, or suspend any member, who, by 
his misconduct, shall be rendered unworthy. 

And be it further enacted, That the said Society may, from 
time to time, establish rules for electing officers and members, 
and also times and places for holding meetings ; and shall be 
capable to take and hold real or personal estate, by gift, grant, de- 
vise, or otherwise, and the same, or any part thereof, to alien and 
convey : Provided, That the annual income of any real estate, 
by said Society holden, shall never exceed the sum of five hundred 
pounds ; and that the personal estate thereof, besides books, 
papers, and articles in the Museum of said Society, shall never 
exceed the value of two thousand pounds. 

And be it further enacted, That the members of said Society 
shall never be more than sixty (except honorary members, resid- 
ing without the limits of this Commonwealth), and that James 
Sullivan, Esq. be, and hereby is, authorized and empowered 
to notify and warn the first meeting of said Society ; and that 
the same Society, when met, shall agree upon a method for 
calling future meetings, and may have power to adjourn from 
time to time, as may be found necessary. 

And be it further enacted, That either branch of the Legis- 
lature shall and may have free access to the Library and Mu- 
seum of said Society. 

This Act passed Feb. 19, 1794. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

January Meeting, 1853. A Committee, consisting of Messrs., Young, Tick- 
nor, and Shurtleff, appointed to revise the Rules and Regulations of the So- 
ciety, reported the same in a new draft, which was laid on the table, and ordered 
to be printed under direction of the Publishing Committee. 

February Meeting, 1853. Ordered, That five hundred copies of the By- 
Laws, as adopted this day, together with the Act of Incorporation, be printed. 
Attest, JOSEPH WILLARD, 

Recording Secretary. 



BY-LAWS 



CHAPTER I. 

OF MEMBERS. 



Article 1. — The Regular, or Resident, Members of the So- 
ciety shall be elected from among the citizens of this Common- 
wealth, and shall cease to be members whenever they cease to 
be citizens ; the Honorary, or Corresponding Members, shall be 
elected from among those persons who are not citizens of this 
Commonwealth, and shall cease to be members if at any time 
they become citizens. 

Article 2. — A book shall be kept by the Recording Secre- 
tary, in which any Resident Member of the Society may at any 
monthly meeting enter the name of any person, whom he may 
regard as suitable to be elected a Resident Member ; it being 
understood, that each member is bound in honor not to make 
known abroad the name of any person so proposed, while the 
person proposed may continue to be a candidate. But no nomi- 
nation of a Resident Member shall be made except by a report 
of the Standing Committee, and no nomination thus made shall 
be acted upon at the same meeting to which it is reported. 

Article 3. — Nominations of Corresponding Members may 
be made by any member of the Society, and shall be entered in 
the record of the meeting at which each may be made ; but no 
member shall nominate more than one candidate at one and the 
same meeting, and no candidate shall be voted for at the same 
meeting at which he may have been nominated. 

Article 4. — All members shall be elected by ballot, and 
in balloting for members, the law and custom of our forefathers 
shall be observed, by taking the question with Indian corn and 
beans, — the corn expressing yeas, and the beans nays ; but no 
person shall be deemed chosen, unless there be nine members 
present at the election, nor unless two thirds of all the members 
present shall have voted affirmatively. 

Article 5. — Each Resident Member shall pay eight dollars 
at the time of his admission, and three dollars annually after- 
wards, into the Treasury of the Society, for its general purposes ; 
b 



viii v By-Laivs. 

but any member shall be exempted from the annual payment if, 
at any time after six months from his admission, he shall pay 
into the Treasury thirty dollars in addition to what he may be- 
fore have paid. 

Article 6. — If any person elected as a Resident Member 
shall neglect, for one year after being notified of his election, to 
pay his admission fee, his election shall be void ; and if any 
Resident Member shall neglect to pay his annual assessment for 
three years after it shall have become due, and have been de- 
manded, he shall, cease to be a member. Each person who 
shall be elected a member shall, when notified of it, be fur- 
nished by the Corresponding Secretary with an attested copy of 
this Article and the preceding one, and the Treasurer shall, as 
cases may occur, report to the Society those persons who have 
neglected to pay their admission fee or their annual assessments, 
as above required. 

Article 7. — Diplomas signed by the President and counter- 
signed by the two Secretaries shall be issued to all persons who 
have become members of the Society. 



CHAPTER II. 

OF MEETINGS. 

Article 1. — There shall be a Regular Meeting of the So- 
ciety at noon on the second Thursday of every month, at their 
rooms in Boston ; and Special Meetings shall be called by either 
of the Secretaries whenever requested so to do by the President, 
or, in case of his absence or inability, then by the Standing 
Committee, or by any five members of the Society. 

Article 2. — At all meetings, the President shall take the 
chair in five minutes after the time appointed in the notifi- 
cation, and the record of the preceding meeting shall then be, 
at once, read ; after which, at all Special Meetings, the special 
business for which the meeting was called shall be transacted ; 
and at all Regular Meetings the order of business shall be as 
follows : — 

The Librarian shall make a detailed report of whatever may 
have been received by him since the last meeting. 

The Cabinet-Keeper shall make a similar report. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall read any communications 
he may have received. 

The unfinished business, and the assignments of the last 
meeting, shall be announced by the Recording Secretary to the 
President, and taken up in their order. 



By-Laivs. ix 

The Standing Committee shall be called on to report its 
doings since the last meeting. 

The other subsisting committees that may not have reported 
shall be called on for reports. 

The members who may have any business to propose shall 
be desired by the President to propose it. 

The members generally shall then be invited, so far as time 
may permit, to make any oral communications on any subject 
having relation to the objects of the Society ; — and, for the 
orderly accomplishment of this purpose, the Society shall be 
divided into three sections, as nearly equal in numbers as may 
be, each of which sections, in regular sequence, shall be notified 
by the Recording Secretary, that the Society, at the next fol- 
lowing meeting, will desire to receive from it such communica- 
tions as are above suggested, and the officer presiding at the 
next meeting shall call upon each of the members of such section, 
in his turn, to offer any such communication or propose any such 
subject, after which the communication so made, or the subject 
so proposed, may be discussed by the Society generally. Pro- 
vided, however, that, if the member proposing such subject pre- 
fer to do it in writing, the Recording Secretary shall enter it in 
the Records of the Society, and it may be discussed either at 
the time when it is proposed, or at any subsequent meeting. 

Article 3. — Five members shall be a quorum for all pur- 
poses except the election of members, as hereinbefore provided, 
and excepting, also, alterations of the By-laws, which shall not 
be made unless nine persons are present, nor unless the subject 
has either been discussed at a previous meeting, or reported on 
by a committee appointed for the purpose. 

Article 4. — At the request of any two members present, 
any motion shall be once deferred to a subsequent meeting, for 
discussion, before it is finally disposed of. 

Article 5. — All committees shall be nominated by the chair, 
unless otherwise provided for. 



CHAPTER III. 



OF OFFICERS. 



The Officers of the Society shall be a President, who shall 
be, ex officio, Chairman of the Standing Committee ; a Record- 
ing Secretary ; a Corresponding Secretary ; a Treasurer ; a Li- 
brarian ; a Cabinet-Keeper ; and a Standing Committee of 
five ; — all of whom shall be chosen by ballot at the Monthly 



viii By~Laivs. 

but any member shall be exempted from the annual payment if, 
at any time after six months from his admission, he shall pay 
into the Treasury thirty dollars in addition to what he may be- 
fore have paid. 

Article 6. — If any person elected as a Resident Member 
shall neglect, for one year after being notified of his election, to 
pay his admission fee, his election shall be void ; and if any 
Resident Member shall neglect to pay his annual assessment for 
three years after it shall have become due, and have been de- 
manded, he shall, cease to be a member. Each person who 
shall be elected a member shall, when notified of it, be fur- 
nished by the Corresponding Secretary with an attested copy of 
this Article and the preceding one, and the Treasurer shall, as 
cases may occur, report to the Society those persons who have 
neglected to pay their admission fee or their annual assessments, 
as above required. 

Article 7. — Diplomas signed by the President and counter- 
signed by the two Secretaries shall be issued to all persons who 
have become members of the Society. 



CHAPTER II. 



OF MEETINGS. 



Article 1. — There shall be a Regular Meeting of the So- 
ciety at noon on the second Thursday of every month, at their 
rooms in Boston ; and Special Meetings shall be called by either 
of the Secretaries whenever requested so to do by the President, 
or, in case of his absence or inability, then by the Standing 
Committee, or by any five members of the Society. 

Article 2. — At all meetings, the President shall take the 
chair in five minutes after the time appointed in the notifi- 
cation, and the record of the preceding meeting shall then be, 
at once, read ; after which, at all Special Meetings, the special 
business for which the meeting was called shall be transacted ; 
and at all Regular Meetings the order of business shall be as 
follows : — 

The Librarian shall make a detailed report of whatever may 
have been received by him since the last meeting. 

The Cabinet-Keeper shall make a similar report. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall read any communications 
he may have received. 

The unfinished business, and the assignments of the last 
meeting, shall be announced by the Recording Secretary to the 
President, and taken up in their order. 



By-Laivs. ix 

The Standing Committee shall be called on to report its 
doings since the last meeting. 

The other subsisting committees that may not have reported 
shall be called on for reports. 

The members who may have any business to propose shall 
be desired by the President to propose it. 

The members generally shall then be invited, so far as time 
may permit, to make any oral communications on any subject 
having relation to the objects of the Society; — and, for the 
orderly accomplishment of this purpose, the Society shall be 
divided into three sections, as nearly equal in numbers as may 
be, each of which sections, in regular sequence, shall be notified 
by the Recording Secretary, that the Society, at the next fol- 
lowing meeting, will desire to receive from it such communica- 
tions as are above suggested, and the officer presiding at the 
next meeting shall call upon each of the members of such section, 
in his turn, to offer any such communication or propose any such 
subject, after which the communication so made, or the subject 
so proposed, may be discussed by the Society generally. Pro- 
vided, however, that, if the member proposing such subject pre- 
fer to do it in writing, the Recording Secretary shall enter it in 
the Records of the Society, and it may be discussed either at 
the time when it is proposed, or at any subsequent meeting. 

Article 3. — Five members shall be a quorum for all pur- 
poses except the election of members, as hereinbefore provided, 
and excepting, also, alterations of the By-laws, which shall not 
be made unless nine persons are present, nor unless the subject 
has either been discussed at a previous meeting, or reported on 
by a committee appointed for the purpose. 

Article 4. — At the request of any two members present, 
any motion shall be once deferred to a subsequent meeting, for 
discussion, before it is finally disposed of. 

Article 5. — All committees shall be nominated by the chair, 
unless otherwise provided for. 



CHAPTER III. 

OF OFFICERS. 



The Officers of the Society shall be a President, who shall 
be, ex officio. Chairman of the Standing Committee ; a Record- 
ing Secretary ; a Corresponding Secretary ; a Treasurer ; a Li- 
brarian ; a Cabinet-Keeper ; and a Standing Committee of 
five ; — all of whom shall be chosen by ballot at the Monthly 



x By-Laws. 

Meeting in April, and shall hold their respective offices for one 
year, or until others are duly chosen in their stead. But at 
the regular Monthly Meeting preceding any election of officers, 
a Nominating Committee, consisting of three persons, shall be 
appointed by the chair, who shall report to the meeting at 
which the election is to be made a list of members for the pla- 
ces to be filled ; — -no person being deemed eligible to more than 
one of the regular offices of the Society at the same time, and 
no more than three of the Standing Committee being deemed 
re-eligible. 



CHAPTER IV. 



OF THE PRESIDENT. 



The President shall preside in all meetings of the Society 
when present, and when absent, a President pro tempore shall 
be chosen by hand vote. 



CHAPTER V. 

OF THE RECORDING SECRETARY. 

Article 1. — The Recording Secretary, or, in case of his 
death or absence, the Corresponding Secretary, shall warn all 
meetings of the Society, by sending, through the post-office, 
notices of each meeting, at least four days beforehand, to all 
members living in Boston or in its neighborhood, and to such 
other members as may specially request him so to do. 

Article 2. — He shall keep an exact record of all the meet- 
ings of the Society, with the names of the members present ; en- 
tering in full all reports of committees that may be accepted by 
the Society, unless otherwise specially directed. 



CHAPTER VI. 

OF THE CORESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Article 1. — The Corresponding Secretary shall inform all 
persons of their election as members of the Society, sending 
notice of the terms of their election to those chosen to be Resi- 
dent Members, and issuing afterwards the proper diplomas. 



By-Laws. xi 

Article 2. — He shall carry on all the correspondence of the 
Society, not otherwise provided for, and deposit copies of the 
letters sent and the original letters received, in regular files, in 
the Library. 



CHAPTER VII. 

OF THE TREASURER. 

Article 1. — The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due to 
the Society, and shall keep regular and faithful accounts of all 
the moneys and funds of the Society that may come into his 
hands, and of all receipts and expenditures connected with the 
same, which accounts shall always be open to the inspection of 
the members ; and at the Regular Meeting in April, he shall 
make a written report of all his doings for the year preceding, 
and of the amount and condition of all the property of the 
Society intrusted to him. 

Article 2. — He shall pay no moneys, except on vote of the 
Society, or on voucher of an officer or committee acting con- 
formably to its laws or orders. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE LIBRARIAN, AND OF THE LIBRARY. 

Article 1. — The Librarian shall have charge of all the 
books, tracts, maps, manuscripts, and other property of the So- 
ciety appropriate to a library, and shall make and keep exact 
and perfect catalogues of each and all of them, doing whatever 
may be in his power, at all times, to preserve and increase the 
collections under his care. 

Article 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation that may 
be made to the Library, by a letter addressed to the person 
making it. 

Article 3. — He shall at every Monthly Meeting of the So- 
ciety report all donations made to the Library since the last 
Monthly Meeting, with the names of the donors. 

Article 4. — ■ He shall keep a regular and exact account of 
all books taken out, with the names of the persons who take 
them, and the dates when they are borrowed and returned. 

Article 5. — He shall be present in the Library, in person or 
by a substitute approved by the Standing Committee, at the 
regular hours appointed for keeping it open, and shall endeavor 
to render it useful to all who may resort to it. 



x By~Lmvs. 

Meeting in April, and shall hold their respective offices for one 
year, or until others are duly chosen in their stead. But at 
the regular Monthly Meeting preceding any election of officers, 
a Nominating Committee, consisting of three persons, shall be 
appointed by the chair, who shall report to the meeting at 
which the election is to be made a list of members for the pla- 
ces to be filled ; — ■ no person being deemed eligible to more than 
one of the regular offices of the Society at the same time, and 
no more than three of the Standing Committee being deemed 
re-eligible. 



CHAPTER IV 



OF THE PRESIDENT. 



The President shall preside in all meetings of the Society 
when present, and when absent, a President pro tempore shall 
be chosen by hand vote. 



CHAPTER Y. 

OF THE RECORDING SECRETARY. 

Article 1. — The Recording Secretary, or, in case of his 
death or absence, the Corresponding Secretary, shall warn all 
meetings of the Society, by sending, through the post-office, 
notices of each meeting, at least four days beforehand, to all 
members living in Boston or in its neighborhood, and to such 
other members as may specially request him so to do. 

Article 2. — He shall keep an exact record of all the meet- 
ings of the Society, with the names of the members present ; en- 
tering in full all reports of committees that may be accepted by 
the Society, unless otherwise specially directed. 



CHAPTER VI. 

OF THE CORESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Article 1. — The Corresponding Secretary shall inform all 
persons of their election as members of the Society, sending 
notice of the terms of their election to those chosen to be Resi- 
dent Members, and issuing afterwards the proper diplomas. 



By-Laws. xi 

Article 2. — He shall carry on all the correspondence of the 
Society, not otherwise provided for, and deposit copies of the 
letters sent and the original letters received, in regular files, in 
the Library. 



CHAPTER VII. 

OF THE TREASURER. 

Article 1. — The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due to 
the Society, and shall keep regular and faithful accounts of all 
the moneys and funds of the Society that may come into his 
hands, and of all receipts and expenditures connected with the 
same, which accounts shall always be open to the inspection of 
the members ; and at the Regular Meeting in April, he shall 
make a written report of all his doings for the year preceding, 
and of the amount and condition of all the property of the 
Society intrusted to him. 

Article 2. — He shall pay no moneys, except on vote of the 
Society, or on voucher of an officer or committee acting con- 
formably to its laws or orders. 



CHAPTER Till. 

OF THE LIBRARIAN, AND OF THE LIBRARY. 

Article 1. — The Librarian shall have charge of all the 
books, tracts, maps, manuscripts, and other property of the So- 
ciety appropriate to a library, and shall make and keep exact 
and perfect catalogues of each and all of them, doing whatever 
may be in his power, at all times, to preserve and increase the 
collections under his care. 

Article 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation that may 
be made to the Library, by a letter addressed to the person 
making it. 

Article 3. — He shall at every Monthly Meeting of the So- 
ciety report all donations made to the Library since the last 
Monthly Meeting, with the names of the donors. 

Article 4. — He shall keep a regular and exact account of 
all books taken out, with the names of the persons who take 
them, and the dates when they are borrowed and returned. 

Article 5. — He shall be present in the Library, in person or 
hj a substitute approved by the Standing Committee, at the 
regular hours appointed for keeping it open, and shall endeavor 
to render it useful to all who may resort to it. 



xii By-Laivs. 

Article 6. — Any member of the Society may take from the 
Library three printed volumes at a time, and keep each of them 
four weeks, with a right to renew the loan for four weeks more, 
unless some other member has, in that interval, asked for it in 
writing ; but if he retains it beyond this second period, he must 
first obtain the written assent of a member of the Standing 
Committee, permitting him to do so, or he shall be fined ten 
cents a week for each volume so retained. 

Article 7. — At the written request of any member of this 
Society, the Librarian shall permit any person to visit and use 
the Library, at such times as the Librarian may be in attend- 
ance; such member becoming thereby responsible for any injury 
to the property of the Society that may result from such intro- 
duction of a stranger. 

Article 8. — At the written request of any member of the 
Society, the Librarian shall deliver to any one person indicated 
in such request, but to no more than one person at the same 
time, any book or books belonging to the Society, which the 
member himself could take out ; such member, by such request, 
making himself responsible that all the rules relating to the book 
or books so taken out shall be as fully observed by the person 
authorized to receive them, as if he were a member; and that 
any injury accruing to the property of the Society, in conse- 
quence of the privilege thus granted, shall be made good by the 
member at whose request the grant is made. 

Article 9. — At the meetings in April, July, October, and 
January, the Librarian shall lay before the Society a list of the 
names of those persons, not members, who during the preceding 
three months, respectively, may have had access to the Library, 
by permission of individual members of the Society, with the 
names of the members at whose request the privilege was grant- 
ed, adding a statement of each injury that may have been sus- 
tained by the property of the Society, in consequence of grant- 
ing such permission, and the name of the member bound to 
make it good. 

Article 10. — The Publishing Committee, for the time being, 
shall be permitted to take such books and manuscripts from the 
Library as they may need, in order properly to perform the duty 
assigned to them by the Society ; but the Librarian shall make 
an especial entry or record of whatever is so taken, and, as soon 
as the volume they may have in charge is published, he shall 
demand and obtain from said Committee whatever they may 
have so received. 

Article 11. — All manuscripts of the Society shall be kept 
under lock and key, and be consulted or used only in presence 
of the Librarian, who alone shall keep the keys. 



By-Laws. xiii 

Article 12. —Persons not members of the Society, but en- 
gaged in historical pursuits, shall be allowed to consult the 
manuscripts belonging to the Society, provided an application 
in writing, stating the object or objects of the inquiry, be first 
made to the Librarian, and approved by a member of the Stand- 
ing Committee, who shall make record of the same. 

Article 13. — No manuscript and no part of a manuscript 
belonging to the Society shall be copied, except on permission 
granted by vote of the Society, after an application in writing 
specifying the manuscript or part thereof desired to be copied : 
and if any manuscript belonging to the Society shall, in conse- 
quence of such permission, be published in whole or in part, 
the fact that it was obtained from the Society shall be stated in 
its publication. But nothing herein required shall be construed 
to prevent the publication of names, dates, and other chronologi- 
cal memoranda, without special permission obtained as above 
required. 

Article 14. — Manuscripts of a confidential nature shall be 
retained in a place of special deposit, and shall be consulted only 
under such regulations as may be prescribed in each case by vote 
of the Society. 

Article 15. — No maps, newspapers, or books, either of great 
rarity or of constant reference, shall be taken from the Library, 
except by vote of the Society. 

Article 16. — All members taking books from the Library 
shall be answerable for any injury done to the same, to such 
amount as may be deemed just by the Standing Committee, and 
any person neglecting to pay any fines, or assessments for dam- 
ages, one month after he shall have received notice of the same 
from the Librarian, or otherwise abusing his privilege to the in- 
jury of the Library, shall, by order of the Standing Committee, 
be interdicted from access to the same. 

Article 17. — All tracts, books, maps, and manuscripts, be- 
longing to the Society, shall be distinctly marked as its proper- 
ty ; and any such tract, book, &c, that may be presented to the 
Society, shall be marked with the name of the donor, and re- 
corded as his gift. 

Article 18. — The Library shall be open on all week-days, 
from nine to one o'clock in the forenoon throughout the year, 
and from three to five in the afternoon in winter, and from three 
to seven in the afternoon in summer, except during the fortnight 
before the Annual Meeting in April, when it shall be closed for 
examination ; and all books that may be lent are hereby required 
to be returned previous to that fortnight, under penalty of a fine 
of one dollar for each volume not so returned. 



xiv By-Laws. 



CHAPTER IX. 

OF THE CABINET-KEEPER, AND THE MUSEUM. 

Article 1. — The Cabinet-Keeper shall have charge of all 
coins, works of art, remains of antiquity, and other articles ap- 
propriate to the Society's Museum, and shall make and keep 
perfect and exact catalogues of the same. 

Article 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation he may 
receive, by letter, to the person making it, and at every Monthly 
Meeting of the Society he shall report whatever may have been 
added to the collection of which he has charge, with the names 
of the donors. 



CHAPTER X 



OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 



Article 1. — The Standing Committee, as vacancies may 
occur in the Society by death or otherwise, shall report nomina- 
tions for Resident Members to fill the same. 

Article 2. — They shall pay the current expenses of the 
Society, drawing on the Treasurer, from time to time, for such 
sums as may be necessary for that purpose. 

Article 3. — They shall annually, in the month of April, 
make a careful examination of the Library and Museum of the 
Society, comparing the books, manuscripts, and other articles in 
each, with their catalogues, respectively, and reporting at the 
April meeting, in detail, concerning their condition. 

Article 4. — They shall record in full, in a book kept by 
them for the purpose, any permission granted by any one of 
their number for the consultation of the manuscripts of the So- 
ciety, by persons not members. 

Article 5. — They shall meet in the Society's rooms half 
an hour previous to every Regular Meeting, for the fulfilment of 
their appropriate duties, and for the purpose of facilitating the 
transaction of such business as is likely to come before the 
Society. 

Article 6. — They shall, at every meeting, report to the So- 
ciety all their doings since the last meeting, suggesting at the 
same time such business as they may deem advisable to bring 
before it. 



By-haws. xv 



CHAPTER XI. 

OF THE PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 

Immediately after the publication of any volume of the Col- 
lections of the Society, a committee of not less than three per- 
sons shall be appointed by nomination from the chair, whose 
duty it shall be to prepare and publish another volume, for which 
purpose free use is granted to them of all the manuscripts, print- 
ed books, and other resources of the Society, except the manu- 
scripts deposited as confidential; — said committee being required 
hereby to return whatever they may have thus received, so soon 
as their use of the same for the purposes of such publication shall 
have ceased. 



CHAPTER XII. 



At the Monthly Meeting in March, annually, a committee 
shall be appointed by nomination from the chair, consisting of 
not less than two persons, whose duty it shall be to examine the 
Treasurer's accounts for the year preceding, and at the Monthly 
Meeting in April to report thereon, and on the state of any prop- 
erty of the Society in his hands. 



xiv By-Laws. 



CHAPTER IX. 

OF THE CABINET-KEEPER, AND THE MUSEUM. 

Article 1. — The Cabinet-Keeper shall have charge of all 
coins, works of art, remains of antiquity, and other articles ap- 
propriate to the Society's Museum, and shall make and keep 
perfect and exact catalogues of the same. 

Article 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation he may 
receive, by letter, to the person making it, and at every Monthly 
Meeting of the Society he shall report whatever may have been 
added to the collection of which he has charge, with the names 
of the donors. 



CHAPTER X. 

OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 

Article 1. — The Standing Committee, as vacancies may 
occur in the Society by death or otherwise, shall report nomina- 
tions for Resident Members to fill the same. 

Article 2. — They shall pay the current expenses of the 
Society, drawing on the Treasurer, from time to time, for such 
sums as may be necessary for that purpose. 

Article 3. — They shall annually, in the month of April, 
make a careful examination of the Library and Museum of the 
Society, comparing the books, manuscripts, and other articles in 
each, with their catalogues, respectively, and reporting at the 
April meeting, in detail, concerning their condition. 

Article 4. — They shall record in full, in a book kept by 
them for the purpose, any permission granted by any one of 
their number for the consultation of the manuscripts of the So- 
ciety, by persons not members. 

Article 5. — They shall meet in the Society's rooms half 
an hour previous to every Regular Meeting, for the fulfilment of 
their appropriate duties, and for the purpose of facilitating the 
transaction of such business as is likely to come before the 
Society. 

Article 6. — They shall, at every meeting, report to the So- 
ciety all their doings since the last meeting, suggesting at the 
same time such business as they may deem advisable to bring 
before it. 



By-haws. xv 



CHAPTER XI. 

OF THE PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 

Imimediately after the publication of any volume of the Col- 
lections of the Society, a committee of not less than three per- 
sons shall be appointed by nomination from the chair, whose 
duty it shall be to prepare and publish another volume, for which 
purpose free use is granted to them of all the manuscripts, print- 
ed books, and other resources of the Society, except the manu- 
scripts deposited as confidential; — said committee being required 
hereby to return whatever they may have thus received, so soon 
as their use of the same for the purposes of such publication shall 
have ceased. 



CHAPTER XII. 



At the Monthly Meeting in March, annually, a committee 
shall be appointed by nomination from the chair, consisting of 
not less than two persons, whose duty it shall be to examine the 
Treasurer's accounts for the year preceding, and at the Monthly 
Meeting in April to report thereon, and on the state of any prop- 
erty of the Society in his hands. 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

ELECTED APRIL 13, 1854. 



President. 
Hon. JAMES SAVAGE, LL. D. 

Recording Secretary. 
JOSEPH WILLARD, A. M. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Key. WILLIAM P. LUNT, D. D. 

Librarian. 
Rev. JOSEPH B. FELT, A. M. 

Treasurer. 
RICHARD EROTHLNGHAM, Jr., Esq. 

Cabinet-Keeper. 
NATHANIEL B. SHURTLEFF, M. D. 

Standing Committee. 

Hon. ROBERT C. WLNTHROP, LL. D. 
CHARLES DEANE, Esq. 
Rev. GEORGE W. BLAGDEN, D. D. 
Rev. LUCIUS R. PAIGE, A. M. 
Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, A. M. 

Committee op Publication for the present Volume. 

Rev. GEORGE E. ELLIS, A. M. 
Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, A. M. 
NATHANIEL B. SHURTLEFF, M. D. 
CHARLES DEANE, Esq. 



RESIDENT MEMBERS, 



IN THE ORDER OF THEIR ELECTION 



Hon. Josiah Quincy, LL. D. 
Hon. James Savage, LL. D. 
Rev. Charles Lowell, D. D. 
Hon. Francis C. Gray, LL. D. 
Hon. Nathan Hale, A. M. 
Hon. Edward Everett, LL. D. 
Rev, "William Jenks, D. D. 
Jared Sparks, LL. D. 
Joseph E. Worcester, LL. D. 
Joseph Willard, A. M. 
Lemuel Shattuck, Esq. 
Isaac P. Davis, Esq. 
Rev. Joseph B. Felt, A. M. 
Hon. Lemuel Shaw, LL. D. 
Hon. James T. Austin, LL. D. 
Rev. Convers Francis, D. D. 
Hon. John Welles, A. M. 
George Ticknor, LL. D. 
Hon. Nathan Appleton, A. M. 
Hon. Rufus Choate, LL. D. 
Hon. John G. King, A. M. 
Hon. Daniel A. White, LL. D. 
Josiah Bartlett, M. D. 
William H. Prescott, LL. D. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL. D. 
Rev. Alvan Lamson, D. D. 
Hon. Charles F. Adams, A. M. 
Hon. Samuel Hoar, LL. D. 
Rev. William P. Lunt, D. D. 



Rev. George E. Ellis, A. M. 

Hon. John C. Gray, A. M. 

Rev. Nathaniel L. Frothingham, D. D. 

Hon. George S. Hillard, A. M. 

Hon. William Minot, A. M. 

Peleg W. Chandler, A. M. 

Rev. George W. Blagden, D. D. 

Rev. Lucius R. Paige, A. M. 

Hon. Solomon Lincoln, A. M. 

Rev. Chandler Robbins, A. M. 

Francis Bowen, A. M. 

John Langdon Sibley, A. B. 

Richard Frothingham, Jr., Esq. 

Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M. D. 

Henry Wheatland, M. D. 

Thaddeus W. Harris, M. D. 

Hon. David Sears, A. M. 

Sylvester Judd, Esq. 

Thomas H. Webb, M. D. 

Charles Deane, Esq. 

George Livermore, A. M. 

Francis Parkman, LL. B. 

Ellis Ames, A. M. 

Samuel Eliot, A. M. 

Hon. John H. Clifford, LL. D. 

William Brigham, A. B. 

Hon. Abbott Lawrence, LL. D. 

Hon. Emory Washburn, LL. D. 

Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D. D. 



ILL NEWES 

FROM 

NEW-EN GLANDs 

OR 

A Narative of New-Englands 

PERSECUTION. 

WHERIN IS DECLARED 

That while old England is becoming new, 
New-England is become Old. 

Also four Proposals to the Honoured Parliament and 

Councel of State, touching the way to Propagate 

the Gospel of Christ (with small charge 

_ and great safety) both in Old 

England and New. 

Also four conclusions touching the faith and order of the 

Gospel of Christ out of his last Will and 

Testament, confirmed and justified. 

By JOHN CLARK Physician of Rode Island in America. 



Revel. 2. 25. Hold fast till I come. 
3. 11. Behold I come quickly. 
22. 20. Amen, even so come Lord Jesus. 



L ND ON, 

Printed by Henry Hills living in Fleet- Yard next door to the Rose 
and Crown, in the year 1652. 

4th S. VOL. II. 1 



The manuscript from which the following reprint is made was tran- 
scribed from a copy of this rare tract in the exceedingly valuable col- 
lection of works on America belonging to John Carter Brown, Esq., of 
Providence, R. I. ; which copy was kindly loaned to the Society by the 
owner for the purpose for which it is now used. 



To the Right Honorable the House of Parliament, and 
Councel of State for the Commonwealth of England, 
The author humbly craves of that mighty Counseller, 
that Prince of peace, a large donation of the spirit of 
Counsell, and of the spirit of courage, with a suitable 
and happy success for the Peace, Liberty, and enlarge- 
ment of these three Nations. 

May it please you right Honorable, in some of those 
few vacant hours which it pleaseth the most high (whose 
rod and staff you are) to afford unto you, from those 
many, weighty, difficult, and distractfull incombrances, and 
affairs, that do flow in, and press upon you daily, to cast 
your eye (at least for recreations sake) upon this Treatise, 
and the rather, because it contains in it matter of no small 
concernment, as in it self, so especially to your honoured 
selves ; for in the first part, which is the narrative, you 
may please to read a tragicall story, wherein I hope your 
eye will not a litle affect your tender hearts, to see such 
a discurteous entertainment of strangers, and wayfaring- 
men that were passing by, and tarried but for a night or 
two, and that by their neighbours, men professing the fear 
of the Lord as they also do ; who together for liberty of 
their consciences, and worship of their God, as their hearts 
were perswaded, long since fled from the persecuting hands 
of the Lordly Bishops, your adversaries and ours, unto 
those utmost parts of the World, to the extreme hazard 
of their lives, the wasting of their estates, and upon the 
point, to the totall loss and deprivation of their neer and 
deer relations, and the comforts thereof in this their native 
land ; and the rather to see this acted by that sword, that 
hand, which from your honoured arm they are betrusted 



4 The Epistle Dedicatory. 

with, and so to see your sword, your power, your hand 
misused therein. In the second part, which is the con- 
firmation of my testimony by the word of God, and testi- 
mony of Christ Jesus the Lord, and especially in the later 
part thereof: you that count it your greatest honour, and 
highest preferment in this world to be servants of Christ 
(who is indeed the Lord of Lords, and King of Kings, 
whose Sword-bearers you are, as was also that Ccesar al- 
though he knew it not) you (I say I hope) shall find that 
he hath not required such things at your hands, as gener- 
ally they that have been his Sword-bearers before your 
selves have been apt to conceive; and thereupon have 
been too deeply engaged in the shedding of much inno- 
cent bloud in this Land ; being also perswaded thereunto 
by their teachers, who to maintain their superstitious, hu- 
mane, invented religion and worship, for filthy lucres sake, 
it being the only curious art, and craft by which they had 
their wealth and livings as those of old ; not having the 
two-edged sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, 
to defend themselves, and to maintain their craft, against 
the poor illiterate and despised servants and witnesses of 
Jesus Christ, have been forced to call for the sword of 
steel, the power of the Magistrate, to help to stop their 
mouthes, to cut them off, and so to take them out of their 
way, and by casting a mist before their Rulers eyes they 
have still perswaded them, That this is their office, and 
duty to do, and that hereby they did God best service with 
that sword with which they were betrusted, whereas in- 
deed they did but make their sword guilty of the blood of 
the innocent ; and thus were they taken off from attend- 
ing upon the very thing for which this sword was put into 
their hands, to attend upon their private, and carnall in- 
terests, and so were brought into a double transgression. 
By whose errataes, Eight Honourable, I hope the Lord 
will teach you to beware, and by giving you a clear dis- 
cerning of his mind, and will in these more bright sunne- 
shining daies (wherein the Earth begins to be filled with 
the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the Sea) 
will give you to understand that as all power in earth is 
given to him, so he to the glory of God his Father, whose 
power, and wisdome he is, doth wisely manage the same 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 5 

by a two fold administration of power suitable to the two 
fold state or being of man, whom in the earth, and in the 
things thereof he hath appointed Lord ; that one may be 
called an earthly, and outward administration, which suits 
the outward man, and all those outward, and visible things 
(in reference unto man) that do belong thereto, as he is 
Lord thereof, and is managed by an outward visible sword 
of steel, and by a carnall or audible voyce, or word of him, 
or them that holds it in their hand, and to an outward 
and carnal end, (yet righteous, just, and good, which be- 
ing diligently attended to tends to the peace, liberty, and 
prosperity of a civil State, Nation and Kingdom so far as 
it concerns the outward man and visible state thereof;) 
which end is the preservation of it self, the whole, and 
every particular part, and person, belonging thereunto, 
safe in their person, name, and estate from him, or them 
that would rise up visibly to oppress, or wrong them in 
the same ; Thus in the general ; and to instance more 
particularly, in case by the caution of a wholesome Law, 
and just penalty annexed thereunto, which by a carnall 
hand or way, is presented to a carnall and visible eye, or 
ear, the Oppressour takes not warning, and will not be 
deterred from offering violence to the person, name, or 
estate of his neighbour, then by this power shall he be 
made responsible, and be forced nolens volens, so far as he 
is able to make it good, and to restore ; in case any be 
impoverished, or fain to decay in their outward man, and 
estates by age, sickness, fire, or by some other way, or 
hand of GOD ; so far as their present strength extends, by 
this power they are to be employed, and where it fails, 
to be relieved, and that by an equall, and just levy of 
their neighbours estates to be taken also by force in case 
there be not so much love, and charity in them towards 
their poor distressed neighbours to constrain them there- 
unto, and by the same way also to maintain it self, and all 
other just undertakings that may be presented for the 
preservation of the whole. And this in brief is the sum 
of that administration of Christs power in earth so far as 
it meerly concerns the outward man with respect to others 
that may uphold it, or molest it, and is managed by that 
sword of steel which in reference unto him is called in 



6 The Epistle Dedicatory. 

scripture the rod of iron by which he rules the nations, 
and breaks them to peeces like a Potters vessel ; and with 
this administration of his power on Earth (Right Honour- 
able) hath he (who is the Lord of Lords and shall ere long 
appear as King and judge of all) be trusted you in these 
three Nations, having as a manifest token thereof put into 
your hand that iron rod, and to admiration hath strength- 
ened and upheld your arm for the subduing, and ordering 
of the same. 

There is yet besides this, another administration of 
Christs power on Earth, which compared with this, may 
be truly termed heavenly and spirituall, it being that 
which suiteth with, and principally is exercised about 
the spirituall, or hidden part of man, to wit, his spirit, 
mind, and conscience, which is indeed the most naturall 
Lord and commander of the outward, it and all things 
belonging thereunto being but naturally subject, and read- 
ily obedient, from which very consideration it is, that it is 
more safe, and also more honourable, for the powers on 
earth to have one thousand souls to be subject to them for 
love and conscience sake, than to have ten thousand times 
ten thousand bodies seemingly subject, for wrath sake, 
and for fear of revenge; this spirit and great commander 
in man, is such a sparkling beam, from the Eather of 
lights, and spirits, that it cannot be lorded over, com- 
manded, or forced, either by men, devils, or angels, but 
onely leaving its first station, wherein it came so neer to 
the light and glory of God, it is now caused to possess 
death and darkness, and by that means is in a capacity by 
men and devils to be deceived, and so by perswasion to be 
mis-led. This spirituall administration of Christs power 
in and over the spirits and consciences of men, as it ex- 
tends to all the inward and hidden motions and actings of 
the mind, so to all the outward manifestations of its pow- 
erfull commands in the outward man, in reference unto 
God, and especially unto such as appertain to the visible 
worship and service of God, who hath declared himself to 
be a Spirit, and will be worshipped in spirit and in truth, 
and seeks such, and onely such to worship him : This spir- 
ituall administration so far as it concerns the outward man, 
is managed not by a sword of steel (which cannot come 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 7 

neer or touch the spirit or mind of man) but by the sword 
that proceeds out of the mouth of his servants, the word 
of truth, and especially as to the efficacy, and to the in- 
ward man, by the two-edged sword of the Spirit, that spir- 
ituall law and light with which these candles of the Lord 
are enlightned, and that by himself, who is that light that 
enlightneth every man that comes into the world ; and this 
spirituall administration of Christs power on earth in and 
over the spirits, minds, and consciences of the sons of men, 
and also over the outward man as to worship meerly, is 
committed into the hands of the Spirit of Christ, who is 
his vice-roy here on earth, and is only able to deal with 
spirits by way of convincing, converting, transforming, 
and as it were a-new creating of them, and so to translate 
them out of the Kingdome of darkness, in which they are 
by nature, into the glorious liberty of the Saints in light. 
Who is pleased also to make use of the mouths of his ser- 
vants, and through them, as empty reeds, and crooked 
rams-hornes, to overturn the spirits, and spirituall strong 
holds of men and devils, and by them to convict, avenge, 
and execute the sentence written, which upon such as 
manifest the enmity that is in their minds in the highest 
degree even against the holy Spirit himself (the only sin 
unpardonable (for all other sin and blasphemy shall be 
forgiven) I say the written sentence that is to be executed 
upon such) is anathema maranatha, that is, accursed with 
this intimation, our Lord cometh, leaving them untill he 
meet with them ; and otherwise than thus the servants of 
Christ cannot proceed, having express command not to 
strive, but to be patient, apt to teach, in meekness instruct- 
ing those that oppose themselves, & to wait if God at 
any time wil give them repentance to the acknowledge- 
ment of the truth ; Thus if it please the Father of lights 
to give you (Right Honorable) to distinguish between 
these two administrations of Christ's power here on earth, 
and to leave that part to himself in the hand of his Spirit, 
which cannot be conferred on others, nor yet rightly man- 
aged but by the two-edged sword of that Spirit, and wholly 
give up your selves to improve that part which belongs 
unto, and well suits with that sword which you are now 
betrusted with, it will much conduce to his glory, your 



8 The Epistle Dedicator!/. 

own praise, and the peace and settlement of these three 
Nations, over which the Lord hath set you. 

And whereas Right Honorable, it is in your hearts, to 
propagate the Gospell of Jesus Christ ; the thing is excel- 
lent that is in your hearts, and I hope the way to effect it 
is before you, which is, sith the Lord of hoasts hath said, 
that works of this nature are carried on, not by mighty nor 
by power \ but by his Spirit, therefore to give way to his 
Spirit for the effecting thereof: and to this end I humbly 
propose, that your way to further this glorious design, as 
to the might and power this Lord of Hoasts hath betrust- 
ed you with, is 

1. Not so much as to touch his Anointed, and to do 
his Prophets no harm, their ointment being the Spirit of 
prophecy, and this Spirit of prophecy the testimony and 
witness of the Gospel of Jesus. And 

2. As obedient and dutifull servants to that Lord of 
Lords, to suffer the Tares (which being by the adversary 
sown after the Wheat, must needs be ment, erronious, he- 
reticall, and antichristian persons professing the Gospel, 
I say to let these tares) alone in that part of the field, or 
world, over which the great Lord of the harvest hath 
placed your Honors ; sith it is his pleasure they shall 
there remain to the time of the harvest, being the end of 
the world, and that out of his tender respect to the Wheat, 
lest in plucking up the tares (though evidently discerned 
by his servants) the Wheat should be rooted up also. And 

3. To the same end not to give your sword, or power 
to the beast nor yet to suffer your power, neither in these 
three nations, nor yet in any forreign part of the world to 
be so misused by any to whom 'tis committed, as by ver- 
tue thereof out of an ignorant zeal, and blind devotion, 
pretending to pluck up the tares (which yet is contrary to 
the express mind of the Lord) to root up the wheat also. 

4. To countenance and incourage (as through God's 
mercifull hand on your hearts in some measure you do) 
such as are faithful, and upright in the land, by this 
means shall a wide and effectual door be opened, and so 
shall the word of the Lord, which is the Gospel of Christ 
go forth, run and be glorifyed through all those parts of 
the world that acknowledge your power, and that which 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 9 

is of God shall stand, encrease and be propagated, and 
that which is not of God shall fall, decay, and come to 
nothing. Thus shall you also accomplish the words of 
the Prophets of old, in becoming nursing fathers unto the 
servants, and children of God, who under you shall lead a 
peaceable, and quiet life in all godliness, and honesty, and 
shall be greatly obliged to improve their interest in the 
father of mercies by their presenting to him constant 
and earnest petitions, supplications, intercessions, and 
giving of thanks on your behalf. And for the further- 
ance of those worthy thoughts of your hearts, they shall 
not cease to preach, and declare to great, and small what 
they have seen, and felt, and heard touching the Gospel 
of Christ, and to pray the lord of the harvest to send forth 
faithful and painful labourers into his harvest ; which is 
also the constant, hearty, and earnest request of 
Your humble and faithful 

Subject, 

John Clark. 



4th s. — VOL. II. 



10 



To the Honored Magistracy, the Pres- 
bytery, and their dependency in the Matha- 
tusets Colony in New-England, The 
Author wisheth repentance to the 
acknowledgement of the truth 
as it is in Jesus Christ. 

HOnored Friends, for so without scruple or dissimula- 
tion can I call you ; some of you I honor for your 
parts, others for your places sake, and both for many 
good things I see in you, and for evils reformed by you ; 
I call you friends, for my love to you (in truth) is un- 
fained, neither are there (I bless the Lord notwithstand- 
ing the discurteous usage which I and my friends received 
from you) any evill thoughts in my heart towards you, 
because I judge you were put upon what you did by a 
zeal (I would not think, unto private or carnall interests 
but) towards God, thinking thereby to do him service; 
although I confidently believe, and therefore boldly do 
affirm that his soul abhors it ; And that I may deal plain- 
ly with you as a friend, I will tell you what in my heart 
I think and judge, that such a zeal of God is not accord- 
ing to true knowledge, or knowledge of the truth as it is 
in Jesus Christ, which would soon take you off, and free 
you from that soul murdering, and blood thirsty lie. I 
hope you will not be offended to see this Narrative 
brought forth into the publick view, it being upon the 
point forst from me by your friends and agent here, see- 
ing also the matter, which is contained therein is of no 
less than of publick concernment, was not done in a cor- 
ner, is the fruit of your zeal, and that wherein I suppose 
you glory and count your selves herein a worthy pattern 
for all that fear the Lord, to follow you, and with all their 
might to be conformed to ; which if a truth, I then save 



Ill New es from New England. 11 

you a labour, and further your design, yea I publish your 
praise, and glory, but my own disgrace and shame ; but 
if a mistake, and falsehood, I shall then hereby give occa- 
sion unto your faithful friends (whose words may be of 
more prevailing power, and force than mine, through 
prejudice for present, are like to be) to tell you friendly, 
and yet plainly, that you do but glory in your shame, so 
that the time may come, if so be the will of God, that 
you may smite upon your thigh, and say within your- 
selves, what fruit had we then of those things, whereof 
we are now ashamed ; neither let it be offensive to your 
spirits to see my testimony for which thing sake among 
you we were shamefully entreated, being also strangers to 
you and belonging to another jurisdiction where and by 
whose means divers of you, and yours, and such as have 
been of chiefest note, and most highly esteemed by you, 
have enjoyed curtesies with far greater liberties in point 
of conscience no man gainsaying: let it not offend I say 
to see this testimony when none of you (upon the oft re- 
peated motion) would come forth to oppose it, then to be 
made yet more publick, and by the word of God, and tes- 
timony of Christ Jesus the Lord to be brought forth into 
the open view of all, confirmed and justifyed : neither take 
it ill that sith I could not with freedom, and upon equal 
terms speak with you, and discuss these points for which 
we have been sentenced, that then I have made bold to 
write unto you some few lines, that thereby I might re- 
mind you (least you let it slip) that we were brought be- 
fore you as by a hand from beneath, so not without a 
speciall, and good hand from above, and that to be a tes- 
timony against you in these two weighty particulars ; first 
to bear testimony against your standing with respect to 
the worship of God appointed by Christ, which in plain 
terms (for it is not now a time to dissemble seeing the 
Lord is at hand) is false, and evil, not the order of the 
Gospel of Christ as you pretend, and therefore disorder, 
confusion, and that, which in Scripture language is called 
Babel ; And secondly to bear testimony, or witness against 
that way by which you maintain it, which being chiefly 
as it appears by carnal weapons, which cannot reach to 
the heart or spirit of a man, which is the principal part, 



12 III New es from New -England. 

and upon the point the whole in the worship of God, with- 
out which there is no acceptance with him, this I say 
must needs also be fals, but yet far worse, it being no way 
appointed, or approved of Christ, nor yet groundedly ex- 
pected or practised by Christians who first trusted in 
Christ, and therefore upon due examination will prove 
most unchristian, yea Antichristian ; I shall use but these 
two arguments in this place to convince you, The first 
whereof standeth thus. 

That order, and way to mantain it which neither hath 
precept from Christ, and his Apostles in his last will and 
testament, nor yet president, or example among those that 
first trusted in Christ, that order cannot be the order of 
the Gospel of Christ, nor that way his way to maintain it. 

But the order which you call the order of the Gospel 
of Christ, and the way which you say is his way to main- 
tain it, hath neither precept, nor president in his last will 
and testament. 

The first proposition I suppose none of you can deny, 
unless you can find a later than that which is called his 
last will and testament, and as for the second the truth 
thereof, will as easily appear if you bring your order, and 
way to maintain it to the precept of Christ, and practise 
of those that first trusted in him ; and first for your order, 
what precept from Christ, or practise among those that 
first trusted in him have you for baptizing of infants (who 
are declared to be but flesh and by nature the Children of 
wrath one as well as another :) for rantising and sprinkling 
them, and not baptizing or dipping them ; for accepting 
such as were sprinkled with superstitious hallowed water, 
and by the hand of as superstitious consecrated a minis- 
tery of Antichrist, and for receiving of such as are sprin- 
kled by yourselves to the ordinance of Baptism as you 
call it, but yet to deny them communion in the Apostles 
doctrine, and in breaking of bread: And if you cannot 
find either precept from Christ or his Apostles, or example 
among those that first trusted in Christ for none of these, 
then will you be at loss for the rest, and neither, find pre- 
cept or president for your joining together, or for your 
imitation of those that first trusted in him in their minis- 
tery of continuance together in the Apostles doctrine and 



Ill Newes from New-England. 13 

fellowship and breaking of bread, and prayer. And touch- 
ing your way to maintain it, what have you a precept and 
president in the last will and testiment of Christ for such 
a gathering together with respect to the order of the Gos- 
pel! of Christ in the name, and by the leave of the Magis- 
trate, so as to make it a thing unlawful for the servants 
of Christ to do it, without him, by the civil sword to cor- 
rect errour, heresies, and all false worships, to constrain all 
Church-members, and such also as are without (and so 
cannot but by you be looked upon to be without faith, 
without which it is impossible to please God) outwardly 
and hypocritically to conform to your worship, or to re- 
strain them in like manner outwardly and hypocritically 
from enjoying their own, when according to that rule (to 
which is annexed the promise of peace to such as walk 
thereby) the greatest Apostacies and Blasphemies (that 
unpardonable sin itself not excepted) were but punished 
with a delivery of the person that was guilty thereof unto 
Satan the God of this world, that he might learn not to 
blaspheme the God of heaven, and so to leave him to the 
coming of the Lord who shall come in flaming fire to ren- 
der vengeance upon such ; and so much is signified by the 
word Anathema Maranatha. And I pray consider wheth- 
er this be not to place the Magistrate too high, or too 
low ; too high in case you make him the chief, and upon 
the point the only Judge in spiritual things (such as ap- 
pertain to the mystery of godliness that is so great, and 
such as belong to the mystery of the Kingdome of Christ, 
that is so wonderful) so as to judge, and determine what 
is truth, and what is error and heresie, what is the right 
way of the worship of God who being a spirit hath de- 
clared that he will be worshipped in spirit, and in truth, 
and what is not ; who are the worshippers he seeks for, 
and who are such as his soul abhors] and again too low 
in case you make him but the executioner only of other 
mens judgements ; which indeed is the ordinary practise. 
And so I have done with the first argument ; the second 
stands thus. 

2. Arg. That order, and way to maintain it which is 
not only different from, but contrary unto the precept of 
Christ in his last will and testament, and the practise of 



14 III New es from New-England. 

Christians that first trusted in him, that order cannot be 
the order of the Gospel of Christ, nor that way his way to 
maintain it. But the order which you call the order of 
the Gospel of Christ, and the way which you say is his 
way to maintain it, is not only different from but contrary 
unto the precept of Christ, and the practise of Christians 
that first trusted in him. 

The first proposition is undeniable, and the second will 
easily appear to be true if your order, and that way by 
which you seek to maintain it be brought to and com- 
pared with the precept of Christ, and his Apostles, and 
the example of those churches that first trusted in him ; 
and first compare but your order with either precept, or 
president ; and it will evidently appear not only to be dif- 
fering from, but contrary unto the order of the Gospel of 
Christ : for according to the precept of Christ every crea- 
ture to whom the Gospel was to be preached was by the 
preaching thereof to be made a disciple before he was to 
be baptized, and then being so made, and baptized he was 
to be taught to observe all things which Christ had com- 
manded, which was in reference to a sober, righteous, and 
godly conversation in the order of his house, according to 
which precept was the practise of those that first trusted 
in him, for they, and they only that gladly received the 
word of salvation by Jesus Christ were baptized, Acts 2 
and they, and all they that were baptized were joined 
without the leave of the Magistrate, and continued to- 
gether steadfastly in the Apostles doctrine ; and in fellow- 
ship, and breaking of bread and prayer: but your joining 
together not at the command of the Lord, but by the leave 
of the Magistrate, and your continuing together in imita- 
tion of the first Churches, and appointing a ministery be- 
fore your selves be baptized, and so visibly planted into 
the death of Christ as they were ; and your administring 
baptism (as you call it) to such as are not the true sub- 
jects thereof before they are taught, or made disciples ; 
and after a false manner, viz. by sprinkling, which no 
way resembles the death, burial, or resurrection of Jesus 
Christ, being that which his baptisme is appointed to do ; 
and your admitting some unto baptism (as you own it) 
which you refuse to admit unto breaking of bread, and 



Ill Newes from New-England. 15 

your receiving such to breaking of bread, which yet were 
never baptized with the baptism appointed by Jesus Christ 
the Lord ; and your shutting out the exercise of the gift 
of prophecying, which in the Church of Christ doth ad- 
mirably tend to edification ; and your introducing a mixt 
confused way of singing which fills the ear rather with a 
loud sound of words, than the heart with any thing that 
is truly edifying, all which is not only differing from, but 
contrary unto both precept, and president, and so cannot 
be the order of the Gospel of Christ, and therefore is no 
better than disorder, confusion, and a part of that which 
in Scripture language is called Babell. And compare that 
way by which you maintain it, either with the precept of 
Christ or with the president of primitive Christians and it 
will as evidently appear not only to be different from, but 
contrary unto them both ; for first the precept of Christ 
was to learn of him who was meek and lowly, and to ex- 
pect trouble, and persecution from others, and not to per- 
secute, neither to force the Jews that would not follow 
him, nor yet to fire the Samaritans that would not receive 
him, yea he expressely commands his Servants to let the 
tares alone with the wheat, and suffers no small incon- 
venience thereby to avoid a greater, and further declares 
that the servant of the lord must not strive, but be gentle 
unto all men, apt to teach (not to strike) patient, in meek- 
ness instructing those that oppose themselves, if God per- 
adventure will give them repentance to the acknowledge- 
ment of the truth that they may recover themselves out 
of the snare of the devil who are taken captive by him at 
his will ; according to which precepts of Christ we find 
the primitive Christians were meek, and gentle, and yet 
able by sound doctrine both to exhort, and convince the 
gainsayers, who called not for carnall weapons to mannage 
their warfare, but declared their weapons were mighty 
through God, and either by the word and a good conver- 
sation wonne men to the acknowledgement of the truth 
as it is in Jesus, or else left them without excuse together 
with the world, unto the judgement of the great day of 
the Lord ; but now all men may see that your way is 
not only different from, but contrary unto this precept of 
Christ and president of Christians, and therefore cannot 



16 III Newes from New-England. 

be esteemed any better than unchristian, yet Antichris- 
tian. 

Let not your adversary and mine (Dear Countreymen) 
fill your hearts with indignation, and thoughts of revenge 
against him, who in a faithful discharge of his conscience 
both towards God, and you, have made bold to deal plain- 
ly with you, least my God to whom vengeance belongs, 
repay it upon you, and smite you with blindness of mind, 
and hardness of heart that cannot repent, but rather set 
before your eyes that memorable practice, and worthy 
pattern of those noble Bereans, and (laying profits, honor 
and prejudice aside if it be possible) peruse my testimony, 
and search the scriptures diligently to see whether the 
things contained therein be so or no ; if you find them so, 
viz. confirmed, and justifyed by the word of God, and by 
the testimony of Christ Jesus the Lord, then consider, not 
I but the Lord from heaven calls upon you to break off 
your sins by repentance, and let me hereby give you warn- 
ing to take heed that you dispise not him that speaketh 
from heaven. As touching the wrong and injury done to 
us, you having thereby much more wronged your own 
souls in transgressing the very law, and light of Nations, 
doing as you would not be done unto, it is in my heart 
to pitty you rather, and to petition my Lord in heaven 
not to lay this sin to your charge, than to complain against 
you, or to petition your lords and ours here on earth for 
justice herein ; no, no, we have better learned Christ than 
so, having also given up our hearts to be led by his spirit ; 
and to walk in his steps, who when he was reviled, reviled 
not again, when he suffered, he threatned not ? but com- 
mitted his case to him that judgeth righteously, and who 
knowes but that the spirit of judgement, and the spirit of 
burning, hath been, or may be ere long in your hearts, 
whereby you may be made affectedly sensible, that the 
cause is the same, or very little differing from this. 

A poor innocent traveller passeth along the countrey 
upon his occasions: a man having strength in his arm 
findeth him, frames himself offended with him for no 
cause he hath given him, and because he cannot draw him 
unto his party, either to rob, or to kill, or to say amen to 
his practises, he therefore binds him, and casts him into a 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 17 

pit, and declares himself resolute there to keep him, till 
he hath his blood, unless he will deliver him his purse ; 
the man either hath not a purse about him, or a heart to 
deliver it; and being unwilling either to part with his 
blood, or that the other should be so deeply guilty in 
taking it from him, he meekly, and earnestly thrice mov- 
eth the strong man for a discourse, and humbly entreats 
him that he would not seek by the strenth of his arme, 
but by the force of some arguments to convince his under- 
standing, and conscience, and so to draw him (as a man) 
to his party, but the strong man delaies him, and so puts 
him off; whereupon a good tender hearted Samaritan 
passing by, and perceiving how the case stood, and that 
the strong man would have his purse, or his blood with- 
out any dispute, being moved with compassion to redeem 
this innocent blood from the hand of the strong man he 
delivers him his own purse, and so the man is released. 
Take it not ill that I have used so much plainess of 
speech, for my studie is now to speak plainly, and neither 
flatteringly nor invectively : and to use plain dealing with 
all men, although I verifie the Proverb, and die a begger ; 
for as I told some of your selves (and that in publick) I 
abhor dissimulation, neither can I account him a wise 
man who doth not hate dissembling, or that doth love to 
dissemble ; and therefore saith Solomon rebuke a wise man 
and he will love thee, &c. and David the King saith on 
this wise, let the righteous smite me and it shall be a 
precious balm ; I know instruction is grievous to him 
that is out of the way, but what saith the wise man, he 
that hateth instruction shall die. Consider I pray what 
hath been spoken, and turn not away your eye, nor your 
ear, nor your heart from instruction, least that which was 
said by the prophet of old Isa. 9. 14, 15, 16, be in you 
verified, which to prevent is the humble and earnest re- 
quest unto the fathers of mercies of 

Your loving friend and 

Countreyman 
John Clark. 



4th s. — VOL. II. 



18 El Neivesfrom New-England. 



To the true Christian Reader. 

Thou maist herein (Christian Reader) see, and peruse 
thy destiny in this present evill world (which seems in a 
great measure to be subjected unto devils) through which 
thou art to pass unto that purchased possession, and 
promised inheritance of the Saints in light, which is in 
that better world, which is not subjected unto Angels, 
but unto the Sonne of God himself; thou maist herein 
also observe, and take notice of the hand by whom from 
thy heavenly father thou art to receive that bitter cup, 
which he drunk off when he was here below; for thy 
sake chiefly was this treatise brought forth into the pub- 
lick view ; I hope not to discourage thee, but to strength- 
en thine heart, that thou mightest not fear any of those 
things, which thou shalt suffer, either from men or devils 
for thy testimony, that Jesus is the Christ (it being that 
which will shortly appear the only prevailing, and victo- 
rious truth in all the world) : for herein shalt thou also 
see that worthy saying lively accomplished ; If ye suffer 
for the name of Christ blessed are ye, for the spirit of the 
Lord, and of glory resteth upon you ; thou hast a worthy 
name called on thee. My hearts desire, and prayer to 
God on thy behalf, therefore is that thou maist enjoy such 
a plentifull pouring forth of that holy spirit into thine 
heart, that thereby thou maist be inabled to walk worthy 
of it, and having so bright a beam of the Fathers glory 
in thy soul, it may so shine forth before the sons of men, 
that they seeing thy good works may have cause adminis- 
tered to glorify our father, which is in heaven ; It is not 
words now Christian, (although they were spoken with 
tongues of men and Angels) when that worthy name is 
every where well spoken of, but faith that works by love, 
and love by works that will distinguish a heady from a 
hearty Christian. Say not in thine heart that Christs 
Comands are low, and his appointments carnall, legal in- 



/// Newes from New-England. 19 

junctions, and at the best, but meat for babes ; least here- 
by thine heart be declared to be vainly puft up in thy 
carnall or fleshly mind, and to have too low, and carnall 
conceits of Christ himself, who is the injoyner, appointer, 
and commander thereof, and shall ere long appear as 
Judge, yea least hereby thou be declared ignorant, or at 
the best forgetful of this one thing, that it is the great 
design of God in Christ as to glorifie himself to admira- 
tion in poor sinful flesh, so whilest he doth it to hide 
pride from man, and therefore as he hath chosen not many 
wise, mighty, nor noble of this world, but the foolish, weak, 
base, despised nothings thereof, so hath he suited his com- 
mands, and appointments thereunto, and intends through 
these foolish things so to cause his wisdome to shine forth 
as thereby to confound the wise ; through these weak 
things so to cause his power to appear^, as thereby to con- 
found the things that are mighty ; and through these base 
dispised things that are not, to bring to nought those no- 
ble, glorious, and excellent things of the world that are ; 
Thou mayst herein see (gentle Reader) that I have rather 
chosen to bear witness to the faith, and order of our Lord, 
and to shew unto the world, but especially unto thee, 
what is the mind of Christ in this time of his absence as 
to faith, and obedience, to shew I say rather what is truth, 
which is but one, than to bear witness against the ly, 
which is so various, knowing that the truth once estab- 
lished shall discover the falshood, and light breaking 
forth shall scatter the darkness. And whilest I lead thee 
forth to seek him whom thy soul loveth, and longeth 
after, who is also thy joy, and thy Crown ; while I lead 
thee I say by the footsteps of those flocks that first trusted 
in Christ, and were fed by such pastors according to his 
own heart, as he gave them, God forbid that thou shouldst 
be as one that wilt turn aside by the flocks of his com- 
panions, and shouldst be found remaining either on the 
left side in a visible way of worship in deed, but such as 
was neither appointed by Christ, nor yet practised by 
them who first trusted in him, or on the right in no visi- 
ble way of worship, or order at all, either pretending that 
the outward court is given to the Gentiles, and the holy 
City is by them to be troden under foot ; that the Church 



20 III Newesfrom New-England. 

of Christ is now in the wilderness, and the time of its 
recovery is not yet, or else pretending that God is a spirit, 
and so will in spirit be worshipped, and not in this place 
or that, in this way or that. Well if thou beest in these 
waies misled I can no longer forbear in tenderness of 
spirit, and compassionate bowels of love to stretch forth a 
helping hand thereby to try whether it be the good pleas- 
ure of God at this time to drop down a word of light, and 
life, and power into thine heart, that thou mayest be 
thereby awakened, and quickned to be still saying within 
thy soul ; Lord what wilt thou have me to do 1 so shalt 
thou hear such a saying as this, Come out from among 
them (Oh my people) and he ye separate from them, and 
touch no unsanctifyed thing, and I will receive you, and be 
a father unto you, and ye shall be my sons, and daughters, 
saith the Lord God Almighty, and also such a saying as 
this, Blessed are they that do his commands for they have 
right to the tree of life, and shall enter in through those 
gates of pearl into that glorious City ; Eev. 22. 14. and 
know that these are the commandments of Jesus sci. As ye 
have received Christ Jesus the Lord, so ivalk ye in him ; 
and behold I come quickly, hold that fast which thou hast, 
yea holdfast till I come ; And such as may be under the 
later disceptions let me intreat thee to ponder these words 
in thine heart sci. That prophecies although marvelous 
plain, and easy to be understood, cannot warrant a pure 
conscience to neglect, much less to cast off the command- 
ments and appointments of Jesus, neither can the spirit 
of Christ direct or incourage the heart of a Christian to 
cast off his lordship ; no, no, the spirit of Christ is hereby 
distinguished from that of Antichrist, in that he shall un- 
fainedly confess that Jesus is the Christ, and that this 
Christ Jesus is come in the flesh, and when he is come 
according to promise into the heart of a Christian, he 
shall not speak of himself, but as a messenger his office is 
to gloriiie Christ by taking of him, and his, and shewing 
it unto, yea writing it in the heart of a Christian, so that 
I dare boldly say, there is none for the exaltation of Christ 
Jesus the lord according to his last will and testament, 
and for the nourishing a lively hope in the heart of a 
Christian concerning his glorious return, I say there is 



Ill Newes from New-England. 21 

none to that holy spirit of promise, who being also the 
spirit of truth, shall guide the souls of the Saints to wor- 
ship the father, as in spirit, so likewise in truth ; and 
therefore that spirit that speaks of himself, and is so far 
from taking of Christs to exalt, and gloryfie him according 
as he hath foretold and his father intended, that he takes 
from Christ, laies him low, and diminisheth his glory, that 
spirit cannot be the spirit of Christ, or that holy spirit of 
promise ; and forasmuch as the spirit speaketh expressly 
that in these later daies there shall be seducing spirits 
that shall deceive if it were possible the very elect of God, 
whose incounter will not be so much with flesh and 
blood, but with wicked spirits in high places, let me 
therefore exhort thee in the words of that beloved dis- 
ciple of Christ ; beleive not every spirit, but try the spirits ; 
and that by this rule, whether they be of God or no, bring 
them to the wholsome words of the holy Apostles, 
Prophets, and son of God ; ye erre (saith Christ) not 
knowing the scriptures, and the power of God; let it be thy 
care (Christian) therefore to search the Scriptures, and 
therein to wait for the power and glory of the spirit of 
God. And look to thy spirit for as immediately before 
Christs appearing in flesh, Satan in a large measure pos- 
sessed the bodies of men, that by his casting them out, 
his power in flesh might appear ; So before his coming 
again in glory I have grounds to expect that the minds 
and spirits of men shall be strongly possessed ; and that 
as this fundamentall conclusion, Thou art Jesus the son 
of the living God, shall be improved to the utmost by the 
holy Spirit of Christ in the hearts and lives of the sons 
and daughters of God, so shall the same conclusion be 
improved to the utmost by way of a bewitching deception 
in the hearts and lives of the sons of men by the spirit of 
Antichrist, which mystery being brought to the height, 
then shall Christ Jesus consume him with the spirit of 
his mouth, and shall destroy him with the brightness of 
his coming. Therefore (Christian) stand thou upon thy 
watch, and know, that if Christ be formed in thee, thou 
canst not but be transformed by him, and the best form 
that thou canst be found in when thy Lord shall appear, 
will be in that form, and so doing, as he hath appointed, 



22 III Newes from New-England. 

walking wisely and in peace toward all men. Consider 
what hath been spoken to thee, and the God of truth and 
peace give thee to understand and do his will ; which is 
the constant and earnest supplication and prayer of 

thine in Christ Jesus 
John Clark. 



A brief discourse touching New England, as to the matter 
in hand, and to that part of it, sci. Rode Hand, where 
my residence is, together with the occasion of my going 
out with others from the Mathatusets Bay, and the many 
providentiall occurrences that directed us thereto, and 
pitched us thereon. 

As also the Contents of the ivhole Treatise. 

ATEw England is a name (as is generally known) that 
^ was, and still is, call'd upon that place in reference 
to Old ; yet not so much because it is peopled, and plant- 
ed from thence, for so are many other Plantations of the 
English in those Western parts ; but because it resembles 
the same, as the daughter the mother. It resembles it in 
the climate, in the times and seasons of the year, in the 
fruits which the land naturally produceth, in the fouls, 
and the fish that are there in abundance. It resembles it 
in their politicall affairs ; for their governments, laws, 
Courts, Officers, are in a great measure the same, and so 
are the names of their towns, and Counties ; and in point 
of good husbandry, that w h is raised and produced in 
New England, more substantiall, and whether it be for 
food or raiment it is the same with that which is here 
produced in Old. It is a place (in the largest accepta- 
tion) that contains in it all the Plantations of the English 
upon that coast of America that lie between the Dutch 
Plantation on the West, and the French on the East ; and 
extends it self upon the Sea coast above one hundred 
leagues. In it is contained the four Colonies, which call 
themselves the united Colonies. The Colony called by 
the name of the Province of Providence Plantations, ly- 
ing on the South and South-East thereof, and two or three 
more lying on the East or North-East, in Agamenticus, 
Saco, Casco-Bay, and Pemaquid, where is that treasure of 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 23 

Masts for Ships. The names of the united Colonies are 
these, in point of precedency first Mathatusets, &c. but in 
point of antiquity first Plymouth, then the Mathatusets, 
then Conectecot, and last Quinipiuck. The chief Towns 
of these Colonies, and seats of their Government are these, 
Boston of the Mathatusets, Plymouth of Plymouth, Here- 
ford of Conectecot, and of Quinipiuck Neiv-Haven. 

Now as the name New England in the largest and 
truest acceptation extends to all the Plantations of the 
English between the French and the Dutch, so in a scanty 
and improper acceptance of the word (especially when it 
makes for advantage) it is taken for these four united 
Colonies, by reason of the precedency they have of others, 
and for the same cause, and upon the point as well, it 
may be taken for the Mathatusets and the Town of Boston 
therein. 

When I speak of New England, understand it of that 
part which hath got the precedency (by reason of ship- 
ping) and start of the rest, sci. the Mathatusets, as both 
in my Epistle and Narrative is plain to be seen, which I 
have here also inserted for fear of mistake. 

In the Colony of Providence Plantations in point of an- 
tiquity the Town of Providence is chief, but in point of 
precedency Rode-Iland excels. This Hand lieth in the 
Narraganset Bay, being 14 or 15 miles long, and in 
breadth between 4 and 5 miles at the broadest ; It began 
to be planted by the English in the beginning of the year 
39. [36] and by this hand of providence. In the year 37 I 
left my native land, and in the ninth moneth of the same, 
I (through mercy) arived at Boston, I was no sooner on 
shore, but there appeared to me differences among them 
touching the Covenants, and in point of evidencing a 
mans good estate, some prest hard for the Covenant of 
works, and for sanctifi cation to be the first and chief evi- 
dence, others prest as hard for the Covenant of grace that 
was established upon better promises, and for the evidence 
of the Spirit, as that which is a more certain, constant, 
and satisfactory witness. I thought it not strange to see 
men differ about matters of Heaven, for I expect no less 
upon Earth : But to see that they were not able so to bear 
each with other in their different understandings and con- 



24 III New es from Neiv-England. 

sciences, as in those utmost parts of the World to live 
peaceably together, whereupon I moved the latter, for as 
much as the land was before us and wide enough, with 
the profer of Abraham to Lot, and for peace sake, to turn 
aside to the right hand, or to the left : The motion was 
readily accepted, and I was requested w th some others to 
seek out a place, which accordingly I was ready to do ; 
and thereupon by reason of the suffocating heat of the 
Summer before, I went to the North to be somewhat 
cooler, but the Winter following proved so cold, that we 
were forced in the Spring to make towards the South ; so 
having sought the Lord for direction, we all agreed that 
while our vessel was passing about a large and dangerous 
Cape, we would cross over by land, having Long Hand 
and Delaware-Bay in our eie for the place of our resi- 
dence ; so to a town called Providence we came, which was 
begun by one M. Roger Williams (who for matter of con- 
science had not long before been exiled from the former 
jurisdiction) by whom we were courteously and lovingly 
received, and with whom we advised about our design ; 
he readily presented two places before us in the same 
Naragansets Bay, the one upon the main called Sow- 
ivames, the other called then Acquedneck, now Rode-Iland ; 
we enquired whether they would fall in any other Patent, 
for our resolution was to go out of them all ; he told us 
(to be brief) that the way to know that, was to have re- 
course unto Plymouth ; so our Vessell as yet not being 
come about, and we thus blockt up, the company deter- 
mined to send to Plymouth, and pitcht upon two others 
together with myself, requesting also M. Williams to go 
to Plymouth to know how the case stood ; so we did ; and 
the Magistrates thereof very lovingly gave us a meeting ; 
I then informed them of the cause of our coming unto 
them, and desired them in a word of truth and faithful- 
ness to inform us whether Sow-wames were within their 
Patent, for we were now on the wing, and were resolved 
through the help of Christ, to get cleer of all, and be of 
ourselves, and provided our way were cleer before us, it 
were all one for us to go further off, as to remain neer at 
hand ; their answer was, that Sow-ivames was the garden 
of their Patent, and the flour in the garden ; then I told 



Ill New es from New-England, 25 

them we could not desire it ; but requested further in 
the like word of truth and faithfulness to be informed, 
whether they laid claim to the Hands in the Naraganset 
Bay, and that in particular called Acquedneck ? they all 
with a cheerfull countenance made us this answer, it was 
in their thoughts to have advised us thereto, and if the 
provident hand of God should pitch us thereon they 
should look upon as free, and as loving neighbours and 
friends should be assistant unto us upon the main, &c. 
So we humbly thanked them, and returned with that an- 
swer : So it pleased the Lord, by moving the hearts of the 
natives, even the chiefest thereof, to pitch us thereon, and 
by other occurrences of providence, which are too large 
here to relate : So that having bought them off to their 
full satisfaction, we have possessed the place ever since ; 
and notwithstanding the different understandings and 
consciences amongst us, without interruption we agree to 
maintain civil Justice and judgement, neither are there 
such outrages committed mongst us as in other parts of 
the Country are frequently seen. 



The Narrative declares 

1. How those three strangers were apprehended, impris- 
oned, sentenced, and for what. 

2. How the motion was made for a publique dispute, 
often repeated and promised, and yet disapointed. 

3. How two escaped, and the third was cruelly handled. 

4. How two, for taking him but by the hand after his 
punishment, were apprehended, imprisoned, and sen- 
tenced to pay forty shillings or be whipped. 

In their Testimony laid down in four conclusions, is 
opened and proved 

In the first, 1. That Jesus is the Christ, [i. e.] the 
Anointed Priest, Prophet, and King of Saints. 2. That 
Christ is also the Lord of his Church in point of ruling 
and ordering them with respect to the worship of God. 

In the Second, 1. That Baptism is one of the command- 
ments of Christ, and to continue till he come. 2. That 
visible Believers are the proper subjects thereof. 3. That 

4th s. — vol. ii. 4 



26 III Newes from New-England. 

they are as well to wait for the promise of the Spirit, as 
for the presence of Christ. 

In the Third, That every believer ought to improve his 
talent both in and out of the Congregation. 

In the Fourth, That no servant of Jesus hath any au- 
thority from him to force upon others either the faith or 
order of the Gospel of Christ. Wherin are produced 8 
arguments against persecution for case of Conscience. 



27 



A Faithfull and True Relation of the Prosecution o/'Obediah 
Holmes, John Crandall, and John Clarke, meerly for 
Conscience towards God, by the Principal! Members of 
the Church, or Common-wealth of the Mathatusets in New- 
England, which rules over that part of the World ; where- 
hy is shewn their discourteous Entertainment of Strangers, 
and how that Spirit by which they are led, would order the 
whole World, if either brought under them, or should come 
in unto them: Drawn forth by the aforesaid John Clarke, 
not so much to answer the Importunity of Friends, as to 
stop the mouthes, and slanderous reports of such as are 
Enemies to the Cross of Christ. Let him that readeth it 
consider, which Church is most like the Church of Christ 
(that Prince of Peace, that meek and gentle Lamb, thai 
came into this World to save Mens lives, not to destroy 
them,) the Persecuted, or Persecuting. 

T came to pass that we three, by the good hand of our 
God, came into the Mathatusets Bay upon the 16 day 
of the 5th Moneth, 51 ; and upon the 19th of the same, 
upon occasion of businesse, we came unto a Town in the 
same Bay called Lin, where we lodged at a Blind-mans 
house neer two miles out of the Town, by name William 
Witter, who being baptized into Christ waits, as we also 
doe, for the Kingdom of God, and the full consolation of 
the Israel of God : Vpon the 20th day, being the first 
day of the week, not having freedom in our Spirits for 
want of a clear Call from God to goe unto the Publike 
Assemblie to declare there what was the mind, and coun- 
sell of God concerning them, I judged it was a thing suit- 
able to consider what the counsell of God was concerning 
ourselves ; and finding by sad experience, that the hour 
of temptation spoken of was coming upon all the World 
(in a more eminent way) to try them that are upon the 
Earth, I fell upon the consideration of that Word of 
Promise, made to those that keep the Word of his Pa- 
tience, which present thoughts, while in Conscience to- 
wards God, and good will unto his Saints, I was impart- 



28 III Newesfrom Neiv-England. 

ing to my Companions in the house where I lodged, and 
to 4, or 5 Strangers, that came in unexpected after I had 
begun, opening, and proving what is meant by the hour 
of Temptation, what by the Word of his patience, and 
their keeping it. and how he that hath the Key of David 
(being the Promiser) will keep those that keep the word 
of his Patience from the hour of Temptation ; while I say 
I was yet speaking, there comes into the house where we 
were, two Constables, who with their clamorous tongues 
made an interruption in my Discourse, and more uncivilly 
disturbed us, than the Pursivants of the old English Bish- 
ops were wont to doe ; telling us, that they were come 
with Authority from the Magistrate to apprehend us ; I 
then desired to see the Authority by which they thus pro- 
ceeded, whereupon they pluckt forth their Warrant, and 
one of them with a trembling hand (as conscious he might 
have been better imployed) read it to us ; The substance 
whereof was as followeth. 

By virtue hereof, you are required to go to the house 
of William Witter, and so to search from house to house, 
for certain erronious persons, being Strangers, and them 
to apprehend, and in safe custody to keep, and to morrow 
morning by eight of the Clock to bring before me, 

Robert Bridges. 

When he had read the Warrant, I told them, Friends, 
there shall not be (I trust) the least appearance of a re- 
sisting of that Authority by which you come unto us ; yet 
I tell you, that by virtue hereof you are not so strictly 
tyed, but if you please, you may suffer us to make an end 
of what we have begun, so may you be Witnesses either 
to, or against the Faith, and Order which we hold ; to 
which they answered they could not ; then said we, not- 
withstanding the Warrant, or any thing therein contained, 
you may ; neverthelesse, if you are streightened in respect 
of your understandings and consciences in point of hear- 
ing, doe but withdraw your selves before the door, the 
time will not be long ; which when they refused, we told 
them, then here we are, let our Lord doe with us what he 
please : So (although there were that profered to be bound 
body and goods for our appearance before Mr. Bridges the 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 29 

next morning, according to the Warrant) they apprehend- 
ed us, and carried us away to the Ale-house or Ordinary ; 
where after Dinner one of them said unto us, Gentlemen, 
if you be free I will carry you to the Meeting ; to whom 
was replyed, Friend, had we been free thereunto we had 
prevented all this ; Neverthelesse, we are in thy hand, and if 
thou wilt carry us to the Meeting, thither will we goe ; to 
which he answered, then will I carry you to the Meeting. 
To this we replyed, because we perceive thou hast not 
long been imployed in thine Office, and that may follow 
hereupon which thou expectest not, we will inform thee, 
That if thou forcest us unto your Assembly, then shall 
we be constrained to declare our selves, that we cannot 
hold Communion with them ; the Constable answered, 
that is nothing to me, I have not power to command you 
to speak, when you come there, or to be silent ; to this I 
again replyed, (Friend) know a little further ; Since we 
have heard the word of Salvation by lesus Christ, we 
have been taught as those that first trusted in Christ, to 
be obedient unto him both by word and deed ; wherefore 
if we be forc'd to your Meeting, we shal declare our dis- 
sent from you both by word and gesture ; after all this, 
when he had consulted with the man of the house, he 
told us he would carry us to the Meeting, so to their 
Meeting were we brought, while they were at their pray- 
ers and uncovered ; and at my first stepping over the 
threshold I unveiled my self, civilly saluted them, turned 
into the Seat I was appointed to, put on my hat again, 
and so sat down, opened my Book, and fell to reading : 
hereupon Mr. Bridges being troubled, commanded the 
Constable to pluck off our hats, which he did, and where 
he laid mine, there I let it lye, untill their Prayer, Sing- 
ing, and Preaching was over ; After this I stood up, and 
uttered myself in these words following ; I desire as a 
Stranger, if I may, to propose a few things to this Con- 
gregation, hoping in the proposall thereof I shall com- 
mend myself to your Consciences to be guided by that 
wisdom that is from above, which being pure, is also 
peaceable, gentle, and easie to be intreated, and therewith 
I made a stop, expecting, if the Prince of Peace had been 
among them, I should have had a suitable answer of 



30 III Newes from New-England. 

Peace from them ; but no other voice I heard, but of their 
Pastor, as he is call'd, and their Magistrate ; Their Pastor 
answered by way of Quaery, Whether I was a Member 
of a Church'? &c. Before I could give an answer Mr. 
Bridges spake, saying, if the Congregation please to give 
you leave, well, if not, I shall require you silence, for, 
said he, we will have no Objections made against what is 
delivered, &c. To which I answered, I am not about for 
present to make Objections against what is delivered, but 
as by my gesture at my coming into your Assembly I de- 
clared my dissent from you, so lest that should prove 
offensive unto some whom I would not offend, I would 
now by word of mouth declare the grounds, which are 
these ; First, from the consideration we are Strangers 
each to other, and so Strangers to each others inward 
standing with respect to God, and so cannot conjoyn and 
act in Faith, and what is not of Faith, is Sin : And in 
the seconds place, I could not judge that you are gathered 
together, and walk according to the visible order of our 
Lord ; which when I had declared, Mr. Bridges told me 
I done and spoke that for which I must answer, and so 
commanded me silence : when their meeting was done, 
the Officers carryed us again to the Ordinary, where being 
watched over that night, as Theeves and Robbers, we 
were the next morning carried before Mr. Bridges, who 
made our Mittimus, and sent us to the Prison at Boston ; 
The words of the Mittimus are these. 

To the Keeper of the Prison at Boston. 

By virtue hereof you are required to take into your 
custody from the Constable of Lin, or his Deputy, the 
bodies of John Clark, Obediah Holmes, and John Cran- 
dall, and them to keep, untill the next County Court to 
be held at Boston, that they may then and there answer 
to such complaints as may be alleged against them, for 
being taken by the Constable at a Private Meeting at Lin 
upon the Lords day, exercising among themselves, to 
whom divers of the Town repaired, and joyned with them, 
and that in the time of Publick exercise of the Worship 
of God ; as also for offensively disturbing the peace of the 
Congregation at their coming into the Publique Meeting 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 31 

in the time of Prayer in the afternoon, and for saying 
and manifesting that the Church of Lin was not consti- 
tuted according to the order of our Lord, &c. for such 
other things as shall be alleged against them, concerning 
their seducing and drawing aside of others after their 
erroneous judgements and practices, and for suspition of 
having their hands in the re-baptizing of one, or more 
among us, as also for neglecting or refusing to give in 
sufficient security for their appearance at the said Court ; 
hereof fail not at your perill, 22. 5. 51. 

Eob. Bridges. 

We being by virtue hereof committed to prison, upon 
the 5th. day sevennight after were brought to our tryall ; 
in the forenoon we were examined, in the afternoon, with- 
out producing either accuser, witness, jury, law of God, 
or man, we were Sentenced ; in our examination the Gov- 
ernour upbraided us with the name of Anabaptists ; To 
whom I answered, I disown the name, I am neither an 
Anabaptist, nor a Pedobaptist, nor a Catabaptist ; he told 
me in hast I was all ; I told him he could not prove us 
to be either of them ; he said, yes, you have Re-baptized ; 
I denyed it saying, I have Baptized many, but I never 
Ee-baptized any ; then said he, you deny the former Bap- 
tism, and make all our worship a nullity ; I told him he 
said it ; moreover I said unto them (for therefore do I 
conceive I was brought before them to be a testimony 
against them) If the Testimony which I hold forth be 
true, and according to the mind of God, which I un- 
doubtedly affirm it is, then it concernes you to look to your 
standing. The like to this affirmed the other two; so 
after much discourse we were committed again to prison, 
and in the afternoon towards night, we were called forth 
again, and immediately after the Court was set, my sen- 
tence was read, which was as folio we th. 

The Sentence oflohn Clarke of JLo&d-Iland. 31. 5. 51. 

Forasmuch as you John Clarke, being come into this 
Iurisdiction about the 20th. of luly, did meet at one 
William Witters house at Lin, upon the Lords day, and 
there did take upon you to Preach to some other of the 



32 HI Newes from New- England. 

Inhabitants of the same Town, and being there taken by 
the Constable, and coming afterward into the Assembly 
at Lin, did in disrespect of the Ordinances of God and his 
Worship, keep on your Hat, (the Pastor being then in 
Prayer) insomuch you would not give reverence in valing 
your Hat till it was forced off your head, to the disturb- 
ance of the Congregation, and professing against the in- 
stitution of the Church, as not being according to the 
Gospell of Iesus Christ ; And that you the said Iohn 
Clarke did upon the day following meet again at the said 
Witters, and in contempt to Authority, you being then 
in the custody of the Law, and did there administer the 
Sacrament of the Supper to one excommunicate person, 
to another under admonition, and to another that was an 
Inhabitant of Lin, and not in fellowship with any Church ; 
and upon your answer in open Court, you affirmed that 
you did never Re-baptize any, yet did acknowledge you 
did Baptize such as were Baptized before, and thereby did 
necessarily deny the Baptism that was before to be Bap- 
tism, the Churches no Churches, and also all other Ordi- 
nances, and Ministers, as if all were a Nullity ; And also 
did in the Court deny the lawfullness of Baptizing of In- 
fants, and all this tends to the dishonour of God, the de- 
spising the ordinances of God among us, the peace of the 
Churches, and seducing the Subjects of this Common- 
wealth from the truth of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and 
perverting the strait waies of the Lord, therefore the Court 
doth fine you 20 pounds to be paid, or sufficient sureties 
that the said sum shall be paid by the first day of the next 
Court of Assistants, or else to be well whipt, and that you 
shall remain in Prison till it be paid, or security given in 
for it. 

By the Court, Encrease Nowell. 

After my sentence was read, the Sentence of the other 
two were likewise pronounced ; the Sentence of Obediah 
Holmes was to pay by the aforesaid time 30 li. or be well 
whipt ; and the sentence of Iohn Crandall was to pay 5 
pounds, or be well whipt ; this being done, I desired to 
know whether I might not speak a few things to the 
Court, to which the Governour replied, your sentence is 



Ill Neives from New-England. 33 

past. I told him that which I was to speak was in refer- 
ence unto a promise that was made us by Mr. Bridges 
when we were first apprehended, and brought before him ; 
then said the Governour speak on ; When we were at first 
apprehended and brought before Mr. Bridges (said I) I 
said unto him we are Strangers, and Strangers to your 
Laws, and may be transgressors of them before we are 
aware, we would therefore desire this curtesy of you as 
Strangers, that you would shew us the Law by which we 
are transgressors : But then no other answer could we 
have from him than this, when you come to the Court you 
shall know the Law ; now we have been before the Court 
in the forenoon upon examination, this afternoon we have 
heard our Sentence read, yet have we not heard the Law 
produced by which we are condemned ; we therefore now 
desire to see the Law in which our Sentence may be read, 
and the rather, because we find in the beginning of your 
Laws this provision for the security of your own, and we 
hope you are not less regardfull of strangers, viz. That no 
man shall be molested, but by a Law made by the gen- 
erall Court, and lawfully published, or in defect of a Law 
in a particular case, by the Word of God. When this 
was spoken Mr. Bridges could easily turn to the Law by 
which we might be freed, but none were able to turn to 
the Law of God or Man by which we were condemned. 
At length the Governour stept up, and told us we had 
denyed Infants Baptism, and being somewhat transported 
broke forth, and told me I had deserved death, and said, 
he would not have such trash brought into their jurisdic- 
tion ; moreover he said, you go up and down, and secretly 
insinuate into those that are weak, but you cannot main- 
tain it before our Ministers, you may try, and discourse 
or dispute with them, &c. To this I had much to reply, 
but that he commanded the Iaylor to take us away ; so 
the next morning having so fair an opportunity, I made 
a motion to the Court in these words following. 

To the Honoured Court Assembled at Boston. 

Whereas it pleased this Honoured Court yesterday to 
condemn the Faith, and Order which I hold and practise, 
and after you had past your Sentence upon me for it, were 

4th s. — vol. ii. 5 



34 III Newesfrom Neiv-England. 

pleased to expresse, I could not maintain the same against 
your Ministers, and thereupon publickly profered me a 
dispute with them, be pleased by these few lines to under- 
stand, I readily accept it, and therefore do desire you 
would appoint the time when, and the person with whom, 
in that publick place where I was condemned, I might 
with freedom, and without molestation of the Civill Power 
dispute that point publickly where I doubt not by the 
strength of Christ to make it good out of his last "Will 
and Testament, unto which nothing is to be added, nor 
from which nothing is to be diminished ; thus desiring the 
Father of Lights to shine forth, and by his power to expel 
the darkness, I remain, Your well wisher, 

From the Prison this 1. 6. 51. John Clarke. 

This motion if granted, I desired it might be subscribed 
by their Secretaries hand, as an Act of the same Court 
by which we were condemned. 

It was presented on the sixth day, and after much ado 
upon the last day it was concluded it should be granted, 
and the disputation should be upon the fifth day follow- 
ing, and so by one of the Magistrates information was 
given me in prison ; upon the second day when their Elders 
were come together, there was no small stir (as I heard) 
about the businesse, and afterward about the stating of 
the Question we should dispute upon ; whereupon in the 
closure of the day the Magistrates commanded the Iaylor 
to bring me before them into the Chamber, which when 
he had done, they drew forth the motion, and shewing it 
to me, asked me if I owned that paper, I answered, yea, 
they quaeried further, whether I was of the same mind 
touching a disputation, I told them I had not the least 
reluctancy in my mind touching the thing, provided my 
motion might be granted, and the grant subscribed with 
the Secretaries hand as an act of the same Court by which 
I was condemned; they answered that was but reasonable, 
&c. Then they demanded of me what the question was 
that I would dispute upon, whether I would dispute upon 
the things contained in my Sentence, and maintain my 
practice, for, said they, the Court Sentenced you not for 
your judgement or Conscience, but for matter of fact, and 



Ill Neives from New-England. 35 

practice ; to which I replyed, you say the Court con- 
demned me for matter of fact, and practice ; be it so, but 
I say that matter of fact and practice was but the mani- 
festation of my judgement and conscience ; and I make 
account that man is void of judgement, and conscience, 
with respect unto God, that hath not a fact, and practice 
suitable thereunto; and for the things contained in my 
Sentence, they are rather collections, which the Court was 
pleased to make and draw from my words, than my words, 
themselves ; nevertheless I do not say they were unduly 
collected ; for in truth, if the Faith and order which I 
profess do stand by the word of God, then the Faith and 
order which you profess must needs fall to the ground ; 
and if the way you walk in remain, then the way that I 
walk in must vanish away, they cannot both stand to* 
gether ; to which they seem to assent ; therefore I told 
them, that if they please to grant the motion under the 
Secretaries hand, I would draw up the Faith, and order, 
which I hold as the sum of that I did deliver in open 
Court, into three or four Conclusions, which Conclusions 
I will stand by, and defend untill he, whom you shall 
appoint, shall by the word of God remove me from them ; 
in case he shall remove me from them, then the disputa- 
tion is at an end, but if not, then I desire like liberty by 
the word of God to oppose the Faith, and order, which 
he and you profess, thereby to try whether I may be an 
instrument in the hand of God to remove you from the 
same ; they told me the motion was very fair, and the 
way like unto a disputant, and thereupon concluded in 
my hearing, and directed also their speech to me, saying, 
because the matter is weighty, and we desire that what 
can, may be spoken, when the disputation shall be ; there- 
fore would we take a longer time ; whereas therefore the 
time appointed was the next fift day, by reason of the 
commencement, which will be the next week, and the 
meeting of the Elders, we must defer it now untill the 
fift day come fortnight ; and so I told them (to be brief) 
I was their prisoner, and should attend their pleasure ; so 
I returned with my keeper to prison again, drew up the 
Conclusions, which I was resolved through the strength 
of Christ to stand in defence of, and through the impor- 

1169630 



36 III Newes from New-England, 

tunity of one of the Magistrates, the next morning very 
early, I shewed them to him, having a promise I should 
have my motion for a dispute granted, under the Secre- 
taries hand. 

The Conclusions were as followeth. 
The Testimony of lohn Clarke a prisoner of Iesus Christ 
at Boston in the behalf of my Lord, and of his people, is 
as followeth. 

1. I Testifie that Iesus of Nazareth whom God hath 
raised from the dead, is made both Lord and Christ ; This 
Iesus I say is the Christ, in English, the Anointed One, 
hath a name above every name ; He is the Anointed Priest, 
none to, or with him in point of attonement ; The Anoint- 
ed Prophet, none to him in point of instruction ; The 
Anointed King, who is gone unto his Father for his glo- 
rious Kingdom, and shall ere long return again ; and that 
this Iesus Christ is also The Lord, none to or 'with him 
by way of Commanding and ordering (with respect to the 
worship of God) the household of Faith, which being pur- 
chased with his Blood as Priest, instructed, and nourished 
by his spirit as Prophet, do wait in his appointment as he 
is the Lord, in hope of that glorious Kingdom which shall 
ere long appear. 

2. I Testifie that Baptism, or dipping in Water, is one 
of the Commandements of this Lord Iesus Christ, and 
that a visible beleever, or Disciple of Christ Iesus (that 
is, one that manifesteth repentance towards God, and 
Faith in Iesus Christ) is the only person that is to be Bap- 
tized, or dipped with that visible Baptism, or dipping of 
Iesus Christ in Water, and also that visible person that is 
to walk in that visible order of his House, and so to wait 
for his coming the second time in the form of a Lord, and 
King with his glorious Kingdom according to promise, 
and for his sending down (in the time of his absence) the 
holy Ghost, or holy Spirit of Promise, and all this accord- 
ing the last Will and Testament of that living Lord, 
whose Will is not to be added to, or taken from. 

3. I Testifie or Witness, that every such believer in 
Christ Iesus, that waiteth for his appearing, may in point 
of liberty, yea ought in point of duty to improve that 



Ill Newes from New-England. 37 

Talent his Lord hath given unto him, and in the Congre- 
gation may either aske for information to himself; or if 
he can, may speak by way of Prophecie for the edifica- 
tion, exhortation, and comfort of the whole, and out of 
the Congregation at all times, upon all occasions, and in 
all places, as far as the jurisdiction of his Lord extends, 
may, yea ought to walk as a Child of light, justifying 
wisdom with his ways, and reproving folly with the un- 
fruitfull works thereof, provided all this be shown out of 
a good conversation, as lames speaks with meekness of 
wisdom. 

4. I Testifle that no such believer, or Servant of Christ 
Jesus hath any liberty, much less Authority, from his 
Lord, to smite his fellow servant, nor yet with outward 
force, or arme of flesh, to constrain, or restrain his Con- 
science, no nor yet his outward man for Conscience sake, 
or worship of his God, where injury is not offered to the 
person, name or estate of others, every man being such 
as shall appear before the judgment seat of Christ, and 
must give an account of himself to God, and therefore 
ought to be fully perswaded in his own mind, for what 
he undertakes, because he that doubteth is damned if he 
eat, and so also if he act, because he doth not eat or act 
in Faith, and what is not of Faith is Sin. 

These Conclusions being seen at least by one of the 
Magistrates, notwithstanding the Message to the prison, 
answer to my self in the Chamber, promise by him that 
came for the Conclusions, common report abroad that a 
disputation was granted, the Court broke up, and did 
nothing ; and the next second day following, a Messenger 
was sent to the prison from the Magistrate, with a release 
to the keeper, which having received he speedily put me 
forth ; The words of the release follow. 

To the Keeper of the prison. 

By Virtue hereof you are to release and set at liberty 
the Body of Mr. Iohn Clarke, and this shall be your dis- 
charge for so doing. Given under my hand the 11th. of 
the 6th. Month, 1651. 

William Hibbins. 



38 III New es from New-England. 

To be brief, &c. Vnderstanding that some friends had 
laid down the Money, although contrary to my Counsell, 
when formerly at severall times, and by severall persons I 
was moved thereunto, and perceiving now that the Coun- 
tries expectation (which was not a little raised) touching 
a disputation was utterly frustrate, and being sensible that 
it was an easy matter to lay the blame on me, being a 
person condemned, and also absent, I drew up the former 
motion, and added thereunto these words following. 

"Whereas through the indulgency of tender hearted 
friends, without my consent, and contrary to my judg- 
ment, tHe Sentence, and Condemnation of the Court at 
Boston (as is reported) have been fully satisfied on my 
behalf, and thereupon a Warrant hath been procured by 
which I am secluded the place of my imprisonment, by 
reason whereof I see no other call for present but to my 
habitation, and to those neer relations which God hath 
given me there, yet lest the cause should hereby suffer, 
which I profess is Christs, I would hereby signifie, that if 
yet it shall please the honoured Magistrates, or generall 
Court of this Colony, to grant my former request under 
their Secretaries hand, I shall cheerfully imbrace it, and 
upon your motion shall through the help of God come 
from the Hand to attend it, and hereunto I have sub- 
scribed my name, 

11th. 6. 51. John Clarke. 

Both these the next morning I delivered to the keeper to 
deliver to the Magistrates, who were to meet at the Com- 
mencement at Cambridge, which being accordingly per- 
formed it was noised abroad the motion was granted, and 
the writing was in Mr. Cottons hand, who was thereby 
judged to be the man, and best of all approved of by my 
self for that same purpose, he being the inventor and sup- 
porter of that way, in these parts, wherein they walk, and 
thereupon I took the thing for granted, and to that pur- 
pose wrot to my friends who sent to visit me in prison, 
but upon the fift day, a little before their Lecture at Bos- 
ton, I received a writing subscribed with five of the Magis- 
trates hands, which when I had perused, and saw that 
they waved the motion, and instead thereof laid two or 



Ill New es from New-England. 39 

three snares before me, I drew up an Answer to their 
Writing, being hopeless of a disputation, desired the 
laylor to deliver it to the Magistrates, took my leave of 
my friends, and so departed to go towards the Hand, hav- 
ing ten miles that night to travell. Here followeth their 
Writing, and my Answer also. 

Mr. John Clarke, 

We conceive you have mis-reported the Governours 
speech in saying you were challenged to dispute with some 
of our Elders, whereas it was plainly exprest, that if you 
would confer with any of them, they were able to satisfie 
you, neither were you able to maintain your practice to 
them by the word of God, all which was intended for your 
information, and conviction privately ; neither were you 
enjoyned to what you then were Counselled unto ; never- 
theless, if you are forward to dispute, and that you will 
move it yourself to the Court, or the Magistrates about 
Boston, we shall take order to appoint one who will be 
ready to Answer your motion, you keeping close to the 
questions to be propounded by your self, and a moderator 
shal be appointed also to attend upon that service ; & 
whereas you desire you might be free in your dispute, 
keeping close to the points to be disputed on, without 
incurring damage by the Civill lustice, observing what 
hath been before written, it is granted; the day may be 
agreed if you yeeld the premisses. 

lohn Indicott, Governour. 
11th. of the 6th. 1651. Tho. Dudley, Deputy Govern, 

Rich. Bellingham. 

William Hibhins. 

Encrease Nowel. 

My Answer followeth, superscribed, 

To the Honoured Governour of the Mathatusets, and the 

rest of that Honorable Society, these present. 
Worthy Senators, 

I Received a writing subscribed with 5 of your hands 
by way of answer to a twice-repeated motion of mine be- 
fore you, which was grounded as I conceive sufficiently 
upon the Governours words in open Court ; which writing 



40 III Nerves from New-England. 

of yours doth no way answer my expectation, nor yet that 
motion which I made, and whereas (waving that grounded 
motion) you are " pleased to intimate, That if I were for- 
" ward to dispute, and would move it myself to the Court, 
" or Magistrates about Boston, you would appoint one to 
" answer my motion, &c. Be pleased to understand, That 
although I am not backward to maintain the Faith, and 
Order of my Lord the King of Saints, for which I have 
been Sentenced, yet am I not, in such a way so forward 
to dispute, or move therein, least inconvenience should 
thereby arise, I shall rather once more repeat my former 
motion, which if it shall please the Honoured General 
Court to accept, and under their Secretaries hand shall 
grant a free dispute without molestation or interruption, 
I shall be so well satisfied therewith, that what is past I 
shall forget, and upon your motion shall attend it ; Thus 
desiring the Father of Mercies not to lay that evill to your 
charge, 
From Prison this I remain your Well-wisher, 

14. 6. 51. Iohn Clarke. 

This Answer with the motion for a dispute upon these 
fair termes the third time repeated, (being a thing also 
generally desired, and longed for) was (as I said before) 
by me delivered to the Keeper, and by him presented to 
the Magistrates, and so to the General Court, yet was 
there no answer returned : what made the obstruction 
considering the equity of the Case, the former consent and 
grant of the Magistrates, and the peoples earnest desire 
thereof, I know not, neither will I too readily conclude 
(lest it should savor of prejudice) that it was either an 
apprehension it would be disgracefull, first to ludge and 
Condemn the persons, and afterward to have the matter 
examined, or else a fear and jealousie lest upon the exam- 
ination thereof by the word of God (which is a quick & 
powerful divider asunder of the Soul and Spirit, and of 
the joynts, & marrow, and a discerner of the thoughts 
and intents of the heart) their standing (in reference to 
the worship of God) should appear false, and evill, and 
the way by w ch - they maintayn the same with a forcing of 
others thereto, should appear far worse ; surely, the stand- 



Ill New es from New-England. 41 

ers by, and such, whose minds are dis-engaged in the 
businesse will aptly conclude, and not without probable 
grounds, that the utmost they can say for themselves, and 
to stop the mouth of him that is contrary minded, lyes in 
the Sword and power of the Magistrate, which although 
it be a good Ordinance of God in this present evill World, 
to restrain the oppressor, and let the oppressed goe free, 
and so approved and owned by Christ and all true Chris- 
tians, in case of wrong and wicked lewdnesse, as Gallio 
expresseth it, yet was it never appointed by Christ, (to 
whom all power, not only in Earth, but also in Heaven, 
is committed, and by whom all Earthly powers are to be 
judged, in that day in which he shall judge the "World in 
righteousnesse ; I say it was never appointed by Christ) 
to inform and rectifie the minds and consciences of men 
in the worship of God, in that great mystery of Godli- 
nesse, and in those mysticall matters concerning the 
Kingdom of Christ, that being a matter that onely be- 
longs to the Holy Spirit of Promise, and to the Sword of 
that Spirit, which is the Word (not of man, but) of God, 
to effect ; much lesse to conform their outward man, con- 
trary to their minds and consciences in the Worship of 
God ; and therefore that Sword and Power ought to take 
heed how they meddle herein (lest they attempt to take 
the place, & enter upon the Throne and Kingdom of 
Christ) either to force such as be conceived to be true 
Worshipers, to the true Worship, and service of God, 
for it is written, Not by might, nor by power, but by my 
Spirit saith the Lord of Hosts. And again, In the day 
of thy power, thy people shall be a willing people ; much 
lesse to force such as are no Worshipers, or false, to that 
Worship which is true, and yet much lesse to force false, 
to that which is false, or true, to that which is false ; and 
hence it is, that although the Kings of the Earth have 
been deceived, and through the righteous judgment of 
God have given their power to the Beast, to their own 
dishonour and detriment, who have improved the same to 
bear up the Whore, and to bear down and crush the 
Spouse of the Lamb, so that Babel hath for a long time 
rejoyced, and Sion hath mourned ; yet when the time 
appointed is come, at the voyce of her King Sion shall 
4th s. — vol. ii. 6 



42 111 New es from New-England. 

deliver herself from the Daughter of Babel, though all 
the powers of this World seek to withstand it ; neither 
shall the gates of Hell prevail against it : for it is written 
concerning those that keep the Commandements of God, 
and the Testimony of lesus, that they overcame him 
(scil. that great Red Dragon called the Devill and Satan, 
who also gave his power to the Beast, they overcame him 
I say) by the Blood of that Lamb, and by that word of 
their Testimony, and they loved not their lives unto the 
death. 

Now touching Iohn Crandall aforesaid, to whose charge 
they had also nothing to lay, but his being with us, own- 
ing the same Faith, and Order of the Gospell, and there- 
fore refusing to stoop to that likenesse thereto, which they 
had set up ; yet as is said, they sentenced him to pay 5 
pounds by the next Court of Assistants, or else to be well 
whipt. Whereupon the day following he inquired of the 
Keeper, when that Court of Assistants would be, (being 
resolved not to chuse his punishment, they being not able 
to make it appear by the Law of God or Man that he was 
a Transgressor so to be punished) and being by him in- 
formed that it would be a quarrer of a yeer before that 
time came ; and also, that if he were so resolved, he might 
put in Bail for his appearance at the time aforesaid, and 
so depart, he forthwith put in Bail, and so departed to 
visit his Family, being distant from thence threescore and 
ten miles. He was no sooner at home, but his Spirit was 
unsatisfied in what he had done, in leaving us behind in 
the Prison, though with our consent and counsell he did 
what he did ; whereupon, leaving his Harvest upon the 
spoyl, within a few dayes he returned to us again, and 
tendered his person unto the Keeper, who refused it, say- 
ing, Since your departure I perceive your Sentence is, 
That you should not depart the Prison, without either 
paying the money, or putting in security for the payment 
of it ; wherefore now either you or your Surety must pay 
it. To whom Brother Crandall replyed, you informed 
me otherwise before I went, and upon other termes I de- 
parted, wherefore for my own part I am resolved I will 
not pay it, and for my Surety he is at his liberty, being 
no otherwise bound, than for my appearance, and here I 



Ill New es from New-England. 43 

am, and am your Prisoner ; neverthelesse when I was re- 
leased, and turned out of Prison, and could no longer 
upon that account there remain, I counselled him to put 
the matter quite out of doubt, wherefore he said to the 
Iaylor, Let me know what I shall trust to, for if you ac- 
cept me upon the former account, well, I shall willingly 
tarry, and remain your Prisoner, but if not, I shall now 
repair home with my Friend to my Family ; so after the 
Iaylor had advised with the Magistrate, he friendly told 
him, If he would promise to appear at the time appointed, 
he would take his word, become his Surety, and he might 
be gone ; whereupon I being doubtfull, though he was 
confident concerning the time (there being an other Court 
between) desired him to send us certain word to the Hand, 
when that Court of Assistants would be ; so having his 
promise, we thankfully accepted his kindnesse, & so de- 
parted : And being at home we waited for a word from 
the Keeper for a return, but the first word we heard 
touching that matter, was, that the Court was past (which 
was that Court I suspected) & that Brother Holmes had 
had his tryal by cruel scourgings, & that the Iaylor 
being Brother Crandals Surety, by reason of his non- 
appearance was constrained to pay the money ; hereupon 
not long after Brother Crandall went to Boston, and 
charged the Iaylor with his mis-information, and neglect 
of his promise ; and moreover declared that he had told 
him, That being Innocent, he would not make himself a 
Transgressor by chusing his punishment, and therefore 
had resolved^ as he also knew, not to pay them a penny ; 
and further he told him, that there was no necessity he 
should lay down the money, it being but through a mis- 
take, and he being but Surety, when the Principall was 
present ; and was able through the strength of Christ to 
answer the penalty : and thus having argued the case with 
the Iaylor, he left him without any grounds of hope to 
have it repaid, neverthelesse if advantage will be so strict- 
ly taken upon the Keepers mistake, neither Conscience 
nor Equity will suffer us (it appearing to be a meer mis- 
take, and no plotted thing) not to suffer him to bear it, 
and thus it appears how a second came off, and escaped 
a scourging : Now as concerning the third, by name Obe- 



44 III New es from New-England. 

diah Holmes, what is laid to his charge this Sentence 
under their Secretaries hand (a Copy whereof is here 
under written) will plainly expresse. 

The Sentence of Obediah Holmes of Seacuck, the 31 of 
the 5 th M. 1651. 

Forasmuch as you Obediah Holmes, being come into 
this Jurisdiction about the 21 of the bth M. did meet at 
one William Witters house at Lin, and did hear privately 
(and at other times being an Excommunicate person did 
take upon you to Preach and to Baptize) upon the Lords 
day, or other dayes, and being taken then by the Consta- 
ble, and coming afterward to the Assembly at Lin, did in 
disrespect of the Ordinance of God and his Worship, keep 
on your hat, the Pastor being in Prayer, insomuch that 
you would not give reverence in veiling your hat, till it 
was forced off your head to the disturbance of the Con- 
gregation, and professing against the Institution of the 
Church, as not being according to the Gospell of Iesus 
Christ, and that you the said Obediah Holmes did upon 
the day following meet again at the said William Witters, 
in contempt to Authority, you being then in the custody 
of the Law, and did there receive the Sacrament, being 
Excommunicate, and you did Baptize such as were Bap- 
tized before, and thereby did necessarily deny the Baptism 
that was before administred to be Baptism, the Churches 
no Churches, and also other Ordinances, and Ministers, 
as if all were a Nullity ; And also did deny the lawful- 
ness of Baptizing of Infants, and all this tends to the 
dishonour of God, the despising the ordinances of God 
among us, the peace of the Churches, and seducing the 
Subjects of this Commonwealth from the truth of the 
Gospel of Iesus Christ, and perverting the strait waies of 
the Lord, the Court doth fine you 30 pounds to be paid, 
or sufficient sureties that the said sum shall be paid by 
the first day of the next Court of Assistants, or else to be 
well whipt, and that you shall remain in Prison till it be 
paid, or security given in for it. 

By the Court, En crease No well. 

And now because his sufferings, and the scence which 



Ill New es from New-England. 45 

his Soul felt of the Lords Support, according to promise, 
is affectionately set forth, and commended as a token of 
his love, in a Letter written with his own hand, and sent 
unto those that have obtained like precious faith in Lon- 
don, or elsewhere, whereby by an experiment which God 
hath been pleased to give to him, and us, they may evi- 
dently discern, that lesus Christ is in point of tender com- 
passions touching those that confess his name before the 
Sonnes of men, the same to day that he was yesterday ; 
that as yesterday, so to day it may be said, as the suffer- 
ings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also 
aboundeth by Christ, so that they which keep the com- 
mandements of God, and Testimony of lesus Christ, may 
be hereby incouraged to fear none of those things which 
they shall suffer before they come, nor when they look 
them in the face, and begin the incounter with them, be 
soon weary and wax faint in their minds, but faithfully 
and hopefully expect (they suffering for the name of 
Christ, and as Christians) that the spirit of their Lord, 
and of glory, shall rest upon them. The words of his 
Letter followeth. 

Unto the well beloved Brethren lohn Spilsbury, William 
Kissin, and the rest that in London stand fast in that 
Faith, and continue to walk stedfastly in that Order of 
the Gospell which was once delivered unto the Saints by 
lesus Christ. Obediah Holmes an unworthy witness, 
that lesus is the Lord, and of late a Prisoner for lesus 
sake at Boston, sendeth greeting. 

Dearly Beloved and longed after, 

My hearts desire is to hear from you, and to hear that 
you grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord 
and Saviour lesus Christ, and that your love to him, and 
one unto another, as he hath given commandment, abound- 
eth, would be the very joy and great rejoycing of my Soul 
and Spirit ; had I not been prevented by my beloved 
Brethren of Providence, who have wrot unto you, (where- 
in you have my Mind at large) and also by our beloved 
Brother Clarke of Road-Hand, who may (if God permit) 
see you, and speak with you mouth to mouth, I had here 
declared my self in that matter, but now I forbear ; And 



46 III Newesfrom New-England. 

because I have an experimentall knowledge in my self, 
that in members of the same Body, while it stands in 
union with the head, there is a sympathizing Spirit, which 
passeth through, and also remain in each particular, so 
that one member can neither mourn nor rejoyce, but all 
the members are ready to mourn or rejoyce with it ; I 
shall the rather impart unto you some dealings which I 
have had therein from the Sons of Men, and the gracious 
supports which I have met with from the Son of God, my 
Lord, and yours, that so like Members you might rejoyce 
with me, and might be encouraged by the same experi- 
ment of his tender mercies, to fear none of those things 
which you shall suffer for Iesus sake. It pleased the 
Father of Light, after a long continuance of mine in death, 
and darknesse, to cause life and immortality to be brought 
to light in my soul, and also to cause me to see that this 
life was by the death of his Son, in that hour, and power 
of darknesse procured, which wrought in my heart a rest- 
less desire to know what that Lord, who had so dearly 
bought me, would have me to do, and finding that it was 
his last will (to which none is to adde, and from which 
none is to detract) that they which had faith in his death 
for life, should yeeld up themselves to hold forth a lively 
consimilitude, or likenesse unto his death, buriall, and 
resurrection by that Ordinance of Baptisme ; I readily 
yeelded thereto being by love constrained to follow that 
Lamb (that takes away the sins of the World) whither 
soever he goes ; I had no sooner separated from their 
assemblies, and from Communion with them in their wor- 
ship of God and thus visibly put on Christ, being resolved 
alone to attend upon him, and to submit to his will, but 
immediately the adversary cast out a flood against us, 
and stirred up the spirits of men to present my self and 
two more to Plymouth Court, where we met with 4 Pe- 
titions against our whole company to take some speedy 
course to suppress us, one from our own Plantation with 
35 hands to it, one fro the Church (as they call it) at 
Tanton, one from all the Ministers in our Colony, except 
two, if I mistake not, and one from the Court at Boston 
in the Mathatusets under their Secretaries hand ; where- 
upon the Court straitly chargeth us to desist, and neither 



Ill Newes from New- England. 47 

to ordain Officers, nor to Baptize, nor to break bread to- 
gether, nor yet to meet upon the first day of the week, 
and having received these strait charges one of the three 
discovers the sandy foundation upon which he, stood, who 
when the flood came, and the wind blew, fell, yet it pleased 
the Father of mercies (to whom be the praise) to give us 
strength to stand, & to tell them it was better to obey 
God, rather than man, and such was the grace of our God 
to us-ward that though we were had from Court to Court, 
yet were we firmly resolved to keep close to the rule and 
to obey the voyce of our Lord, come what will come ; 
Not long after these troubles I came upon occasion of 
businesse into the Colony of the Mathatusets, with two 
other Brethren, as Brother Clark, being one of the two, 
can inform you, where we three were apprehended, carried 
to the prison at Boston, and so to the Court, and were all 
sentenced; what they laid to my charge, you may here 
read in my sentence : Vpon the pronouncing of which as 
I went from the Bar, I exprest my self in these words ; 
I blesse God I am counted worthy to suffer for the name 
of Iesus ; whereupon Iohn Wilson (their Pastor as they 
call him) strook me before the Judgment Seat, and cursed 
me, saying, The Curse of God, or Iesus goe with thee ; 
so we were carried to the Prison, where not long after I 
was deprived of my two loving Friends ; at whose depart- 
ure the Adversary stept in, took hold on my Spirit, and 
troubled me for the space of an hour, and then the Lord 
came in, and sweetly releeved me, causing me to look to 
himself, so was I stayed, and refreshed in the thoughts of 
my God ; and although during the time of my Imprison- 
ment, the Tempter was busie, yet it pleased God so to 
stand at my right hand, that the motions were but sudden, 
and so vanished away ; and although there were that 
would have payd the money if I would accept it, yet I 
durst not accept of deliverance in such a way, and there- 
fore my answer to them was, that although I would ac- 
knowledge their love to a cup of cold Water, yet could 
I not thank them for their money if they should pay it ; 
so the Court drew neer, and the night before I should 
suffer according to my sentence, it pleased God I rested, 
and slept quietly ; in the morning many Friends came to 



48 III Neives from New-England. 

visit me, desiring me to take the refreshment of Wine, 
and other Comforts, but my resolution was not to drink 
Wine, nor strong drink that day untill my punishment 
were over, and the reason was, lest in case I had more 
strength, courage, and boldnesse than ordinarily could be 
expected, the World should either say he is drunk with 
new Wine, or else that the comfort and strength of the 
Creature hath carried him through, but my course was 
this : I desired Brother John Hazell to bear my Friends 
company, and I betook myself to my Chamber, where I 
might communicate with my God, commit my self to him, 
and beg strength from him ; I had no sooner sequestred 
my self, and come into my Chamber, but Sathan lets flie 
at me, saying, Eemember thy self, thy birth, breeding, and 
friends, thy wife, children, name, and credit but as this 
was sudden, so there came in sweetly from the Lord as 
sudden an answer, 'tis for my Lord, I must not deny him 
before the Sons of men (for that is to set men above him) 
but rather lose all, yea wife, children, and mine own life 
also : To this the tempter replies, Oh ! but that is the 
question, is it for him 1 and for him alone ? is it not rather 
for thy own, or some others sake ] thou hast so professed 
and practised, and now art loth to deny it ; is not pride 
and self in the bottom 1 surely this temptation was strong, 
and thereupon I made diligent search after the matter, as 
formerly I had done, and after a while there was even as 
it had been a voyce from Heaven in my very Soul, bearing 
witnes with my Conscience, that it was not for any mans 
case or sake in this world, that so I had professed and 
practised, but for my Lords case, and sake, and for him 
alone, whereupon my spirit was much refresht ; as also in 
the consideration of these three Scriptures, which speak 
on this wise, Who shall lay any thing to the charge of Gods 
elect ? Although I walk through the valley and shadoiv of 
Death I will fear none evilly thy rod and thy staff they shall 
comfort me. And he that continueih to the end, the same 
shall be saved. But then came in the consideration of the 
weaknesse of the Flesh to bear the strokes of a whip, 
though the Spirit was willing, and hereupon I was caused 
to pray earnestly unto the Lord, that he would be pleased 
to give me a spirit of courage and boldnesse, a tongue to 



El New es from New-England. 49 

speak for him, and strength of body to suffer for his sake, 
and not to shrink or yeeld to the stroaks, or shed tears, 
lest the adversaries of the truth should thereupon blas- 
pheme, and be hardned, and the weak and feeble-hearted 
discouraged, and for this I besought the Lord earnestly, 
at length he satisfied my spirit, to give up as my soul, so 
my body to him, and quietly to leave the whole disposing 
of the matter to him, and so I addressed my self in as 
comely a manner as I could, having such a Lord and 
Master to serve in this businesse : And when I heard the 
voyce of my Keeper come for me, even cheerfulnesse did 
come upon me, and taking my Testament in my hand, I 
went along with him to the place of execution, and after 
common salutation there stood ; there stood by also one 
of the Magistrates, by name Mr. Encrease Noivell, who 
for a while kept silent, and spoke not a word, and so did 
I, expecting the Governours presence, but he came not. 
But after a while Mr. Nowell bad the Executioner doe 
his Office, then I desired to speak a few words, but Mr. 
Nowell answered, it is not now a time to speak, whereupon 
I took leave, and said, Men, Brethren, Fathers, and Coun- 
trey-men, I beseech you give me leave to speak a few 
words, and the rather, because here are many Spectators 
to see me punished, and I am to seal with my Blood, if 
God give strength, that which I hold and practise in ref- 
erence to the Word of God, and the testimony of lesus ; 
that which I have to say in brief is this, Although I con- 
fesse I am no Disputant, yet seeing I am to seal what I 
hold with my Blood, I am ready to defend it by the Word, 
and to dispute that point with any that shall come forth 
to withstand it. Mr. Nowell answered me, now was no 
time to dispute, then said I, then I desire to give an ac- 
count of the Faith and Order I hold, and this I desired 
three times, but in comes Mr. Flint, and saith to the Exe- 
cutioner, Fellow, doe thine Office, for this Fellow would 
but make a long Speech to delude the people ; so I being 
resolved to speak, told the people ; That which I am to 
suffer for, is for the Word of God, and testimony of lesus 
Christ; No, saith Mr. Noivell it is for your Error, and 
going about to seduce the people ; to which I replyed, not 
for Error, for in all the time of my Imprisonment, wherein 
4th s. — vol. ii. 7 



50 III Neives from Neiv-England. 

I was left alone (my Brethren being gone) which of all 
your Ministers in all that time came to convince me of 
Error 1 and when upon the Governours words a motion 
was made for a publick dispute, and upon fair terms so 
often renewed, and desired by hundreds, what was the 
reason it was not granted 1 Mr. Nowell told me, it was 
his fault that went away, and would not dispute ; but this 
the Writings will cleer at large : still Mr. Flint calls to 
the man to doe his Office, so before, and in the time of his 
pulling off my cloathes I continued speaking, telling 
them, That I had so learned, that for all Boston I would 
not give my bodie into their hands thus to be bruised 
upon another account, yet upon this I would not give the 
hundredth part of a * Wamj)0?i Peague to free it out of 
their hands, and that I made as much Conscience of un- 
buttoning one button, as I did of paying the 301. in refer- 
ence thereunto ; I told them moreover, the Lord having 
manifested his love towards me, in giving me repentance 
towards God, and Faith in Iesus Christ, and so to be bap- 
tized in water by a Messenger of Iesus into the name of 
the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, wherein I have fellow- 
ship with him in his death, buriall, and resurrection, I am 
now come to be baptized in afflictions by your hands, that 
so I may have further fellowship with my Lord, and am 
not ashamed of his sufferings, for by his stripes am I 
healed ; And as the man began to lay the stroaks upon 
my back, I said to the people, though my Flesh should 
fail, and my Spirit should fail, yet God would not fail ; so 
it pleased the Lord to come in, and so to fill my heart 
and tongue as a vessell full, and with an audible voyce I 
brake forth, praying unto the Lord not to lay this Sin to 
their charge, and telling the people, That now I found he 
did not fail me, and therefore now I should trust him for 
ever who failed me not ; for in truth, as the stroaks fell 
upon me, I had such a spirituall manifestation of Gods 
presence, as the like thereunto I never had, nor felt, nor 
can with fleshly tongue expresse, and the outward pain 
was so removed from me, that indeed I am not able to 
declare it to you, it was so easie to me, that I could well 

* A Wampan Peague is the sixth part of a penny with us. 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 51 

bear it, yea and in a manner felt it not, although it was 
grievous, as the Spectators said, the Man striking with all 
his strength (yea spitting on his hand three times, as 
many affirmed) with a three-coarded whip, giving me 
therewith thirty stroaks ; when he had loosed me from 
the Post, having joyfulnesse in my heart, and cheerful- 
nesse in my countenance, as the Spectators observed, I 
told the Magistrates, you have struck me as with Roses ; 
and said moreover, Although the Lord hath made it easie 
to me, yet I pray God it may not be laid to your charge. 
After this many came to me, rej eyeing to see the power of 
the Lord manifested in weak flesh ; but sinfull flesh takes 
occasion hereby to bring others in trouble, informs the 
Magistrates hereof, and so two more are apprehended as 
for contempt of authority, there names were lohn Hazell 
and lohn Spur, who came indeed and did shake me by the 
hand, but did use no words of contempt or reproach unto 
any ; no man can prove that the first spoke any thing, 
and for the second, he only said thus, Blessed be the 
Lord ; yet these two for taking me by the hand, and thus 
saying after I had received my punishment, were sen- 
tenced to pay 40 shillings, or to be whipt. Both were re- 
solved against paying their Fine : Neverthelesse after one 
or two dayes imprisonment, one payed lohn Spurs Fine, 
and he was released, and after six or seven dayes Impris 
onment of Brother Hazell, even the day when he should 
have suffered, an other payd his, and so he escaped, and 
the next day went to visit a Friend about 6 miles from 
Boston, where he the same day fell sick, and within 10 
dayes he ended this life ; when I was come to the Prison, 
it pleased God to stir up the heart of an old acquaintance 
of mine, who with much tendernesse, like the good Samar- 
itan, poured oyl into my wound, and plaistered my sores ; 
but there was present information given what was done, 
and inquiry made who was the Chirurgion, and it was 
commonly reported he should be sent for, but what was 
done, I yet know not. Now thus it hath pleased the 
Father of Mercies so to dispose of the matter, that my 
Bonds and Imprisonments have been no hinderance to 
the Gospel, for before my return, some submitted to the 
Lord, and were baptized, and divers were put upon the 



52 III Newesfrom New-England. 

way of enquiry ; And now being advised to make my 
escape by night, because it was reported that there were 
Warrants forth for me, I departed ; and the next day 
after, while I was on my lourney, the Constable came to 
search at the house where I lodged, so I escaped their 
hands, and was by the good hand of my heavenly Father 
brought home again to my neer relations, my wife, and 
eight children, the Brethren of our Town, and Providence 
having taken pains to meet me 4 miles in the woods, 
where we rejoyced together in the Lord. Thus have I 
given you as briefly as I can, a true relation of things : 
wherefore my Brethren rejoyce with me in the Lord, and 
give all glory to him, for he is worthy, to whom be praise 
for evermore, to whom I commit you, and put up my ear- 
nest prayers for you, that by my late experience, who 
have trusted in God, and have not been deceived, you may 
trust in him perfectly : wherefore my dearly beloved Breth- 
ren trust in the Lord, and you shall not be ashamed, nor 
confounded, so I also rest, 

Yours in the bond of Charity, 

Obediah Holmes. 

Three things would be well minded in this relation, 
1 that God gave me Power to confess his name before 
the Sonnes of Men. 

2 That he kept my tongue that I did not not speak 
evill of men, nor of Authority. 

3 That he gave strength to weak Flesh that it failed 
not. 

This Tragedy being thus acted in the face of the Coun- 
try, must needs awaken and rouse up the minds, and 
spirits of many, cause sad thoughts to arise in their 
hearts, and to flow forth at their mouthes as men offend- 
ed, to see Strangers professing Godliness, so discourteous- 
ly used, for no Civill Transgression, but meerly for Con- 
science, and that by their hands who pretended, that 
Liberty of Conscience was also the cause of their flight, 
together with the other to the hazard of their lives by 
hard hearted, cruell, and savage Barbarians, and other 
mischiefs which a vast, and howling Wildernesse is apt 
to produce ; wherefore to stop their mouthes, and to lull 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 53 

them asleep, the old subtile Serpent as his custome ever 
hath been, raised up a cloud of disgrace, thinking thereby 
to darken the truth he profest, and to obscure the glory 
that appeared in his sufferings, giving out, that he was 
but an Excommunicate, and so an accursed person, and 
that it was vehemently suspected, that he was notoriously 
given to that filthy lust of uncleanness, which God will 
judge, and that the same was hinted in open Court, and 
that by persons of no mean credit ; wherefore againe to 
resist the adversary who hath been a Iyer from the begin- 
ning, and thereby a destroyer and murderer, and to deliver 
the Children of truth at least from his snare, whereby they 
might be taken captive at his will, he drew up, and sent 
a letter unto the Governour of the Mathatusetts Colony, 
and desired it might be published so that the Sons of 
Men, so far as the lye and slander might spread, might 
be acquainted therewith. The Letter followeth. 

The 12 of the 1th. M. 51. To the Honoured 
Governour. 
Honoured Sir, 

However you may judge of me, yet am I dayly wai ting- 
to stand before him who shall judge quick and dead, and 
now because I am under reproach, and sensure by many, 
and the more by reason of some words spoken by yourself, 
as though I were an evill person in life and conversation, 
and although I may be accounted as a fool, yet hear me a 
little to plead mine innocency, and I hope you will not 
too far condemn me untill you hear me speak ; Sir, I ac- 
knowledge only free grace, and that by his power alone I 
have been kept, and what my life and manner of conver- 
sation was for six or seven years while I was with you, I 
appeal to your self, and the experiences you have had of 
me, and to your Elders, and to the whole Church ; who 
ever reproved me of evill? and ye recommended me to 
others, and for four years time I walked with them at 
Rehoboth, who also should have reproved me if under Sin ; 
but when it pleased the Lord to cause me to hear his voice, 
and I separated from them, which was occasioned by an 
unrighteous Act of theirs as I judged, which was, that 
seven of the Brethren should pass an Act of Admonition 
upon a Brother without the Consent of the rest, we being 



54 III Newes from Neiv-England. 

23 in number, who might all in one hours space, if in 
health, have come together, so when I heard of it I went 
to Mr. Newman, and told him of the evill which he, and 
the other six had done, he told me they were the Church 
Representative, and if 4 of them had done it, it had been 
a Church Act ; when this comes to the Congregation, with 
much adoe, he got five more to himself, and then they 
were 12, and we eleven, then they owned themselves to 
be the Church, and so began to deal with me for saying, 
they had abused the Church, and had took from them 
their power, whereupon I told them I should renounce 
them, and not have any more fellowship with them, till 
either they saw their Sin, or I further light ; after which 
divers others to the number of seven, or eight fell off from 
them, and we met once a week, and every first day, and 
so continued for a long space of time, yea and the day was 
known when we intended to be Baptized, and there were 
many Witnesses observing our Faith, and Order, and yet 
not one Man or Woman of Mr. Newmans company that 
ever came to deal with me for evill, neither in Judgment, 
nor Practice, untill a long time after that appointment of 
our Lord was dispensed ; Thus I say, when I had separ- 
ated from them, and a long time after, I understood by their 
Messenger that they intended to proceed against me, so I 
desired the messenger to tell me for what evill, he told 
me I should know when I come there, so I sent one of 
their own Brethren to tell them from me, though I owned 
them not as Brethren, yet if any Man or Woman had 
ought against me, I would come to them, although they 
had not delt with me according to any rule; but none 
came to me, nor charged me with any evill ; and when upon 
occasion I came before all the Congregation, and strangers, 
I demanded for what cause it was that they proceeded 
against me, seeing I had sent to .them before, and no man 
accused me ; Mr. Newman told me, it was for nonappear- 
ance ; and now judge of the evill in your own way, and 
that for my Excommunication as you call it, I am by you 
rendred that wicked person ; as for the suspition of that 
most abominable evill of uncleanness, and Adultery, which 
many think I am guilty of, by reason of some persons 
speeches, I desire to bless my Lord, who hath caused me 
to deny all uncleanness and wickedness, and God forbid 



Ill Newes from New-England. 55 

that I should take the Members of Christ, and make them 
the Members of an Harlot, and I challenge all Men and 
Women that dare stand before the judgment seat of the 
Lord, to come forth, and say if they ever heard unclean 
words proceed out of my mouth, or any unseemly gesture, 
much less action, to any in my life at Salem, Seacunk, or 
elswhere, yea let them come forth before any to meet me 
in private, or publick, upon any friends request without 
the Magistrates "Warrant ; but I remember my Lord was 
called Belzebub, and what though I be called an Adul- 
terer, or Witch, or Blasphemer, and every one saith what 
he pleaseth, yet I stand before the judgment of my Lord ; 
And whereas it was also reported I Baptized Goodwife 
Boivdish naked, I bless the Lord he hath taught me to do 
that which is comly, and of good report, yea and I know 
a Man, or Woman may be drowned in their Cloathes, or 
buryed in earth with their Cloathes, but that she had 
comly garments from the Crown of her head to the sole 
of her foot, many being present with her husband can tes- 
tifie and if any be pleased to reproach me behind my back, 
and not to speak to my face, let them know the Lord 
knows how to deliver the innocent, unto whom I commit 
myself, with my prayers for you, and am, 

Yours still as formerly to command in all 
Lawfull things 

Obediah Holmes. 

Whilst (he through the spirit of the Lord that rested 
upon him) bore these bloody strokes with so cheerfull a 
spirit as if he felt them not, divers of the standers by, be- 
holding it, were so affected with joy, that when he was 
loosed could not forbear to come to him, and to shake 
him by the hand, thereby to manifest their rejoycing with 
him, that the Lord had supported him ; but information 
hereof being given to the Magistrates, warrants were sent 
forth (as is reported to the number of 13) whereupon 
some through fear were fain to hide themselves, and being 
strangers, to hasten away, or change their habit, two of 
them were taken as aforesaid, that is to say John Spur, 
and old lohn Hazell, and committed to prison as the War- 
rant herewith declares. 



56 III New es from Neiv-England. 

To the Keeper or his Deputy. 

By virtue hereof you are to take into your custody, and 
safe keeping, the body of lohn Spur for a hainous offence 
by him committed, hereof not to fail. Dated the 5 th. of the 
7th. Month 1651. Take also into your safe keeping lohn 
Hazell. By the Court, 

Increase Nowel. 

lohn Spur profest to me, and before many Witnesses, 
that his heart was so taken with what he saw and heard, 
that he could not but go to him, take him by the hand, 
and blesse the Lord who had been so present with him, 
but to save me a labor his own words here followeth. 

Mr. Cotton (saith he) in his Sermon immediately before 
the Court gave their Sentence against M. Clark, Obediah 
Holmes, and lohn Crandall, affirmed, that denying Infants 
Baptism would overthrow all ; and this was a capitall 
offence ; and therefore they were foul-murtherers ; when 
therefore the Governor M. lohn Indicot came into the 
Court to pass Sentence against them, he said thus, you 
deserve to dy, but this we agreed upon, that Mr. Clarke 
shall pay 20 li. Fine, and Obediah Holmes 30 li. Fine, and 
Jo. Crandall 5 li. Fine, and to remain in prison untill their 
Fines be either payed or security given for them, or else 
they are all of them to be well whipped ; When Obediah 
Holmes was brought forth to receive his Sentence, he de- 
sired of the Magistrates, that he might hold forth the 
ground of his practice ; but they refused to let him speak, 
and commanded the whipper to do his Office ; then the 
whipper began to pull off his Cloathes, upon which Obe- 
diah Holmes said, Lord lay not this sin unto their charge ; 
and so the whipper began to lay on with his whip ; upon 
which Obediah Holmes said, O Lord I beseech thee to 
manifest thy power in the weaknesse of thy Creature ; he 
neither moving nor stirring at all for the strokes, brake 
out into these expressions, Blessed and praised be the 
Lord, and thus he carry ed it to the end, and went away 
rejoycingly ; I lohn Spur being present, it did take such 
an impression in my Spirit to trust in God, and to walk 
according to the light that God had communicated to me, 
and not to fear what man could do unto me ; that I went 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 57 

to the man (being inwardly affected with what I saw and 
heard) and with a joyfull countenance took him by the 
hand when he was from the Post, and said, praised be the 
Lord ; and so I went along with him to the prison ; and 
presently that day there was information given to the 
Court what I had said and done ; and also a warrant was 
presently granted out that day to arest both myself and 
Iohn Hazel, which was executed on the morrow morning 
upon us, and so we were brought to the Court and exam- 
ined ; the Governour asked me concerning Obediah Holmes, 
according as he was informed by old Mr. Cole and Thomas 
Buttolph, of my taking of him by the hand, and smiling, 
and I did then freely declare what I did, and what I 
said, which was this ; Obediah Holmes, said I, I do look 
upon as a Godly man ; and do affirm that he carryed him- 
self as did become a Christian, under so sad an affliction ; 
and his affliction did so affect my Soul, that I went to him 
being from the Post, and said, blessed be the Lord, but 
said the Governour what do you apprehend concerning 
the cause for which he suffered 1 my Answer was, that I 
am not able to judge of it, then said the Governour, we will 
deal with you as we have dealt with him, I said unto him 
again, I am in the hands of God, then Mr. Simons a Magis- 
trate said, you shall know you are in the hands of Men ; 
the Governour then said, keeper take him, and so I was 
presently carried away to prison. 

The next day about one of the Clock I was sent for 
again into the Court; the Governour (being then about 
to go out of the Court, when I came in) delivered this 
speech to me ; said he, you must pay 40 shillings or be 
whipped ; I said then to those of the Court that remained, 
that if any man suffer as a Christian let him glorifie God 
in this behalf, then I desired to know what Law I had 
broken, and what evill I had done, but they produced no 
Law, only they produced what the two witnesses had 
sworn against me ; my speech thereto was this, my prac- 
tice and cariage is alowed by the word of God, for it is 
written in Rom. 12. Be like affectioned one toivards another, 
rejoyce ivith them that rejoyce ; and it is contrary to my 
ludgment and Conscience to pay a peny ; then said Mr. 
Bendall, I will pay it for him, and there presented himself; 

4th s. — vol. ii. 8 



58 III Newesfrom Neiv-England. 

I answered then and said, I thanked him for his love, but 
did believe it was no acceptable service, for any man to 
pay a peny for me in this case ; yet notwithstanding the 
Court accepted of his profer, and bid me be gone, then 
came Iohn Hazell to be examined. 

Iohn Spur. 

Here followeth the testimony of those that came in 
against me. 

I Cole being in the Market place, when Obediah 

Holmes came from the Whipping Post, Iohn Spur came 
and met him presently, laughing in his face, saying, 
Blessed be God for thee Brother, and so did go with him, 
laughing upon him up towards the prison, which was 
very grievous to me to see him harden the man in his sin, 
and shewing much contempt of Authority by that cariage, 
as if he had been unjustly punished, and had suffered as 
a righteous man, under a tyranicall Government. De- 
posed before the Court the 5th. of the 7th. M. 1651. 

Increase Nowell. 

I Thomas Buttolph did see John Spur come to Obediah 
Holmes, so soon as he came from the Whipping Post, 
laughing in his face, and going along with him towards 
the Prison to my great grief to see him harden him in his 
sin, and to shew such a contempt of Authority. Deposed 
the 5th. of the 7th. Month 1651. Before the Court. 

Increase Nowell. 

As for Iohn Hazell, to my knowledge, although he had 
some occasion of business in these parts, yet the main 
business that drew him hither, was to visit the prisoner, 
whom he at this time took by the hand, who was indeed 
his neer Neighbour, lived in the same Town together, 
walked together in the same fellowship, and faith of the 
Gospell, and had their hearts knit together in a more than 
ordinary neer bond of love, and as a manifestation thereof, 
he undertoke so great a journey (it being between fourty 
and fifty miles) to visit him, he being indisposed by reason 
of his age for such an undertaking (being between three 
and fourscore years old) and when he was there under- 
standing it would not be long before he should suffer, out 



Ill New es from New-England. 59 

of the same tender love, could not leave him before it was 
over ; who also accompanied him from the Prison to the 
Post, and so back again ; now for him, only for taking his 
friend by the hand, when he had suffered his punishment, 
and was loosed from the Post, to be thus handled, shall 
not the Nations that know not civility, that neither fear 
God nor reverence man, be astonished at this % if this be 
to do to others as we would that others should do to us, 
which is the Law and the Prophets, the command of 
Christ and his Apostles, let all true Christians judge ; the 
Man being old did professe, as I was informed, That if 
they should have laid the strokes upon him, they would 
certainly have killed him, which I know ceized not a 
little upon him, and how far what was done had influence 
into his death, the Lord onely knowes ; for as is before 
said, the same day he went forth, he fell sick, and within 
ten dayes he died ; The Lord grant that no part of his 
death may be laid to their charge, and that they may see 
the exceeding greatnesse of the evill of thirsting after the 
blood of the Innocent, before the Lord come forth to 
avenge it, and as to that story I shall say no more, but 
leave the Reader to his own relation, which partly in 
Prison, and partly upon his death Bed, as may be per- 
ceived, he wrote and left behind him, with an intent it 
should be published. The relation followeth, writ and 
subscribed with his own hand. 

A 'Relation of my heing brought before the Magistrates 
the 6th of the 1th Moneth, 1651. 

I Going from place to place, to buy and take up com- 
modities for my use, was attached or arrested by the Mar- 
shall, by virtue of a Warrant from the Court, to appear 
in the Court, and there to answer for a high misdemeanor 
committed by me, and coming into the Court (which was 
then privately kept in the Chamber) they asked me divers 
questions, amongst which this was one ; Whether I did 
think that Obediah Holmes did well or not, in comming 
among them to baptize, and administer the Sacrament, 
laying this to my charge, that I was one with him, and 
of the same judgement, and whether I did think he did 
well, or no, in his so carrying himself; to which I an- 



60 III Neives from New-England. 

swered, I had here nothing to doe with that which an- 
other Man did, but I was here to answer for what I my- 
self had committed against their Law ; then said they, you 
have offended our Law, and have contemned Authority, 
for you took him by the hand, and did countenance him in 
his sin, so soon as he w T as gone from the Post, to which I 
said, If I have broken any Law of the place, by what I 
then did, I am willing to submit unto punishment ; yea 
said the Governour, you took him by the hand, did you 
not % and spake to him, what said you I did you not say 
so and so? Blessed be God, &c. To which I said, I 
shall refer myself unto the testimonies that may or can 
be brought against me ; well, said the Governour, wee 
shall find Testimony enough against you; take him to 
you Keeper, and we will call you forth in publick for that 
we doe with you we will proceed in publick with you, and 
so I went to Prison. This was the sum and substance of 
the first time I was called before them; the next day 
being the last day of the week, and the last day of their 
Court, I was in expectation all the forenoon to be called 
forth, but was not, so after dinner, when (as it appeareth) 
the Court was risen, and some of the Magistrates departed, 
I was sent for again into the Chamber, where was the 
Governor with three others, scil. Mr. Bellingham, Mr. Hib- 
bins, and Mr. Encrease Noivell, as soon as I was come into 
the room, the Governour read my Sentence, which was, 
that I must pay 40 sh. or be well whipt, and so imme- 
diately he departed, and when he was gone (for I could 
not have time before) I answered, that I desired the privi- 
lege of an English Subject, which w T as to be tryed by the 
Country, to wit, a Jury, and to be made to appear (if they 
can) to be a Transgressor by a Law : To which they said, 
I had contemned Authority, and they had a Law to punish 
such, and said they, you did shew your contempt of Au- 
thority, in that you did take such a person by the hand, as 
soon as he was from the Post. To which I answered, I 
could not doe that which I did in contempt to Authority, 
seeing he had satisfied the Law to the full, and was de- 
parted from the place of suffering ; and in the next place 
what I did, I did unto him as my Friend ; And further 
I said, if I had taken him by the hand so soon as he 



Ill Newes from New-England. 61 

was loosed from the Post, and had led him out of the 
Town, I should not have broken any Law either of God 
or Man. To this they said, That there was a Law in all 
Courts of Justice, both in Old England, and other Coun- 
treyes, to punish contempt of Authority, and so had they 
such a Law among themselves ; To which I said, That 
in Old England, and in other places they had such a Law 
I denyed not, but that Law also was both Enacted and 
published, but what Law have I broken in taking my 
Friend by the hand, when he was free, and had satisfied 
the Law 1 To this they replied, That he had not satisfied 
the Keeper ; To this I answered, That he had talked with 
his Keeper, and there was some Agreement between them, 
and so in that sence also not under the Law, but free ; 
Then said they, if you would have shewed kindnesse unto 
your Friend, you might have forborn in that place, and 
done it more privately; To which I answered, I knew 
not but that place was as free as another, he having satis- 
fied the Law. The Testimony that was given by Mr. Cole 
was this, set. I saw lohn Hazell take Obediah Holmes by 
the hand, hut what he said I cannot tell ; this is the Sub- 
stance of all the proceedings untill the last day at night, 
and then they said I should be whipped, but said some of 
their Officers, the Whipper cannot be found, then they 
commanded that they should be ready by the second day 
morning, and then I did expect to be called forth, but 
neither that day, nor the third, nor fourth, was I called, 
but am as I understand reserved unto the 5 th day, to be 
more publick in the view of the World, and when the 5 th 
day came, as I had many before, so also then, that would 
have paid the Fine, if I would give my consent, which I 
denyed to doe, and so set myself by the power of Christ 
to suffer what should be inflicted upon me, but when 
Noon came I was told I should not suffer whipping, yet 
not having a discharge, I did not look to be freed untill 
the Keeper told me, I might goe about my businesse; 
then I demanded a discharge (meaning under the Magis- 
trates hands) so he bad me goe, he would discharge me. 

The strokes I was enjoyned by the Court to have, were 
10 with a three-corded whip, the very same number I 
understand, that the worst Malefactors that were there 



62 III Newesfrom New-England. 

punished had, of which some were guilty of common 
Whoredom, other of forcing a little Child, and one Indian 
for coyning of money ; thus far have you a relation ac- 
cording to my best remembrance from the first to the last, 
of all the passages concerning this matter ; By me lohn 
Hazelly written with mine own hand in Boston Prison, 
the 13 day of the 7th moneth, 1651. 

A Postscript. Since I wrot, I understand there is a 
report that I was willing to pay my Fine, and that the 
Magistrates would not accept of it without I were willing. 
Gentle Reader, be pleased to understand that this is false, 
for it was without my consent or approbation ; and fur- 
ther understand, That the Fine was taken by them, upon 
the profer of Mr. Bendall for lohn Spur, it was willingly 
accepted by the Magistrates, and approved of, although 
lohn Sjntr did to their faces contradict it, and oppose it ; 
therefore good Reader beleeve not such reports. 

By me lohn Hazell. 

Now of what hath been spoken in this Narrative 
(Reader) this is the sum. 

1. Thou maist understand that the next morning after 
we three, being strangers, were come to our friends house 
at Lin where we lodged, (it being two miles out of the 
town) we were persued and also apprehended by the Con- 
stables under the name of erronious persons being strangers, 
and by that power were caried (after a full and clear mani- 
festation of our unfreeness) unto their Assembly, then to 
Prison, and after a while were also brought before their 
Iudgment seat ; in which two Assemblies, to which we 
were forced, they drew forth matter enough as they con- 
ceived to make us transgressors, and thereupon proceeded 
to sentence us without producing either Accuser, Witness, 
lury, Law of God, or man, whereby either we might ap- 
pear to be guilty, or they to be just and justified in their 
proceedings against us. 

2. After we were thus persued, and apprehended under 
the name of erronious persons and strangers, and by their 
Court condemned and sentenced as Herericks or scismat- 
icks, a motion being made by their Governour touching a 
discourse with their Ministers, was readily accepted by us, 



Ill Neivesfrom New-England. 63 

and often repeated, and as often promised by them, but 
yet could not be obtained, as is here at large to be seen. 

3. Although through the mercifull hand of our God 
upon us, we had wronged no man, corrupted no man, de- 
frauded no man, as he, together with our Consciences, 
then did, and still to this day, do bear us witnesse yet be- 
sides the exceeding great loss and detriment otherwise 
sustained, we had all no doubt met with as cruell Scourg- 
ings as his faithfull servants of old, had not the provident 
hand of our God so disposed the hearts of some of our 
friends to lay down our ransome, by which two did escape ; 
and this did evidently appear in the third who came under 
their zealous, yet merciless hands, and received from them 
50 stripes above the restraint of the lews, as writers report, 
yea and such entertainment no doubt should strangers or 
Angels from Heaven, yea Christ lesus himself have re- 
ceived at their hands, if they could effect it, in case they 
should have come among them, and not submitted, (as it 
is not possible they should) unto that golden, and glorious 
Image or likeness of the worship and way of God appoint- 
ed by Christ which they have set up. 

4. When this faithfull Martyr and Witness, that Christ 
is the Lord, had born this fourscore and ten stripes cruelly 
laid on, not only with a patient mind, but with an exceed- 
ing great joy of the holy spirit, as the spectators could 
not but discern, and was loosed from the Post, and was 
going to Prison again, some being inwardly moved with 
joy in beholding the gracious support which the Lord 
afforded him, (as they have affirmed) could not forbear to 
take him by the hand, for which thing sake two of them 
were apprehended and sentenced to pay each of them 40s 
or els be whipt. Let the Actors themselves, and all that 
peruse their practice for cautions sake consider, whether 
the spirit by which they are led thus to act, be not very 
like unto, if not the same which is seen, Revel. 13. Acting 
the second Beast that arose up out of the Earth which had 
two homes like a Lamb, yet spake like a Dragon, and exer- 
cised all the power of the first Beast that was before him, 
caused a lively Image to be made unto him, and forced the 
Earth and them that dwel therein, both small and great, rich 
and poor, free and bond, to worship his Image, and that no 



64 HI Neives from New-England. 

man might buy, or sell, save he, that had the marke, or the 
name, or the number of his name. Here is Wisdom ! and 
let such as desire from their hearts to live Godly in Christ 
lesus, and do as really expect to suffer with Christ in this 
present evill World, as they do to reign with him in that 
good World which is yet to come, let such I say consider, 
and bear still in mind these expressions, Revel. 13. 10. 
He that leadeth into Captivity shall go into Captivity, he 
that killeth ivith the Sword must be killed with the Sivord ; 
here is the patience and faith of the Saints. Rev. 12. 11. 
And they overcame him by the blond of the Lamb, and by the 
Word of their Testimony, and they loved not their lives unto 
the death. 

Rev. 6. 9, 10, 11. I saw under the Altar the Souls of them 
that were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony 
which they held ; And they cryed ivith a loud voice saying, 
how long holy and true ivilt thou not judge and avenge our 
blood on them that divel on the Earth, Sfc. 

Rev. 20. 4. And I saiv the Souls of them that were be- 
headed for the Witness of lesus, and for the Word of God, 
and which had not worshiped the Beast, neither his Image, 
neither had received the marke upon their foreheads, or in 
their hands, and they lived and reigned with Christ a thou- 
sand years. 

And now forasmuch as it was boldly affirmed by a So- 
licitor for New-England, and that in the Councell Cham- 
ber before that honourable Committee there assembled in 
Councell, that men in New-England might freely injoy 
their understandings, and Consciences, provided they walk 
civilly among them, and that they that suffered of late, 
did not suffer for their Consciences but for some misde- 
meanor, thereby endeavouring to possess those noble brests 
with that which is false ; therefore I think it necessary 
(both for the Vindication of truth, and to the end that 
such worthy persons may not be taken with, or deceived 
by such unworthy reports, so as to be drawn to counte- 
nance persons that walk in a way that they are ashamed 
in plain and open terms to profess, and acknowledge, for 
these ends I say I think it necessary to produce their 
Laws, at least such as speak to the matter in question, 
whereby these two things will plainly appear. 



Ill New es from New-England. 65 

1. That they that will not, or else in Conscience towards 
God cannot conform to their worship, or suspend the 
worship of God as their Souls are perswaded, are by the 
authority of their Laws to be forced to the one, and re- 
strained from the other, and that the Magistrate is thereby 
not only justified in, but also injoyned unto, such a pro- 
ceeding against them, although the men otherwise walk 
not only as civilly or soberly as themselves, but also right- 
eously, and Godly in this present evill World, and are 
such indeed as are a Law to themselves. 

2. Although they have Laws thus to proceed to force 
all to their worship, & to restrain those that differ from 
them, from that worship to which their Souls are per- 
swaded, yet in our case they were so far transported with 
zeal, that, what they did unto us, they did without Law, 
yea against those Cautions which their own Laws have 
provided. 



Certain Lawes established, in the Colony of the Mathatu- 
sets in New-England, and drawn forth (by constraint) 
to prove that the Authority there established cannot per- 
mit men, though of never so civill, sober, and peaceable 
a Spirit and Life, freely to enjoy their understandings 
and consciences, nor yet to live, or come among them, un- 
lesse they can doe as they doe, and say as they say, or 
else say nothing, and so may a man live at Rome also. 

It is ordered by this Court, and the Authority thereof, 
That no mans life shall be taken away ; no mans honour 
or good name shall be stayned ; no mans person shall be 
arrested, restrained, banished, dismembred nor any wayes 
punished ; no man shall be deprived of his wife or chil- 
dren, no mans goods or estates shall be taken away from 
him ; nor any wayes indamaged under colour of Law or 
countenance of Authoritie, unlesse it be by vertue, or 
equity of some expresse Law of the Country warranting 
the same, established by a General Court and sufficiently 
published ; or in case of the defect of a Law in any par- 
ticular case, by the word of God. And in capitall cases, 
or in cases concerning dismembring, or banishment, ac- 

4th s. — vol. ii. 9 



66 III New es from New-England. 

cording to that word to be judged by the General Court, 
see p. 1. 

For the suppressing of Anabaptists, 

It is ordered by this Court and Authority thereof, that 
if any person or persons within this Iurisdiction shall 
either openly condemn or oppose the baptizing of Infants, 
or goe about secretly to seduce others from the approba- 
tion or use thereof, or shall purposely depart the Congre- 
gation at the administration of that Ordinance; or shall 
deny the Ordinance of Magistracy, or their lawfull right 
or authority to make war, or punish the outward breaches 
of the first Table, and shall appear to the Court wilfully 
and obstinately to continue therein, after due means of 
conviction, every such person or persons shall be sen- 
tenced to Banishment. see pag. 3. 

Against Blasphemy, being a capitall transgression. 

It is ordered, that if any person within this Iurisdic- 
tion, whether Christian or Pagan, shall wittingly and 
willingly presume to blaspheme the holy Name of God, 
Father, Son, or Holy-Ghost with direct, expresse, pre- 
sumptuous, or high-handed blasphemy, either by wilfull 
or obstinate denying the true God, or his Creation, or 
Government of the World; or shall curse God in like 
manner, or reproach the holy Religion of God, as if it 
were but a politick device to keep ignorant men in awe ; 
or shall utter any other kind of Blasphemy, of the like 
nature and degree, they shall be put to death. Lev. 24. 
15, 16. See p. 5. 

To raise money for Publick charges in Church and 
Commonwealth. 

It is ordered by this Court, and the Authority thereof, 
that every Inhabitant shal henceforth contribute to all 
charges both in Church and Commonwealth whereof he 
doth or may receive benefit : and every such Inhabitant 
who shal not voluntarily contribute proportionably to his 
ability with the Freemen of the same Town to all comon 
charges, both Civil and Ecclesiastical, shall be compelled 
thereto by assessment and distress to be levyed by the 



El Newesfrom New-England. 67 

Constable or other Officer of the Town as in other cases : 
and that the lands and estates of all men (wherever they 
dwell) shall be rated for all Town charges both Civil and 
Ecclesiastial as aforesaid, where the lands and estates 
shall lye ; their persons where they dwell. See p. 9. 

Lawes Ecclesiasticall. 

1 All the people of God within this Jurisdiction, who 
are not in a Church way, and be orthodox in judgement, 
and not scandalous in life, shall have full liberty to gather 
themselves into a Church estate, provided they doe it in 
a Christian way, with due observation to the rules of 
Christ revealed in his word. Provided also that the Gen- 
eral Court doth not, nor will hereafter approve of any 
such companies of men as shall joyn in any pretended 
way of Church fellowship, unless they shall acquaint the 
Magistrates and the Elders of the neighbour Churches 
where they intend to joyn, and have their approbation 
therein. 

2 And it is further ordered, that no person being a 
member of any Church which shall be gathered without 
the approbation of the Magistrates and the said Churches, 
shall be admitted to the Freedom of this Common- wealth. 

3 Every Church hath also free liberty to exercise all 
the Ordinances of God according to the rules of the Scrip- 
ture. 

4 Every Church hath free liberty of election and ordi- 
nation of all her Officers from time to time. Provided 
they be able, pious and orthodox. Now the question is 
who shall judge of these words of restraint, Christian way, 
rules of the Scripture, word of God, able and orthodox. 

13 That if any Christian (so called) within this Juris- 
diction shall contemptously behave himself toward the 
Word preached, or the Messengers thereof called to dis- 
pense the same in any Congregation ; when he doth faith- 
fully execute his Service and Office therein, according to 
the will and word of God either by interrupting him in 
his preaching, or by charging him falsely with any errour 
which he hath not taught in the open face of the Church : 
or like a son of Korah cast upon his true doctrine or him- 
self any reproach to the dishonour of the Lord Iesus who 



68 III Neives from New-England. 

hath sent him, and to the disparagement of that his holy- 
Ordinance, and making Gods wayes contemptible and 
ridiculous : that every such person or persons (whatsoever 
censure the Church may passe) shall for the first scandal 
be convented and reproved openly by the Magistrate at 
some Lecture, and bound to their good behaviour. And 
if a second time they break forth into the like contemptu- 
ous carriages, they shall either pay five pounds to the 
publick Treasurie ; or stand two hours openly upon a block 
or stool, four foot high, on a lecture day, with a Paper 
fixed on his brest, written in Capitall letters [an open and 

OBSTINATE CONTEMNER OF GODS HOLY ORDINANCES] that 

others may fear and be ashamed of breaking out into the 
like wickedness. 

14 It is ordered and decreed by this Court and Au- 
thority thereof, That wheresoever the ministry of the 
word is established according to the order of the Gospell 
throughout this Jurisdiction, every person shall duely re- 
sort and attend thereunto respectively upon the Lords 
dayes, and upon such publick Fast-days, and dayes of 
Thanksgiving as are to be generally kept by the appoint- 
ment of Authority : and if any person within this Juris- 
diction shall without just and necessary cause withdraw 
himself from hearing the publick ministry of the word, 
after due means of conviction used, he shall forfeit for his 
absence from every such publick meeting 5 shillings. All 
such offences to be heard and determined by any one 
Magistrate or more from time to time. 

15 It is ordered by this Court, That the civil Author- 
ise here established hath power and liberty to see the 
peace, ordinances and rules of Christ to be observed in 
every Church according to his word. As also to deal 
with any church-member in a way of civil justice not- 
withstanding any church relation, office, or interest ; so it 
be done in a civil and not in an ecclesiastical way. Nor 
shall any church censure degrade or depose any man from 
any civil dignity, office or authority he shall have in the 
Common-wealth. 

It is ordered, that from henceforth all lands, cattle, and 
other estates of any kind whatsoever, shall be lyable to be 
rated to all common charges whatsoever, either for the 



Ill New es from New-England. 69 

Church, Town or Comon-wealth in the same place where 
the estate is from time to time, see pag. 18, 19, 20. 



/ Heresie. 

Although no humane power he Lord over the Faith and 
Consciences of Men, and therefore may not constrain them 
to beleeve or profess against their Consciences : yet because 
such as bring in damnable heresies, tending to the subversion 
of the Christian Faith, and destruction of the soules of men, 
ought duly to be restrained from such notorious impiety, It 
is therefore ordered and decreed by this Court ; 

That if any Christian within this Jurisdiction shall go 
about to subvert and destroy the Christian Faith and Re- 
ligion, by broaching or maintaining any damnable heresie ; 
as denying the immortality of the Soul, or the resurrec- 
tion of the body, or any sin to be repented of in the Re- 
generate, or any evil done by the outward man to be 
accounted sin : * or denying that Christ gave himself a 
Ransom for our sins, or shall affirm that we are not justi- 
fied by his Death and Righteousnesse, but by the perfec- 
tion of our own works ; or shall deny the morality of the 
fourth comandement, or shall incleavour to seduce others 
to any the heresies aforementioned, every such person 
continuing obstinate therein ; after due means of convic- 
tion, shall be sentenced to Banishment, see pag. 24. 

Disturbing of Churches. 

It is ordered and decreed by this Court, and the Author- 
ity thereof, That if any person whether in Church-fellow- 
ship or not, shall goe about to destroy or disturb the 
orders and peace of the Churches established in this Juris- 
diction, by open renouncing their Church, Estate, or their 
Ministry, or other ordinances dispenced in them, either 
upon pretence that the Churches were not planted by any 
new Apostles, or that ordinances are for carnali Christians, 
or babes in Christ, and not for spirituall, or illuminated 
persons, or upon any other such like grounded conceit, 
every such person, who shall be found culpable herein, 
after due means of conviction, shall forfeit to the publick 
Treasury forty shillings for every moneth, so long as he 
continues in that his obstinacy. 



70 III Newesfrom Neiv-England. 



Torture. 

That no man shall be beaten with above forty stripes 
for one Fact at one time. Nor shall any man be pun- 
ished with whipping, except he have not otherwise to 
answer the Law, unlesse his crime be very shamefull, & 
his course of life vitious & profligate, see p. 50. 



The Testimony of John Clarke, Obediah Holmes, and John 
Crandall, Prisoners at Boston, in New-England, con- 
cerning the faith and order of the Gospel of Christ Iesus 
the Lord, as the same ivas laid down in four Conclusions, 
and proffered to he openly and publickly defended against 
all gain-say ers ; when none ivould come forth thus to op- 
pose it: now again by the aforesaid John Clarke reviewed, 
particularly, and strictly examined by the Word of God, 
and Testimony of Iesus, and thereby, (as is here at large 
to be seen) confirmed and justified. 

The first Conclusion. 

[I Testifie that Iesus of Nazareth, whom God hath raised 
from the dead, is made both Lord and Christ] you may see 
this testimony clearly, and plentifully witnessed and con- 
firmed by the Scriptures of Truth ; for First, that God 
raised him from the dead, appears by the testimony of 12 
chosen Witnesses, Acts 2. 24. 32. This Jesus, say they, 
hath God raised up, whereof we are Witnesses ; so also 
chap. 3. 15. And being alive again he was seen of above 
500 Brethren at once being faithfull Witnesses, Children 
that will not lie, see 1 Cor. 15. 6. And last of all he was 
seen of Paul, whom he sent to the Gentiles, see 1 Cor. 
15. 8. Acts 22. 18. 21. And this is layd by Paul as the 
foundation of the hope of the Israel of God, that they 
shall be raised, and shall share in that glory that shall 
then be revealed ; yea it is that word of Truth (as Peter 
witnesseth) by which the Father of mercies doth again 
beget such as had sinned & fain short of the glory of 
God, & were without hope, unto a lively hope of the 
glory of God, in an inheritance, incorruptible and unde- 
filed, that fadeth not away, and is reserved in heaven for 



Ill New es from New -England. 71 

them, see 1 Pet. 1. 3. 4. And in the second place, that 
God hath made this Iesus whom he hath raised from the 
dead, both Lord and Christ, see it also confirmed Acts the 
2d, the 36. 10. 36. 2 Cor. 4. 5. Acts 18. 5. 

[This Iesus I say is the Christ, in English, the Anointed 
One, hath a name above every name] that he is not onely 
said to be a Christ and an Anointed one, which, although 
it be a name of eminency among men, yet may there be 
found many, both before the time of Reformation, and 
since, upon whom this worthy name of Christ, or Anointed 
one may be worthily called, as were those names of emi- 
nency among the Israel of old, as King, Priest, and Proph- 
et, and such as being washed in the blood of the Lamb 
are also Anointed, and made Kings and Priests unto God, 
and Prophets to men compare the 2 Cor. 1. 21. 1 Io. 
2. 27. with Rev. 5. 10. 19. 10. I say he is not onely a 
Christ, but that he might appear in this eminent name to 
have the preheminence, he is called the Christ, see Mark 
8. 29. Io. 11. 27. 6. 69. 20. 31. which in English is the 
Anointed one, as will appear, 1 Io. 41. We have found, 
saith Andrew to Simon, the Messias, being the Hebrew 
word, which being interpreted into the Greek Language, 
is o %/3tro? 5 or the Christ but rendered in English as in the 
margent, is the Anointed, and hence he is called in the 
9 Luk. 20. the Christ of God, or in more plain English, 
the Anointed of God, suitable to this are such expressions 
of the spirit of God, in the Scriptures of truth, as these ; 
Him hath God Anointed, and that with the oyl of glad- 
nesse above his fellowes, see Acts 4. ,27. 10. 38. 1 Heb. 9. 
And that he hath a name above every name doth evident- 
ly appear ; for it pleased the Father that in him should 
all fulnesse dwell, yea, all the fulnesse of the God-head 
bodily, that in all things, or as it is in the Margent, among 
all, he might have the preeminence, see Coll. 1. 18, 19. 
2. 9. so Phi. 2. 9. "Wherefore (saith the Apostle) God 
hath also highly exalted him, and given him a name above 
every name, he hath a name above the Anointed, Kings, 
Priests, and Prophets of old, they being but types and 
shadowes of him, and yet were the highest names in Israel, 
which was a Family that had a name above all the Fam- 
ilies of the Earth ; and so a name above all the names on 



72 ? III Newesfrom New-England. 

the Earth : and yet this is not all, for he hath a name 
above all Principality, and power, and might, and domin- 
ion, and every name that is named, not in this world only, 
but also in that which is to come, Ephe. 1. 20, 21, 22. 
Phi. 2. 10, 11. 

[He is the Anointed Priest; none to, or with him, in point 
of atonement] That he is the Anointed Priest, compare 
Heb. 3. 1. with 1. 9. and there shall we see the Spirit of 
God, calling him an High-Priest, who was of God anoint- 
ed with the oyl of gladnesse above his fellowes, which 
cannot but be understood of his fellow-Priests, either such 
as were ordained of old, before the time of Reformation, 
and so were types, or shadowes of him, or else of such as 
were since by him made Priests unto God, and so received 
of the fulness of that his oyntment : Now that there is 
none to him in point of attonement, will easily be made 
manifest, if these three things be considered : 1 The na- 
ture of the attonement it self. 2 The weaknesse or in- 
sufficiency of all other Priests, whether ordained, or made 
to perform such a work. And lastly, the sufficiency of 
this High Priest to make a perfect attonement for all 
those that come to God through him. 

Touching the nature of the attonement, it is not amisse 
to consider, that what was by this word attonement ex- 
prest under the first Testament, while that Priesthood 
stood, hath been since under the administration of the last 
Testament, that is established upon better promises than 
that, been exprest more frequently by the word Reconcili- 
ation, and therefore the word that in the 5 Pom. 11. is 
rendered attonement, is in 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19. and in all other 
places translated by the word Reconciliation ; Now Rec- 
onciliation does pre-suppose an estrangenesse, or enmity 
rather, between two parties, and if the parties were men, 
peradventure there might be found a man to mediate ; 
but the enmity lies not so much between man and man, 
or between men and Angels, good or bad, but between 
God and man, the Creator and the creature, and who is 
he in Heaven, or in Earth, that dare interpose, or step in 
to make a reconciliation between these two % yea, who can 
effect it % especially if we consider that the enmity on the 
creatures part is rooted in his mind, and cannot be erad- 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 73 

icated (I had almost sayd, and yet I think I shall not need 
to retract it) by the powerfull hand of God himselfe stretcht 
forth in his wrath, his mind still remaining, as indeed doth 
notably appear out of the mouth of the Lord himself, by 
the hand of his Prophet Isay. 57. 16, 17. For the iniqui- 
ty of his covetousnesse, was I wroth, and smote him; 
I hid me, and was wrath, and he went on frowardly in the 
way of his heart. So see it confirmed also in Rev. 16. 9. 
11. 21. When the wroth of God breaks forth with an 
exceeding great Plague, then shall you find men blas- 
pheming the name of God, who hath power over those 
Plagues, because of their paines and their sores, and re- 
pented not of their evill deeds, to give him glory; and if 
the wrath of God does it not, how unlike is the wrath of 
man to effect it'? But further to shew the greatnesse of 
the work of Reconciliation as it lies on mans part ; for as 
he hath not an alienation only, but an enmity in his mind, 
so is he apt upon all occasions to the utmost of his power 
to manifest the same, by wicked provoking workes against 
the God of Heaven, so that ]et but God himself be mani- 
fested in the flesh, or any bright beam of his glory break 
forth, and shine through mortall flesh, presently shall the 
Iewes, and Gentiles, though otherwise full of enmity one 
against an other, concurre; yea, Herod and Pilate shall 
now be made friends, and shall agree to Crucifie the Lord 
of Life and Glory; to pour forth the pretious Blood of God, 
and to tread under foot the Sonne of God, and to count 
the blood of that Covenant as an unholy thing : So that 
from hence we may conclude, That as he that hateth his 
Brother in his heart may be said to murther a man, so he 
that hateth God in his heart, may be said in a sense to 
murder God. Now as on mans part there appears such 
enmity in his mind, such an aptnesse to vent it, and such 
backwardnesse (as I might shew) in him to accept of any, 
but especially the Gospell termes of Reconciliation, where- 
by the work appears to be great; So if we consider it on 
Gods part, that the wrath of God is revealed from Heaven, 
against all ungodlinesse, and against all unrighteousnesse 
of the Sonnes of Men, and that his word is gone forth and 
cannot be recalled; In the day that thou eatest thereof, 
thou shalt surely dye; and the Soul that sinneth, it shall 
4th s. — vol. it. 10 



74 III Newesfrom New-England. 

dye; and cursed is every one that continueth not in all 
things that are written in the Law to doe them, so that his 
Wrath, Iustice, and Truth are all engaged in this main 
controversie that he hath with his creature, and by reason 
thereof, he will not be pleased with thousands of Earns, 
nor yet with ten thousand Rivers of Oyl, &c. And there- 
fore if the question be asked who is worthy, or who is able 
to stand between God and Man, to make the attonement, 
to slay the enmity, and so to make peace ] The answer 
will be the same, That no man (that is meerly so, no nor 
Angel) in Heaven, nor in Earth nor under the Earth, is 
either worthy, or able to undertake this great work, no 
nor in that sense to look thereon ; And therefore in the 
second place all other Priests will be found insufficient; 
for as for the Priests of old, and all that belonged to them, 
as Vestures, Vessels, Altars, Temple; and all that was of- 
ficiated by them, as their Sacrifices, Attonements, Obla- 
tions, blessings, they were too weak to accomplish this 
work, for they were not able to make him perfect that did 
the service, as appertaining to the Conscience, but brought 
their sins to remembrance, instead of blotting them out, 
so as to remember them no more, and were indeed but meer 
shadowes of good things to come, which they that beleeved 
had in their eye, and saw afarre off, see Ileb. 7. 18, 19. 
9. 9. 10. 1, 2, 3, 4, 11. and as for others that are made 
Priests unto God, they doe but receive of his fulnesse, 
and will readily acknowledge with Paul, that through the 
Law they are dead to the Law, so as by their own works 
or righteousnesse (which now appears to be but glistering 
wickednesse, and no other than fruits of that enmity that 
was in their minds, by them I say) not to expect to make 
their own peace with God ; and although it is true they 
have liberty to enter into the holiest, yet it is by the blood 
of Iesus, and by a new and living way which he hath con- 
secrated for them; and although they may draw neer unto 
the holy God with a true heart, and full assurance of Faith, 
yet they must have their hearts sprinkled with his blood 
from an evill conscience, and their bodies washed with pure 
water; and although being in the holy presence of God, they 
may, as the Priests of old, offer up prayers with strong cryes 
for themselves, and others, yet must they be offered upon 



Ill Newes from New-England. 75 

the golden Altar that is before the Throne, and must be 
mingled, and perfumed with much sweet incense out of the 
golden censer that is in the Angell of the Covenants hand, 
and the smoke of the incense must ascend with their 
prayers before God out of the Angels hand: Rev. 8. 3, 4 
so that in this point they are nothing, yea lesse, and worse 
than nothing; but Christ is the very power of God in 
this point, the substance of all shadowes, and what he 
did in reference to the work of attonement, and reconcili- 
ation, he doth it substantially and effectually, both on 
Gods part and mans; for he hath both natures in himself, 
and by reason thereof is an apt Mediator fit to interpose 
between both to make reconciliation; for he is declared to 
be the Son of God, wholly without sin, consecrated with an 
oath of God to be a Priest for that purpose for ever, Heb. 
7. 21. comp. with 27. 28. who by the eternall spirit of God 
offered up himself without fault to God his Father, the 
just for the unjust, so that by one offering, he hath con- 
secrated for ever them that are sanctified, so that there is 
no more need of offering for sin, see Heb. 9. 4. comp. with 
10. 14. 18. and is now entred, not into the Holy places 
made with hands, but into Heaven, to appear in the sight 
of God for those that beleeve through him, and not with 
the blood of others, but with his own blood, whereby their 
consciences are purged from dead works to serve the true 
and the living God, see Heb. 9. 26. 14. yea, and there 
remaineth, and is set down at the right hand of the 
throne of the Majesty in the highest, 1 being the mediator 
of that better covenant, even that which is established 
upon the best, and absolute free promises, which are to 
pardon their enmity, and iniquity, and to remember their 
sin no more, to write his Lawes in their hearts, and to be 
to them a God, and to undertake that they shall be to him 
a people; so that as God was in Christ reconciling the 
world to himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; 2 
so in the ministry of reconciliation Christ is by his Spirit 
in man shedding abroad the love of God in his heart, and 
thereby slaying his enmity, by which means he is recon- 
ciled to God; so that whom he blesseth, being the High 

1 Heb. 1. 3. 8. 1. 2 Heb. 8. 6. 10, 11, 12. 



76 HI Neives from New-England. 

Priest and Captain of our salvation, shall be blessed indeed; 
see Acts 3. 26. By all which it doth appear to be a truth, 
that there is none to him in point of attonement to make 
reconciliation between God and Man. And now that there 
is none with him in that great work, neither person, nor 
service, is also as evident. God the Father hath designed 
him alone in that businesse, that no Flesh might glory in 
his presence, see Acts 4. 11. 12. i Tim. 2. 5. Colloss. 1. 20. 
i Cor. 1. 29. And Paul tels the Galatians who were 
about to joyn circumcision, and so works with Christ in 
this point of acceptance with God, that then Christ should 
not profit them, and that they were fain from grace, see 
Gal. 5. 23. 

[He is the Anointed Prophet, none to him in point of In- 
struction.'] That he is the Anointed Prophet, or a Prophet 
Anointed with the Spirit of Prophecie above his fellow 
Prophets, and a Teacher immediately sent from God from 
Heaven, see lo. 9. 17. Luke 24. 19. Ileb. 1. 9. Ioh. 3. 2. 
13. 6. 38. 16. 28. 

And that there is no Prophet to him, will evidently 
appear; for all the other Prophets of God were such as 
did bear witness to him, 1 or were types of him, yea Moses 
and Plias, those two great Prophets, lay themselves low 
that he may be exalted; wherefore Deut. 18. 15. I (saith 
the Lord by the hand of Moses) will raise them up a 
Prophet from among their Brethren like unto thee, 2 and 
will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto 
them all that I shall command him, and it shall come to 
pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words 
which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. 
And Ioh. 3. 30, 31. He must increase (saith lohn the 
Baptist, who came in the spirit of JElias, 3 and was, saith 
Christ, more than a Prophet, so that among those that 
were borne of Women before him there was not a greater 4 ) 
and I must decrease; he that cometh from above (saith he) 
is above all, he that is of the Earth is Earthly, and speak- 
eth of the Earth, he that cometh from Heaven is above 
all, and what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth, 
and no man receiveth his Testimony; he that hath received 

1 Acts 10. 43. Jo. 1. 45. 2 Acts 3. 21. 7. 37. 

3 Matth. 17. 12, 13. < Matth. 11. 11, 12, 13, 14. 



Ill New es from New-England. 77 

his Testimony hath set to his seal that God is true, for he 
whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God, for God 
giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him; and as these 
great Prophets thus witness to Christ, so the voice that is 
heard from Heaven by lames, Cephas, and lohn, do con- 
firm their testimony, that there is no Prophet to him, for 
when upon the Mount, Moses and Elias appeared talking 
with Christ, and Peter would have three Tents or Taber- 
nacles, one for Christ, one for Moses, and another for Elias, 
that so no doubt at some times, and in some cases, he 
might be hearkning to them, immediatly upon the mo- 
tion, and as an evident manifestation of a dislike thereof, 
they both vanished, and a cloud overshadow'd them all, 
and Christ being the Prophet only remaining, there comes 
a voice out of the cloud which said, This is my wel-be- 
loved Son, in whom I am well pleased, hear ye him ; Mat 
17. 5, 6, 7. And now that there is none to him in point 
of instruction, will also appear with respect both to the 
matter and efficacy. 1 For the matter of instruction, he 
that cometh from above being also in the bosome of the 
Father, must needs be above all in his matter of instruc- 
tion, for what he hath heard and seen in the Fathers bo- 
some, that he Testifies, and speaketh the very words of God, 
yea declareth and maketh known God himself, being the 
bright breaking-forth of the Fathers glory, which was that 
which Moses, that great Prophet did so much desire to be- 
hold, and could not obtain it; and hence it is, that it is 
said his hearers were astonished at his Doctrine, concluded 
no man ever spake like this man, and the best of them 
knew not whether to go to better themselves, forasmuch 
as he had the words of e tern all life, yea and that holy 
Spirit of promise which the Saints were and still are to 
receive, was but to glorifie him, to take of him and his 
words, and to shew unto them the treasures of light and 
life, and refreshment that is contained therein; see for 
the proof of all this, i lo. 17. 18. lo. 3. 31, 32, 34. Heb. 
1. 3. Em. 33. 18, 27. Mat 7. 28. lo. 7. 46. lo. 6. 68. 
lo. 14. 26. & 16. 12, 13, 14. And as for excellency of 
matter, so for efficacy and powerfull instructing, there is 
none to him in point of instruction, for he it is in whose 
hand is the Key of David, and he openeth the heart to 



78 III Neivesfrom Neiv-Lngland. 

Understand the scriptures; and to shew a lively experiment 
of his powerfull instructing, when he was here upon Earth, 
he past by the wise and learned Rabbies, and called the 
illiterate and foolish Fishermen, and to this day doth 
choose not many wise, nor many learned, but the poor 
foolish and despised ones, that as a teacher he may shew 
his abilities, thereby giving understanding to the simple, 
speaking words of light, and life, and spirit to them, and 
by them to confound the wise, and learned, and mighty; 
yea he indeed is the light of the Gentiles which sate (and 
still in a great measure sit) in darkness, and is that true 
light that enlightneth every one that cometh into the 
World, see 24 Luke 45. i Corinthians 1. 26, 27. Iohn 6. 
63. Acts 13. 47. Iohn 1. 9. And as he was the Prophet, 
opening his Fathers Bosome, and shewing the things that 
were past and present, so the things also that were to come; 
he tells them how many things he must suffer of the Elders, 
and Chief Priests, and Scribes, and be killed, and raised 
again the third day, and therein foresheweth his Office of 
Priesthood; he also foretells how after he is risen as a 
Lord, he will set his House in order, and so depart to his 
Father to receive his Kingdom, and to return, and what 
shall befall his Servants in the time of his absence, by the 
reign and rage of the Beast, and Spirit of Antichrist, and 
what will be each ones portion at his return, as appears 
in the book of the Herniation, which is surrounded with 
blessings to him that readeth, Chapter 1. 3. and curses to 
him that addeth to it, or taketh from it, Chapt. last 18. 19. 
"Wherefore seeing there is no Prophet or Teacher to Christ 
and his Spirit in point of instruction, both for excellency 
of matter, and efficacy in teaching, it well suites with 
Christians to be still cleaving close to this Prophet, and 
concluding with the Disciples that first trusted in him, 
Whither shall we go, thou hast the Words of Eternall life. 
But to proceed, he is [The Anointed King, who is gone 
unto his Father for his glorious Kingdom, and shall ere long 
return again7\ That Jesus of Nazareth is the Anointed 
King could not be hid in the day of his humiliation, as 
appears Luke 23. 2, 3. & Chapter 19. 38. The Majesty 
of a King did so appear in that lowly and meek form, 
while he rode upon an Asse, that if the multitude of the 



Ill Newes from New-England. 79 

Disciples had not confest him, but had held their peace, 
the stones would cry out; yea and then his word had a 
powerfull efficacy like the word of a King among Men and 
Devils, the winds and Seas, so that he speaks but the word 
and the blind see, the lame walk, the deaf hear, the dumb 
speak, the dead are raised, the Devills are cast out, the 
poor receive the Gospell ; when he is at the weakest, then 
is Pilate forc'd to confess that he is King of the lews, and 
to propagate this confession as far as Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew will carry it; this appears more evident, since he 
was raised and sits as Lord at the right hand of the Fa- 
ther, at least in the hearts and lives of his Servants, by 
po wring forth that Spirit or oyntment received, Acts 2. 33, 
34, 35, 36. So that the Kings of Israel were but his types, 
and the Kings of the Nations are but his Sword-bearers, 
for he is King of Kings; but most lively shall this truth 
be made manifest, when all enemies shall become his foot- 
stool, and he shall appear indeed in the form of a King 
with thousands of his Saints, and ten thousand times ten 
thousand of the heavenly Hosts, and shall in the powerfull 
word of a King command the Earth and the Sea to give 
up their Dead, and both wicked men and Devills to go 
together into torment, and they shall be tormented, and 
the Saints to enter into the joy of their Lord, and it shall 
be unspeakably glorious, 25 Mat. 31. 32. Luke, 9. 26. 
John 5. 28, 29. And that he is gone unto his Father to 
receive his Kingdom, and shall ere long return again, will 
be made manifest by these scriptures, lo. 20. 17. Lu. 19. 
12, 13. Heh. 9. last. 2 Tim. 4. 1. Rev. last, so that as cer- 
tainly as he hath had a time for his Propheticall Office and 
for his Priestly, so shall he have a time for his Kingly; 
and as the dream of Nebuchadnezzer hath been found cer- 
tain, and the interpretation of Daniel sure, concerning 
those four Monarchies or Kingdoms of men which should 
come to pass in the Earth, so certain and sure it is, that 
the day is approaching that the God of Heaven will set 
up his Kingdom by that despised yet Corner-stone that 
was cut out without hands, Dan. 2. 44, 45. 

[That this lesus Christ is also the Lord, none to or with 
him, $•&] That he is the Lord, appears 2 Cor. 4. 5. We 
preach Christ lesus the Lord, saith Paul, and Acts 10. 36. 



8 III New es from New-England. 

saith Peter, he is Lord of all, and hence it is that he is 
called Lord of Lords. Rev. 

And that there is none to him by way of commanding 
and ordering with respect to the worship of God, the 
household of Faith, will evidently appear if the nature of 
the household of Faith, the worship of God, and the com- 
manding and ordering power that suits therewith, be con- 
sidered with respect unto him. For the nature of the 
household of Faith, they are a company of faithfull ones, 1 
that are bought with the price of his blood, 2 knit together 
in one by his Spirit, 3 founded wholly upon himself, built 
up by him to be a holy habitation of God, 4 and therefore 
not in the least measure to be denied with the inventions 
and commandements of men, 5 from whence it is that they 
are still with their ey flxt upon him whom they look upon 
to be as well the finisher as the author of their faith, 6 still 
in their hearts calling on him that hath bought them, and 
saying, Lord what wilt thou have me to doe, 7 and still 
standing upon their watch to harken what this Lord will 
speak, 8 for the voice of a stranger they will not hear; 9 so 
that by this it evidently appears, that there is none that 
hath so much right unto this household of Faith by way 
of ordering it, nor yet freedom in it by way of command- 
ing, as hath Christ Iesus the Lord; And from the na- 
ture of the worship which is spirituall, to be performed by 
a spirituall worshipper, 10 and after or in that true manner 
that the Father of spirits hath appointed, it will as evidently 
appear, that there is none to him by way of commanding 
and ordering in this matter, who is the only begotten of 
the Father, came out of, and yet is, in his bosom e, and 
hath declared him, the true way of his worship, and who 
are such worshippers as he seekes for; who as a Lord 
faithfull over his house before his departure gave order 
thereto, commanded his Servants to watch, and to hold 
fast till he come, and in his absence being at the right 
hand of his Father, is mindefull to shed abroad of that 
holy Spirit of Promise, whereby the true worshippers shall 
be led from truth to truth, untill they be brought into all 

1 Eph. 1. 1. Col. 1.2. 2 1 Cor. 6. 20. 7. 23. 3 1 Cor. 12. 13. 

4 Col. 2. 19. 2Eph. 20. 21,22. 5 1 Cor. 3. 16, 17. 6 Heb.l2. 2. 

7 Acts 9. 6. 8 Ps. 85. 8. 9 Io. 10. 5. » 4 j . 23, 24 . 



Ill New es from New-England. 81 

truth. And if the nature of the commanding and order- 
ing power, that suits both with the worship, and with the 
worshippers, which the Father of Spirits seeks for be also 
considered, which is not a law of a carnall commandment 
seconded with carnall weapons, or an arm of flesh : but a 
spirituall law, or as the Apostle cals it, Rom. 8. a law of 
the Spirit of life from Christ Jesus, spoken unto, or rather 
written in the heart of a Christian by the Spirit of Christ, 
by reason whereof he obeyes from the heart, readily, will- 
ingly and cheerfully that form of doctrine which is engrav- 
en and laid up therein, Heb. 8. 10. 2 Cor. 3. 3. Rom. 6. 17. 
If this I say be considered, that the worship is spirituall, 
such as must begin in, spring up, and rise from the heart 
and the spirit, and so be directed to the Father of spirits, 
and so the commanding power that suits herewith, must 
speak to the heart and spirit of a man, then is there no 
Lord in this matter to Christ Jesus the Lord, who speaks 
to the heart in the Spirit, and his words are as commands 
from the head to the members, which conveigh together 
spirit and life to obey them, by reason of which his com- 
mands are not grievous, for where the Spirit of this Lord 
is, there is liberty, and they by beholding the glory of the 
Lord, are transformed into the same Image, from glory 
unto glory, by the Spirit of the Lord, 2 Cor. 3. 17, 18. 

And that there is none with him, he is the onely Lord, 
and law-giver of this spirituall building, and so of the 
spirits in this sense, appears by such scriptures as say, One 
is your Lord and law-giver, James 4. 12. Ephes. 4. 5. Mat. 23. 
8. 10. and by such as say, ye are bought with a price, be ye 
not therefore the servants of men, and the Apostles that had 
greater authority in this point than any men living, yet 
they acknowledge they had not Dominion over mens faith, 
and therefore declare this to be the express mind of God, 
that the servants of this Lord must not strive (as if they 
were Lords) but be patient, in meekness instructing those 
that oppose themselves, or as the word imports, that set 
themselves by covenant in opposition to that living Lord. 
And whereas it is declared in the testimony, that this 
houshold of faith was purchased by his blood as Priest, 
instructed and nourished by his Spirit as Prophet, &c. this 
will all evidently appear to be true, Acts 20.28. John 16. 

4th s. — VOL. II. 11 



82 III Newesfrom New-England. 

from the 7. to the 16. 1 Cor. 2. 9, 10, 11, 12. Rom. 8. 
John 1. 2. 26, 27. Rev. 2. 11. 17. 29. 2 !»«*, 14, 15. 
1 Cor. 11.2. and 1. 7. And so is the first part of the testi- 
mony by the word of God confirmed and justified. 

2. [Itestifie that Baptism or dipping in water is one of the 
commands of this Lord Jesus Christ.'] That this command- 
ment of Jesus is by way of dipping, and as it were by 
drowning, overwhelming, or burying in water, and not by 
sprinkling with water, appears many waies. 

1. In that although there be frequent mention made of 
that appointment of Christ in his Last Will and Testa- 
ment, yet is it never expressed by the word that may be 
rendred rantism, or sprinkling, but by the word that is 
rendred baptism, or dipping. 

2. In that the word by which it is so frequently exprest, 
doth in proper English signify to dip, to plung under 
water, and as it were to drown, but yet so as with safety, 
so that the party (as to the manner) may be drowned again, 
and again ; see the instance of Naaman, he dipp'd himself 
seven times in Jordan, 2 Icings 5. 14. and to this sense of 
the word (at least in that place) both the Greek, Latine, 
and English Churches agree. 

3. In that the phrase (in which there is mention made 
of such an appointment of Christ) doth necessarily import 
such a thing, and therefore when mention is made of bap- 
tizing, there generally followeth that word the preposition 
(lv) which is commonly translated in, or into, which suits 
with dipping, and not the preposition (aw) which signi- 
fies with, and so suits with sprinkling. And therefore it 
may be as well rendred, I baptize you in water, and he 
shall baptize you in the holy Spirit, Mar. 1. 8. as it is ren- 
dred John did baptize in the wilderness, and in the River 
Jordan, verse 4, 5. or that lohn was in the Spirit on the 
Lords day, Rev. 1.10. and they were baptized in the cloud 
and in the Sea, 1 Cor. 10. 2. yea it may as well be rendred, 
I baptize, or dip you into water, as it is rendred they were 
casting a net into the Sea Mar. 1. 16. for the words are the 
same, and it would be an improper speech to say John did 
baptize with the wilderness, and they were casting a net 
with the sea. 

4. That this appointment of Christ is by way of dip- 



Ill New es from New-England. 83 

ping, and not sprinkling, appears, in that for the resem- 
blance, and likeness hereunto, the Israelites passing under 
the cloud, and through the sea, where the ^Egyptians that 
were their Lords, and commanders, their pursuers, and 
enemies, that sought their destruction, were drowned, left 
behind, and seen no more, is by the holy Spirit called a 
baptism, 1 Cor. 10. 1,2. they were baptized in the cloud, 
&c. Where observe it is not here rendred with the cloud, 
and with the Sea, as in the other place, Mark 1. 8. with 
water, because it suits with sprinkling, although the word 
be the same ; but in the cloud, and in the Sea, which suits 
with dipping, or overwhelming, and so with the appoint- 
ment of Christ, they passing through the midst of the 
red or bloudy Sea on dry land, which stood on both sides 
as a wall, and being under the Cloud, were as men in a car- 
nall eie overwhelmed and drowned, and yet truly saved, 
and safe from their enemies. 

5. That this appointment of Christ was not by sprink- 
ling, but by dipping, or putting the person into or under 
the water, appears by Philips baptizing the Eunuch ; It is 
said, They went both down into the water, both Philip the 
baptizer, and the Eunuch that was the person to be bap- 
tized, and being there in the water, Philip baptized, or 
dipped him in that water, as John did Jesus in the river of 
Jordan, and then it is said as they descended, or went do>wn 
into the water, so they ascended, or went straitway up out 
of the water, see Acts 8. 38, 39. Mat. 3. 16. mark the ex- 
pression, And Jesus when he was baptized tvent up straitway 
out of the ivater, therefore had he been down in the water. 

6. That this appointment of Christ was not by sprink- 
ling, but by dipping, or as it were a drowning, appears, in 
that lohn the Baptizer, his work being to baptize, remains 
in the wilderness by the river of Jordan, and afterward in 
JEnon, and the reason that is rendred by the Spirit of God 
why there he abode, was, because there was much water there, 
which need not have been, if that appointment could have 
been performed by sprinkling, and not by dipping. See 
Luke 3. 2, 3. John 3. 23. 

7. That this appointment of Christ was not to be per- 
formed by sprinkling, but by dipping, &c. appears from 
the nature of the Ordinance it self, for it is such an ordi- 



84 III Newesfrom New-England. 

nance as whereby the person that submitteth thereto, doth 
visibly put on Christ Xesus the Lord, and is hereby visibly 
planted into his death, holding forth therein a lively simil- 
itude, and likeness unto his death ; whereby onely through 
faith he now professeth he hath escaped death, and is in 
hope to obtain life, and peace everlasting, and so to have 
fellowship with him in his death, as to be dead with him, 
and thereupon to reckon himself to be dead indeed unto 
sin, Sathan, the law, and the curse. See Gal. 3. 27. Rom. 
8. 2. 3. 5. 7, 8. 11. 1 Cor. 15. 29. But the planting of a per- 
son into the likeness of death, is no waies t resembled by 
sprinkling ; but by dipping it is lively set forth and de- 
monstrated, therefore. 

8. This appointment of Christ, sci. Baptism, is an ordi- 
nance whereby the person that submitteth thereto, doth 
hereby visibly and cleerly resemble the buriall of Christ, 
and his being buried with him, so as in respect of the old 
man, the former lusts and conversation, like the Egyptians, 
to be taken out of the way, and seen no more. See Romans 
6. 4.6. Col. 2. 12. But sprinkling doth no way lively re- 
semble the buriall of Christ, or the persons being buried 
with him, as dipping doth; therefore. 

9. This appointment of Christ, sci. Baptism, is an ordi- 
nance whereby the person that submitteth thereto, doth 
visibly, and lively hold forth herein the resurrection of 
Christ, declares him, whose life was taken from the earth, 
to be alive again, who although he died and was buried, 
yet was he not left in the grave to see corruption, but was 
raised again, and behold he liveth for evermore ; and as 
hereby he holds forth the resurrection of Christ, so doth 
he also his own, being planted into the likeness thereof, 
so as to reckon himself to be in his soul and spirit quick- 
ned, and risen with Christ, from henceforth to live unto 
God the fountain of life, and to Christ lesus the Lord who 
died for him, and rose again, and so to walk in newness of 
life in this present evill world, being also begotten unto a 
lively hope, that in the world to come he shall be raised, 
and quickned both in soul, and body, to a life everlast- 
ing. See Rom. 6. 4. 5. 8. 11. Acts 8. 33, 35, 36. Col. 2. 12. 
Rom. 8. 11. 1 Cor. 15. 29. 1 Pet. 1. 3. but sprinkling doth 
no way lively resemble the resurrection of Christ, or the 



Ill Newes from New-England. 85 

souls or bodies rising, or being raised by him, as the way 
of dipping doth. Therefore this appointment of Christ was, 
and still is, to be performed by way of dipping or putting 
the person into or under the water, and not by sprinkling. 

And that this dipping in, or into water, in the name 
of lesus, is one of the commandments of this Lord lesus 
Christ, doth evidently appear Mat. 28. 19. Mark 16. 
15, 16 compared with Acts 2. 38. 41. 8. 36. 38. and 10. 
47, 48. And that it is also to be observed by all that 
trust in Christ, as other of his commands, as he is the 
Lord, untill he come again, is likewise expressly man- 
ifested to be his will, Mat. 28. 20. Gal 1. 7, 8. Jude 3. 
2 Tim. 2.2. Col. 2.5, 6. Rev. 2. 25. 3. 11. Hold fast till I 
come. Rev. 22. 14. 19. Heb. 12. 25. But to proceed. 

[That a visible believer or disciple of Christ Jesus (that is? 
one that manifesteth repentance towards God, and faith in 
Jesus Christ) is the onely person that is to be baptized tvith 
that visible baptism or dipping of Jesus Christ in %vater^ 
That a visible disciple or Scholar of Christ, one that man- 
ifesteth himself to have heard him, to have been taught by 
him, and to have yielded up himself to him as his teacher, 
is the only person, &c. will be made manifest, 

1. By the commission itself, and the argument stands 
thus, they and they onely have right to this ordinance, and 
appointment of Jesus Christ, whom the ordainer himself, 
sci. Christ Jesus the Lord, hath in his Last Will and 
Testament appointed it to ; but Christ Jesus the Lord hath 
appointed it to Disciples, and to Believers, and to such 
onely. Therefore. 

The first proposition cannot be denyed, and the second 
will easily be proved: see the commission by which the 
Apostles were warranted to administer this ordinance, and 
so must all that baptise or they will appear but usurpers 
Mat. 28. 18, 19. All power is given unto me in heaven 
and in Earth, saith the Lord, go ye therefore and discipul- 
ize or make disciples not among the Jews only, but among 
the Gentiles, and Nations, and baptize them; so that if 
the question should have been made, Lord whom shall we 
baptise of the Nations among the Jews and Gentiles % his 
answer was given in the words before, and he would have 
given no other, you shall baptize amongst the Nations 



86 12/ Newes from New-England. 

Jews and Gentiles, such as first have been taught, and by 
teaching have been made my disciples; so Mar. 16. 16. 
Go ye into all the world, saith the Lord, and preach the 
Gospel to every creature, to the Gentiles as well as the 
Jews, he that beleeveth and is baptized shall be saved, &c. 
So that if the question here again should be propounded 
who among the religious and strict Jews, and the loose 
and profane Gentiles, should be baptised, the answer is 
plain, those to whom the Gospel first hath been preached, 
and they through that Gospel have also believed. 

2. By the practice of the Commissioners who were faith- 
ful unto their Lord, and to the charge which he gave them, 
and the argument stands thus. 

Such as the faithful Apostles, and first Commissioners 
of Christ Jesus the Lord administred this ordinance of 
baptism unto, such and such only ought to be made par- 
takers thereof. But the Apostles and first Commissioners 
of Christ administred not this ordinance unto carnal babes, 
infants of daies, such as are by the testimony of the Scrip- 
tures declared to be conceived in sin, to be brought forth 
in iniquity, and being born of the flesh to be but flesh, and 
so by nature the Children of wrath one as well as another; 
being also untaught. But to such as first were taught, 
and were ordained, by the immortal seed of the word, to 
be born again, and as new born babes in Christ, having 
tasted of the sincere milk of the word, desire still more of 
the same, that they might grow up thereby, and such as 
appeared to be converted and to become as little ones, such 
little ones as believed in Jesus. 

The first proposition I suppose none that own Christ 
and his Apostles will dare to deny. And the second which 
is more questionable will also be proved. See Acts 2. 38, 
39, 40, 41, 42, &c. Although Peter with the 11 calls upon 
the convicted Jews to repent, and to be baptized every one 
in the name of Jesus for the remission of sins, and tells 
them that then they shall be made partakers of the holy 
Spirit; and that they should not need to distrust it; he 
shews them the largeness of the promise that was made 
concerning the pouring forth of the Spirit, it being prom- 
ised to be poured forth upon all flesh, as they had exprest 
in the beginning of their discourse out of Joel v. 16. and 



Ill Newes from New-England. 87 

17. and therefore saith, tis to you and to your Children, 
and to all that are afar off, even as many (of you, your 
children and such as are a far off) as the Lord our God 
shall call ; yet he baptizeth none, but such as were called 
by the holding forth the word of salvation by Jesus 
Christ, as appears in the words, for they that gladly re- 
ceived his word were baptized ; and they only ; for they 
that were baptized were added, and continued together in 
the Apostles Doctrine, and in fellowship, and in breaking 
of bread, and in prayer, and continued dayly with one ac- 
cord in the Temple, and breaking bread from house to 
house did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of 
heart, praising God: all which cannot be understood of 
infants of daies. And therefore this place if rightly con- 
sidered will be so far from affording a ground for the bap- 
tizing of the children of believing parents, because here it 
is said the promise is to you and to your children, that it 
will sufficiently evince the contrary ; for indeed such an 
apprehension is accompanyed with 2 or 3 evident mis- 
takes, there is a mistake in the promise, in the parties to 
whom the promise belongs, and the manner how it is to 
them and their children, &c. 

1. There is a mistake of the promise, in that it is 
looked at as the covenant of Grace which doth ingratiate 
the soul into, and gives it an interest in all the privileges 
of the Gospel of Christ, and so in order doth go before 
baptism or any other visible ordinance and appointment of 
his, whereas in very truth by promise there, is meant that 
holy Spirit of promise which they which believed in Christ, 
and obeyed him, should according to promise receive after 
he was ascended unto the right hand of the father, as ap- 
pears Joh. 7. 39. 14. 16. 16. 7. That which he had here 
shed abroad in a powerfull manner upon the Apostles, 
and that which these Jews also in believing and obeying 
the Gospel of Christ should also receive, and therefore 
saith Peter, repent, and be baptized and ye shall receive, 
&c. and was no other than that which was of old prophe- 
cyed of by Ioel, as is declared v. 16. and so is a promise 
that follows faith and obedience, and not such as goes be- 
fore to give right to this appointment of Christ. 

2. There is a mistake in the parties to whom this 



88 111 New es from Neiv-England. 

promise belongs, for whereas it is said to you and to your 
children, and thereupon it is conceived to be meant be- 
lievers, and their infants of daies, which upon that accompt 
are to be baptized, it is plain and evident when the Apos- 
tle spoke these words to them, they could not be looked 
upon as believers, forasmuch as they being prick'd at the 
heart, and only convinced of their evill in murdering the 
Lord of life, propounded what they should do to be saved, 
which is farre from believing, to which the Apostle re- 
plies, repent, and be baptized in the name of Jesus for the 
remission of sinnes ; and to conceive that by their children 
were meant infants of daies, it may be as well so under- 
stood by your Sonnes and daughters, which should so re- 
ceive of the promise of the Spirit as to prophecy men- 
tioned in the seventeenth verse of this chapter, to which 
these words are related ; and to make it appear that the 
promise was not so either to them or their children (as 
yet manifested) to give them right unto baptism, after 
many more words used by the Apostle to perswade them 
to save themselves from this adulterous generation, it is 
said, but as many as gladly received his word were bap- 
tized, and but only such, and not their infants of daies, for 
they that were baptized continued together in such appoint- 
ments of Christ as infants are in no measure capable of. 

3. There is a mistake in the manner how this promise 
is to them, & their children, not spoken to them now as 
believers, & their children as having right and interest 
peculiar by them, but indeed to them, and their children 
no otherwise than to all that are a far off, which if taken 
in the generall cannot be understood but with respect to 
the generall promise, which is to pour forth his Spirit 
upon all flesh, but if with the restriction, which is, even 
as many as the Lord our God shall call, then, parents 
and children, Jews and Gentiles, such as are neer, and as 
are a far off, must be called by the word of his grace be- 
fore they can have a peculiar right and interest in this 
spirit of promise, and so a child that is called to believe 
and obey the Gospel may have this promise made good 
unto him before his father, and a Gentile that is a far off 
before a Jew that is neer. 

This will appear also by other instances, as of Philip 



Ill Newes from New-England. 89 

baptizing in Samaria, they were men and women that he 
baptised there, such as believed and received the word 
with great joy, Acts 8. 8. 12. and when the Eunuch seeing 
the water, asked what should let him to be baptised, Philip 
intimates that although he had been taught, yet the want 
of a manifestation of faith would be a let, v. 36, 37. And 
whereas there is mention made of whole houses that were 
baptised ; that the Commissioners might appear faithfull 
unto their Lord, and keep close to the very words of their 
Commission, you shall find they were first taught, and by 
teaching were made his disciples, and gladly received his 
word. See it in Cornelius houshold Acts 10. 33, 34. 
compared with the 44. 47. the laylors houshold Acts 16. 
32. 34. they spake unto him the tvord of God, and unto all 
that were in his house, and he set meat before them, and re- 
joyced, believing in God with all his house ; see it also in 
Crispus houshold, Acts 18. 8,9, 10, 11. Stephanus hous- 
hold 1 Cor. 1. 16, 17. compared with chap. 16, v. 15. 
And as for Lydias houshold Acts. 16. the Spirit of God 
being more silent therein, they that cannot interpret it by 
the other four, nor yet by the Commission it self, nor by 
the Commissioners faithful observance thereof in all other 
instances, let them prove if they can these three particu- 
lars. 1. That Lydia ever had a husband. 2. In case she 
had, that ever she had any children by him, and if so, 
then in the 3. place that they were not dead, or so grown 
up that they might hear and receive the word gladly as 
well as their mother. 

3. A third argument to prove that a visible believer is 
the person that according to the mind of Christ is to be 
baptized in water, may be taken from the order which 
the Spirit of Christ laies down, faith and baptism, in the 
scriptures of truth, putting faith still in the first place, 
witness Mark 16. 15, 16. Mat. 28. 19. Heb. 6. Eph. 4. 
A 4 argument may be taken from the nature of the ordi- 
nance, and a 5 from Johns Baptism. Yea much more 
might be said to this point, but this may suffice. 

[And also the only person that is to walk in the visible 
order of his house, and so to wait for his comming the second 
time in the form of a Lord and King with his glorious King- 
dome according to promise] 

4th s. — vol. ii. 12 



90 III Newes from New-England. 

That he is the only person that is to enter into, and 
walk in the visible order of his house, will evidently ap- 
pear, if the order in which our Lord left his house when 
he went to his Father to receive his kingdome be duly 
considered, for in his last will and testament we shall find 
it thus recorded, when our Lord was about to be gone, 
he gave order unto his Apostles, whom he made stewards 
in his house of the mysteries of God, to make him Dis- 
ciples of all Nations, and that such as were so made 
should then be baptized, and so visibly planted into 
Christ, and put on Christ, and having so received him, 
should walk in him, observing all things whatsoever he 
had commanded, the first thing whereof as touching order 
was, to be added or joined one to another in the fellow- 
ship of the Gospel by a mutual professed subjection to 
the Scepter of Christ, and being a company thus called 
out of the world, from worldly vanities, and worldly wor- 
ships, after Christ Jesus the Lord (which is the proper 
English of these words the Church of Christ, and is in 
other terms called the houshold of faith) should stead- 
fastly continue together in the Apostles doctrine, sci. the 
consolation, reproof, and instruction thereof, in Fellow- 
ship, sci. mutual support both inward and outward; in 
Breaking of bread, thereby remembring the death of our 
Lord, whose soul was made an offering for sin, as his flesh 
is meat indeed, and his blood drink indeed, by the help 
of the Spirit, to nourish our souls and spirits up unto 
eternal life, and in prayer, one with and for another; 
And that this is the absolute order which the Lord hath 
appointed in his last Will and Testament, doth evidently 
appear both by his own precept, and command, and by 
the practice of such as first trusted in him, and if so, 
then neither infants of daies, nor yet such as profess 
themselves to be believers in Jesus, but refuse as a mani- 
festation thereof, according to the practice of such as first 
trusted in Christ, to yield up themselves to be planted 
into the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, and so 
visibly to put Christ on, as did the Christians of old, I 
say such have no visible right to enter into, or walk in 
the order of the Gospel of Christ ; and to conclude the 
point, the argument stands thus. They, and they only, 



Ill Newesfrom New-England. 91 

have visible right to enter into, and walk in the visible 
order of Christs house, and so to wait for his comming, 
whom Christ Jesus himself being the Lord of the house, 
hath appointed, and his Apostles being his stewards, have 
approved of; But such as first have been taught and 
made disciples or Scholars of Jesus, and believers in 
Christ, and afterwards have been baptized or dipped and 
thereby visibly & lively planted into the death, burial, 
and resurrection of Christ, are they, and they only, whom 
Christ hath appointed and the Apostles have approved of. 
See his Commission, peruse their practice ; Ergo They, and 
they only, have visible right to enter into, and walk in 
the order of Christs house, and so to wait for his com- 
ming the second time, in the form of a King, with his 
glorious Kingdom, according to promise. See for a far- 
ther confirmation of the last clause, in the first Epistle to 
the Corinthians 1. 7. 1 The. 1. 10. 2. The. 3. 5. But to 
proceed. 

[He is the person that is also to wait for his Lords send" 
ing down from the right hand of his father in the time of his 
absence the holy Ghost, or holy Spirit of promise, and all this 
according to the last will and testament of that living Eord7\ 
That this living Lord did promise when he left this pres- 
ent evil world, that is in a great measure subjected to 
devils, and went to his Father, not only to return again, 
but in the time of his absence (as a testimony of his great 
love unto such as are called to be his disciples, & mani- 
fest the same by loving him & keeping his command- 
ments, and as a testimony of his loving acceptance at the 
right hand of his Father) to send down the holy Spirit, 
which should be in them as a well-spring of living water 
flowing forth unto eternall life, who being a Spirit of 
truth, and sent by Christ who is the truth which God 
will exalt, shall glorifie him, take of him and his, and 
shew unto them, and so lead them from truth to truth, 
until he hath brought them into all truth : as a comforter 
or Spirit of comfort, shall fill their hearts with joy in be- 
lieving, by bearing witness with their spirits, that they 
are the children of God, and by revealing unto them the 
precious things w ch God hath prepared for them that love 
him, which neither eye hath seen, nor ear hath heard, 



92 III Newesfrom New-England. 

neither hath it entred into the heart of man to conceive ; 
and as a holy Spirit shall set them apart that are justifyed 
by the blood of his Son, unto the holy God, and sanctifie 
them throughout in soul, and spirit, and body ; and as a 
Spirit of supplication shall help them to speak unto God; 
and as a Spirit of prophecy to speak unto men : that this 
Lord I say did promise unto his disciples, who love him 
and keep his commandments, in the time of his absence 
the presence of such a Spirit as this, which hath supplies 
in him beyond what the soul lacks, and that therefore 
they are to wait for this promise, and for these supplies in 
his appointments, will clearly appear. 

1. Out of the words of the Lord himself. See Iohn 14. 
15, 16, 17. so v. 26. chap. 15. 26. chap. 16. 7, 8. so v. 13, 
14, 15. five times in that night in which he was betraied 
doth he repeat that promise, to his Disciples that loved 
him and kept his commandments, and that he intended 
the same unto other visible disciples that should love him 
and keep his commandments unto the end of the world, 
will also appear ; for if the appointment of Christ, sci. the 
supper that went before, and is exprest chapter the 13. 
and the prayer of Christ that followed after, and is ex- 
prest chapter 17. did belong unto them that should be- 
lieve through theirr word till he come again, then this 
promise that is so often repeated between, doth as well 
belong unto them, as to these; but the former is true; 
See Iohn 17. 20. 1. Cor. 11. 26. therefore the later. 

If the consequence be denied, it will still be proved out 
of Christs own words ; See Iohn 7. 37, 38. and the consider- 
ation even in reason of Christs exceeding love and tender 
care towards all his disciples that love him and keep his 
commandments, and their sensible wants of the same 
supplies of the Spirit will clearly evince it. 

2. It will clearly appear out of the words of the Apos- 
tles of Christ ; See Iohns interpretation of these words of 
Christ, Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water, 
This spake he (saith Iohn) of the Spirit which they that be- 
lieve on him should receive, for the holy Spirit was not yet, 
because lesus was not yet glorified, John 7. 29. See also 
what they all say with one mouth, after they had received 
this holy Spirit with power, whereby they were furnished 



Ill New es from New-England, 93 

as Apostles or Embassadors (of him that had all power in 
heaven and earth in his hand) to go forth with the em- 
bassage of peace into all Nations, and could deliver the 
mind of their Lord unto them in their own language, 
Acts 2. 38. 39. Repent and be baptized every one of you in 
the name of lesus, for the remission of sins §• ye shall re- 
ceive the gift of the holy Spirit, for the promise is to you, and 
to your children, and to all that are a far off, as many (of 
all these) as the Lord our God shall call, sci. to repentance 
from dead works, to faith in Christ lesus, to this visible 
manifestation thereof by being baptised, and so visibly 
planted into the death, buriall, and resurrection of Christ 
for the remission of sins. 

3. This will also appear by the enjoyments of those 
that first trusted in Christ, and visibly manifested their 
faith and love in and to the Lord, by keeping his com- 
mandments : The Disciples which were also called Apos- 
tles, waiting in the appointment of their Lord at Jeru- 
salem, received and were filled with that holy Spirit, with 
power according to promise. See Acts 1. 4. compared 
with 2. 2. So that great number that were about three 
or rather five thousand souls that believed through their 
word, were baptised in Jerusalem, and waited in the ap- 
pointments of the same Lord, that is to say, together stead- 
fastly in the Apostles doctrine, and in felloivship, and in 
breaking of bread, and in prayer, they also enjoied this 
holy Spirit according to promise. See Acts 4. 31. The 
like may be found among the Saints in Samaria, Acts 8, 
17. in Ephesus, Acts 19. And the same may be found 
among the Saints that thus put on Christ, and walked in 
him, among those that first trusted in him in all places. 
See it in the Romans chap. 5. 5. and chap. 8. at large. 
See it in the Corinthians Epistle 1. chap. 2. 10. 12. and 6. 
11. 19. and ch. 12. at large. In the Galathians ch. 3. 2. 
4. 6. In the Ephesians chap. 1. 13. In the Philippians 
chap. 3. 3. In the Colossians chap. 1. 8. In the Thes- 
salonians Ep. 1. chap. 1. 5, 6. and chap. 5. 19. This 
promise is also found true in the litle children that lohn 
writes to, and is often repeated, 1 lohn 3. 24. 4. 13. and 
in the 2. 27. he speaks unto them after this manner, but 
the anointing (speaking of this holy Spirit of promise) 



94 III Neives from New-England. 

which ye have received of him, abideth in you, and (such is 
his supply) that you need not that any man teach you, but as 
the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth 
and is no lie, even as it hath taught you ye shall abide in 
him : And now litle Children abide in him, fyc. And Iude 
telleth us, that the very ground why some that had made 
a profession of the faith, and order of Iesus, caused divis- 
ions and offences, contrary to that doctrine they had re- 
ceived, and separated themselves, was, because they were 
sensuall, not having this Spirit, Iude 19. And as all this 
hath been proved by the last Will and Testament of that 
living Lord, so is it also clear, that his Will is not to be 
added to, or taken from, compare Gal. 3. 15. with Rev. 
22. 18, 19. which notwithstanding if any man shall at- 
tempt to do, let him know this Lord is alive, and will ere- 
long appear sufficiently able to avenge it. 

3. [J testifie that every such servant of Christ Iesus, may 
in point of liberty, yea ought in point of duty, to improve that 
talent which his Lord hath given unto him] That it is 
their duty to improve the talent the Lord hath given unto 
them, and that for that end it was also given, will appear 
by those two instances of the Lord himself, the first is 
Mat 5. 13, 14, 15. Ye (saith the Lord to his Disciples) 
are the salt of the earth, the light of the world, fyc. tieither 
do men light a candle and put it under a bushell, but on a 
candlestick ; whereby he intimates, that if it be far from 
the intention of men (who are but weak and foolish in 
their intentions and actions) to light a candle which is for 
use, and then to put it under a bushell, and so make it 
useless ; then much further from the purpose and inten- 
tion of God, who is the father of lights, to enlighten the 
spirit of a man, which is the candle of the Lord, and then 
to have that light concealed and with-held ; therefore it 
follows, let your light (saith the Lord) so shine before men, 
that they may see your good works, and glorifie your father 
which is in heaven. The other instance is in the 19 lh 
chapter of Luke 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. to the 27. verse, in 
which Parable is lively declared by the Lord, 1. That 
that glorious Kingdome of God that shall certainly ap- 
pear, should not so immediately appear as some thought 
it should, for which end is the Parable spoken verse 11. 



Ill New es from New-England. 95 

and the first words of the Parable will prove the same 
thing, for the Noble-man (which is Christ lesus the Lord) 
must first go into a far country to receive his Kingdome, 
which is to the right hand of the Father, there to sit un- 
till all his enemies become his footstool, and so return. 
2. Here is declared the order in which this Lord left this 
houshold, when he went to receive his Kingdome, he be- 
stowed gifts or talents upon them, and commands them as 
his servants, in their severall places to occupy till he 
come, verse 13. which proves that, for which I produced 
this Scripture ; and for further encouragement unto a 
servant of Christ to improve that Talent in his Lords 
service that he hath bestowed upon him, 3. In the third 
place is declared the exceeding great countenance, and 
rich reward which this Lord will bestow upon a faithfull 
servant that hath thus improved his Talent, when he 
shall have received the Kingdome, and shall return in the 
glory of his Father ; the countenance (I say) appears in 
these words, he will say, well, or as it is in the 25 of 
Matthew, well done thou good and faithful servant, thou hast 
been faithful in a few things ; the rich Reward appears in 
these. Enter into the joy of thy Lord, or have thou Author- 
ity (in my Kingdom) over ten Cities, be thou also ruler over 
five Cities, fyc. But to proceed. 

[And in the congregation he may either ask for information 
to himself] This was a liberty amongst the Jews in their 
synagogues or congregations, as appears Luke 2. 46. 
where Christ being about twelve years old, is found by his 
parents among the Doctors, in the Temple, not only hear- 
ing them, but asking them questions; and when he also 
taught in the Temple, or elsewhere, the people did not 
only hear him, but asked him questions, yea made objec- 
tions against what was delivered, without interruption, 
and it cannot be conceived but this is much more a lib- 
erty in the congregations, and Churches of Christ; and 
therefore 1 Cor. 14. 35. where women are directed to ask 
their husbands at home if they will learn, and the reason 
is given because it is a shame for them to speak in the 
Church, it is plainly declared, that men that will learn 
may ask in the Church, for it is not a shame for them to 
speak there. But to proceed. 



96 III Newesfrom New-England. 

[Or if he can, he may speak by way of prophecy for the 
edification, exhortation, and comfort of the ivhole~\ by proph- 
ecy here I mean a plain, and brief declaration of the 
mind, and counsel of God, in words significantly and 
easie to be understood, confirmed by the words of the 
Apostles and Prophets of God, and brought forth for the 
edification, exhortation, and comfort of the whole ; The 
14 of the 1 Cor. will plentifully clear this truth, and 
make this liberty good unto the Saints, in the Churches of 
Christ, and it cannot be shut out but by the spirit of 
Antichrist. See verse 1. 5. 12. 24. 26. 30, 31. 39, 40. 
So 1 Thes. 5. 19, 20. Quench not the Spirit, is the ex- 
hortation to him that is therby moved to speak ; and de- 
spise not prophecyings, is the exhortation to them that 
are present to hear. But to proceed. 

[And out of the congregation at all times, upon all occa- 
sions, and in all places, as far as the jurisdiction of his 
Lord extends] which is not only to the utmost parts of 
the Earth, but also to heaven. See Mat. 28. 18. Heb. 1. 2. 
JEphes. 1. 20, 21, 22. 

[May (yea ought to) walk as a Child of light, justifying 
wisdome with her waies, and reproving folly with the unfruit- 
ful words therof, provided, See. For a warrant here, see 
Deu. 6. 7. Mat 5. 14. 16. 10. 32, 33. 11. 19. Eph. 5. 11. 
Act 4. 20. Jam. 3. 13. And so have I done also with 
the 3d. Conclusion, the fourth followeth. 

4. [I testify that no servant of Christ Jesus hath any lib- 
erty, much less authority, from his Lord, to smite his Fellow- 
servant] This will be evinced to be a truth many waies 
from the mouth of the Lord. 

1. In that it is the great commandment of this Lord to 
his disciples, and servants, to love one another, and so to 
bear one anothers burdens, who ought to have their love 
stronger than death, so as to lay down their lives for the 
brethren. See John 13. 34. 15. 17. 1 John 3. 23. 4. 21. 
Gal. 6. 2. 1 John 3. 16. Now to smite one another is 
a breach of that Law of Love in a very high degree. 
Therefore. 

2. The servants of Christ are called upon by their Lord 
to learn of him to be meek, and lowly, and are put there- 
by into a capacity to be further taught the way, and fear 



El Newesfrom New-England. 97 

of the Lord, to increase their joy, and they are such as 
shall inherit the earth, and also heaven, for they shall 
find rest for their souls ; and this meek, quiet and gentle 
Spirit is declared by the Spirit of the Lord to be an orna- 
ment of very great price. See for a proof of all this Mat. 
11. 29. 21. 5. Psalm 25. 9. Isaiah 29. 19. Mat. 5. 5. 1 Pet. 
3. 4. But to smite is an argument of a domineering, 
proud, and lofty spirit, which is far from a Spirit that is 
meek and lowly. Therefore 3. The servants of Christ 
are called upon by their Lord to be so far from smiting 
their fellows, that in case they should be smitten by 
others for his, and the Gospels sake, meerly on one 
cheek, they should rather turn the other, than seek to re- 
venge it. See Luke 6. 20. Pom. 12. 17. 1 Cor. 6. 7. why 
do ye not rather take wrong (saith the Apostle) why do you 
not rather suffer your selves to he defrauded ? but this is far 
from smiting one another. Therefore, &c. 

4. This Lord being also that Prince of Peace, doth so 
far dislike such practices as these among any servants of 
his, that belong to his house, that he hath absolutely and 
expressly declared, that he by no means will have a 
striker to supply the Office of an Elder, or Steward 
therein, no nor one that is of a Lordly, or domineering 
spirit, nor yet one that is froward, and will be soon angry. 
See in the first Epistle of Timothy 3. 3. Titus 1. 7. Peter 
5. 3. Therefore, &c. 

5. That no servant of Christ hath such authority from 
his Lord to smite his fellows, doth plainly appear in that 
Parable Mat. 18. 34. where it is said, The Lord was so 
wroth that he will have that wicked servant delivered to the 
tormentors, that did but take his fellow by the throat ; and 
him that fell to smiting his fell owes in his Lords absence: 
Mat. 24. 51. it is said, The Lord shall come upon, in a day 
when he looked not for him, and in an hour that he is not 
awar of and shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his por- 
tion with the hypocrits, where shall be weeping, and gnashing 
of teeth. But to proceed in the testimony, where it is 
said, 

[No nor yet with outward force, or arm of flesh to con- 
strain, or restrain anothers conscience, nor yet his outward 
man for conscience sake, or worship of his God, $*c] That 

4th s. — vol. ii. 13 



98 111 Neivesfrom New-England. 

this is a truth will be made out by the Scriptures of truth, 
and that many waies. The first argument to prove it 
standeth thus. 

1. Arg. If any Servant of Christ Jesus (be he high, or 
low, rich, or poor,) have any such liberty, or authority 
from his Lord so to do, then he is able to shew it, (as that 
which may be his warrant so to act) either out of the 
words of the Lord himself, or out of those that were 
spoken, or writ by the Apostles, which were his Ambassa- 
dors, and were furnished from their Lord with commands 
for his Servants observance until he come again. 

But no servant of Christ (I suppose) is able to shew, 
either out of his own words, or out of the words of the 
Apostles, any such liberty or authority from the Lord, as 
that which may be his warrant so to do. Therefore. 

The first Proposition cannot be denyed, which is this, 
If any servant of Christ Jesus have any such authority 
from his Lord, he is able to shew it, either out of his own 
words, or from the Apostles. And indeed for a man to 
act in the name of the Lord, and not to have a word, or 
warrant from him, is high presumption, and so will it ap- 
pear if these things be considered. 

1. In that it is plainly declared, That all power in 
heaven, and in earth, is given unto Christ, and therefore 
must all authority in heaven, and in earth, be derived 
from him ; and hence it is, that it concerns the feet and 
the toes of that great image, if it be possible, to stand 
clear of him who is that little stone cut out without 
hands, and shall ere long become a great mountain, and 
fill the Earth. 

2. In that it is as plainly declared, that the living God 
hath in these last daies spoken by Christ, Heb. 1.1. hath 
made him the heir of all things, and thereupon hath 
called upon every one that hath an ear to hear him, hath 
threatned that soul that will not hear him that he shal 
be cut of; therfore it concerns every servant of his to 
take heed he use no such authority over another which 
he hath not heard and received from Christ. 

3. In that it is declared that Christ Jesus the Lord is 
that one law-giver, and that they are blessed that do his 
commandements, yea, so blessed, that the Apostle saith he 



Ill New es from New-England. 99 

is become the author of eternall salvation to those that 
obey him, and that he is also the Judge unto whom the 
living God, hath appointed a great, and notable, and ter- 
rible day, in which and by whom he will Judge the world 
in righteousness \ yea, the very secrets of mens hearts, ac- 
cording to his gospel. See James 4. 12. Rev. 22. 14. Heb. 
5. 9. Acts 10. 42. and 17. 31. Rom. 2. 16. From which 
consideration it also appears, that it concerns the servants 
of Christ, that they despise not such a Law-giver and such 
a Judge as he is, in taking such liberty, or exercising 
such authority, over other mens consciences, which cannot 
be made out from his words that he hath given them ; all 
which, as so many arguments, will prove the first proposi- 
tion. 

And as for the second, which is this, sci. No servant 
of Christ can shew a warrant from Christ for such 
an authority, either out of his own words, or his Apostles ; 
if that be denied, we must then call for the warrant, 
which must be shewed either out of the Evangelists, the 
book of the Acts of the Apostles, the Apostles Epistles, 
or the Revelation of Jesus : but I suppose it cannot be 
shewn out of any of these. If the 13. of the Romans be 
produced for a warrant, no man can deny that the power 
there spoken of was such as belonged to a heathen, and I 
think no man will acknowledge that he had such an 
authority from Christ to order mens consciences, or out- 
ward man, with respect to the worship of God, and there- 
fore that word cannot be their warrant. 

If the words of Paul, Gal. 5. 12. I would they were cut 
off that trouble you, be produced for a warrant, let the 
words be considered (and in the first place) there is no 
mention made of outward force, or outward affliction, and 
therefore no warrant for any outward or carnall hand so 
to afflict ; but 2. The words were spoken to the Churches 
in Galatia, which were spirituall societies, and concern- 
ing spirituall transgressors, and therefore their cutting off 
must be from that spirituall relation and union which 
hitherto they enjoyed, and how that is done, compare 
3. Acts 23. with Mat. 18. 8. 17. Rom. 11. 17. 19. 20. 22. 
And the carnall cutting off from the carnall Israel (before 
the time of reformation) was but a type of this spirituall 



100 HI Newes from New-England. 

cutting off and casting out from the spirituall Israel of 
God since. 

And thirdly, consider, the words were spoken by the 
Apostle Paul, who would have us to know (as he de- 
clares it, 2 Cor. 10. 4.) that the weapons of his warfare 
were not carnall, he was not wont to strive with them 
that opposed themselves with carnall weapons, and there- 
fore if he speaks to such persons as these Galatians were 
(that had received such power from the Lord) touching a 
cutting off, which is a business that belongs to a sword, it 
would be too carnall an understanding of the place to 
conceive that this should be done by any other sword, 
than by the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of 
God, and can reach to their Spirits, and is the only offen- 
sive weapon the Saints are to take in such cases as this 
against their spirituall opposers ; and so have I done with 
the first Argument. A second, to evince this, is taken 
from that law wherewith Christ Jesus, that Sonne of 
Righteousness, hath more or less enlightened the Nations, 
which I may therefore call the law of Nations, being that 
law by which the Lord will Judge those which may 
otherwise be said to be without law : the Law is this, Do, 
as thou wouldst be done unto, which is also (as Christ 
speaks) the Law and the Prophets. The argument 
standeth thus. 

2. Arg. If every servant of Christ Jesus have a com- 
mandement from his Lord, as he will answer it before 
him when he shall appear as Judge, to do to others, as 
he would have others to do unto him ; then no servant of 
his can have either liberty or authority from him thus to 
force another mans conscience, or his outward man merely 
for conscience sake. 

But every servant of Christ hath this command from 
his Lord, viz. Do to others as ye would that others should 
do unto you. Therefore, &c. 

The second proposition is undeniable. See 7. Mat. 12. 
Luk. 6. 31. The consequence of the first proposition can 
scarce be denied, but if any should rashly deny it, then I 
appeal to that mans conscience, not being seared, which 
also knows but in part, in the sight & presence of God, 
whether he can be willing that another who is further in- 



El Newes from New-England. 101 

formed in the things of God, and is also stronger than he 
(whether he can be willing, I say, that he) should by such 
a force constrain or restrain his conscience, although in 
smaller differences, but how much less in things that do 
so vastly differ. 

3 Arg. The third argument standeth thus. 

If Christ Jesus the Lord instructed his servants to be 
meek, lowly, and gentle, yea, kind and curteous to all ; 
sent forth the chiefest of them, and told them that they 
should be as lambs in the midst of wolves ; yea, holds 
them and us, and all that shall reign with Christ, when 
he shall appear with his Kingdome, in a continuall ex- 
pectation of a persecuted and afflicted condition in this 
present evil world, then it cannot be expected that they 
should have any such liberty, much less authority, from 
him thus to persecute, prosecute, or inforce others. 

But the first is true. See Mat 11. 29. 1 Cor. 13. 4. 
Eph. 4. 34. 1 Pet 3. 8. Mat 10. Tim. 2. 3. 12. All that 
will live Godly in Christ Jesus (saith Paul, who well dis- 
cerned the spirit that was abroad, & that which should 
remain and increase in the world) shall suffer persecu- 
tion, and the servant is not greater than his Lord, saith 
Christ, Mat. 10. 24, 25. So that by this it appears, that 
the first is true, and therefore the second which is this, 
That no servant of Christ can expect any such liberty or 
authority from his Lord thus to persecute, prosecute, or in- 
force others. 

A Fourth argument against forcing men against their 
consciences, in the things, and worship of God, is taken 
from the nature of the conscience of man, and of the wor- 
ship of God, which are both spiritual; and it standeth 
thus. 

4. Arg. That which the Lord hath reserved in his 
own hand, and hath intended to mannage as part of his 
own Kingdome by his own power or Spirit, and by an- 
other manner of ministery, and sword, than that which is 
put forth in the Kingdoms of men, his being such as 
suits with the understanding and conscience of man, as 
it's a spiritual thing, and with the worship of God, which 
is also spiritual, that, I say, can no servant of Christ have 
authority from him, by an other sword, or arm of flesh, to 
undertake, mannage, or think to effect. 



102 III New es from New-England. 

But the Lord hath reserved this great work of ordering 
the understanding, and conscience, which is the spirit of 
man, by way of constraint, or restraint ; and also the out- 
ward man, with respect to the worship of God, I say, he 
hath reserved this great work, in his own hand, and in 
the hand of the Spirit, and hath intended to manage it as 
a part of his Kingdome, by his own Spirit, and by another 
manner of ministery, than that which is put forth in the 
Kingdoms of men. Therefore, &c. 

The first proposition, I judge, cannot be denyed, be- 
cause if it be by him reserved in his own hand and power, 
then by his authority it cannot be in the hand of another ; 
and if intended by him to be mannaged by another manner 
of ministery and sword, than that which is put forth in 
the Kingdomes of men, then not by the same. 

And as for the second, it will appear to be a truth by 
these following testimonies. 

1. That the great work of ordering the understanding 
and conscience, which is the spirit of a man, by way of 
constraint or restraint ; and also the outward man, with 
respect to the worship of God, is reserved (as a part of 
his Kingdome, the spirits of men being the throne of the 
Lord) in his own hand, and in the hand of the Spirit, 
doth appear Luke 17. 26. Rom. 11. 32. Isa. 45. 22. Zach. 
4. 6. Prov. 2. 6. lam. 1. 5. Io. 1. 9. Luke 24. 45. 2 Cor. 4. 
6. Eph. 1. 18, 19. Acts 2. 47. 11. 21. And 

2. That he hath intended to mannage it by another 
manner of sword, or ministery, than that which is put 
forth in the Kingdoms of men, is also evident, in that he 
did neither speak to, nor yet make use of the Kings of 
the earth to make him disciples, nor yet call for their 
sword to constrain them or others to the worship of God, 
or to restrain them from their own, although it was per- 
formed to dumb Idols, and so unto devils ; but made use 
of the sword of the Spirit, which is his own word, & 
the ministery of his Apostles, and servants, to hold it 
forth to the world, and thereby were disciples made unto 
him, and so by him brought from their own to the wor- 
ship and service of God. See Io. 16. 8, 9, 10, 11. 26. 
Acts 15 16. 18. 1 The. 1. 8, 9. ch. 2. 13. Heb 4 12. 

The fifth Argument against forcing mens consciences, 



Ill New es from New-England. 103 

>r rather the outward man for conscience sake in the wor- 
ship of God, standeth thus. 

5. Arg. That which presupposeth one man to have 
lominion over another mans conscience, and is but a for- 
cing of Servants, and worshippers upon the Lord, at the 
east, which he seeks not for, and is the ready way to 
nake men dissemblers and hypocrites before God and 
nan, which wisemen abhor, and to put men upon the pro- 
faning the name of the Lord, that can no servant of Christ 
Fesus have any liberty, much less authority, from his 
Lord to do. 

But by outward force to seek to constrain, or restrain 
m others conscience in the worship of God, &c. doth pre- 
suppose one man to have dominion over another mans con- 
science, and is but to force servants, and worshippers upon 
:he Lord, which he seeks not for, and is the ready way to 
nake men dissemblers and hypocrites, and to put them up- 
)n the profaning the name of the Lord. Therefore, &c. 

The first proposition is undeniable, because it is evi- 
lent that it is not the will of the Lord that any one 
mould have dominion over another mans conscience ; no 
aot such as had the largest power and presence of the 
Spirit of God, and the largest interest in the hearts of his 
people, as had the Apostles, Elders, and Brethren : See 1 
Cor. 8, 11, 12. 10. 29. 1 Pet. 5. 3. Phil. 3. 15. 2 Cor. 1. 
23, 24. & chap. 4. 5. for this indeed would be to enter 
upon the throne of Christ, to sit in the Temple of God, 
and is the very highest design of the spirit of Antichrist. 
See 2 Thess. 2. 4. 1 Cor. 3. 10. And for any man to 
enter upon the throne of Christ to set a foot into the 
Temple of God, is to defile it, and he that defiles the 
Temple of God, (saith the Apostle) him shall God de- 
stroy. And for a man to put servants and worshippers 
upon the Lord, when he would not have others to put 
servants upon him, and make men dissemble, when if he 
be a wise man, he cannot but hate dissembling, must 
needs be much more abomination to the Lord, so that the 
first proposition (as I said) cannot be denied. 

The second will easily be proved in each particular 
thereof. As 

1. This forcing of all to conform in the worship of God, 



104 III Newesfrom New-England. 

doth presuppose one man to have dominion or Lordship 
over another mans conscience, for who knows not that 
the worship of God is a case of conscience, and that that 
worship and service that is pleasing to him, must have 
the spirit and conscience the chief in it ^ and therefore, 
that man which by outward force would cause others to 
conform in point of worship, must pre-suppose to have 
power over his spirit and conscience, to cause it to con- 
form likewise, or else he cannot attain unto his Religious 
intent. 

2. This is but a forcing of servants and worshipers upon 
the Lord, and I say at the best, for it is more likely to 
force worshippers from him ; And this will cleerly appear, 
because the true worshipers, and such as the father seeks 
for, are such as worship him in Spirit, and in Truth : See 
John 4. 23, 24. who having received from Christ the Spirit 
of life and love, have his word stand in their heart, as the 
word of a King, so that thereby they become a willing 
people to do him service, and stand not in need of such 
outward force to compell them thereto ; they therefore 
that stand in need to be, and therefore are by outward 
force compelled to the worship of God, to the faith and 
order of the gospel of Christ (they I say) are such ser- 
vants, and worshipers, as are forc'd upon the Lord, whom 
he seeks not for. 

This outward forcing men in the worship of God, is 
the ready way to make men dissemblers and hypocrites 
before God, and men which wise men abhor; the truth 
of this will be thus demonstrated ; for if they be spirituall, 
true, and willing worshipers, such as the Father seeks 
for, then what need is there of a constraint or restraint] 
such are a law of life to themselves ; but if they be not, 
then what make they there before him, who calls for the 
heart, and wisheth men to look to their spirits, for he is 
a Spirit, and will be sanctified of all those that draw neer 
unto him 1 See Prov. 23. 26. Mai 2. 15. Rev. 10. 3, 4. 
Then as they are forced upon the Lord against his will, 
and without any warrant from him, so are they also 
against their own, and therefore although their bodies 
may be present, and through fear of the stroke, or hope 
of reward, may seem to conform, yet their hearts and 



Ill New es from New-England. 105 

minds not being changed (and the strong holds thereof 
not being beaten down, as by such carnall weapons they 
are never likely to be) they I say, are absent, and far from 
the Lord ; so then, while their hearts, and consciences, 
still cleave to their Idols, and yet their bodies are caused 
to conform, what is this but to make men dissemblers and 
hypocrites before God and man % and that it is the way to 
put men upon the profaning the name of the Lord, is also 
evident ; understand by name his attributes, word, ordi- 
nances, worship, they are all profaned by such a person 
that stands in need to be forc'd to Religion. See Hag. 2. 
13, for him to call upon the name of the Lord, is to pro- 
fane the name of the Lord, for their prayers are abomina- 
tion to him, Gen. 4. 26. Prov. 28. 9. Isay 1. 13. And a 
calling the name of God or Christ upon such, is count- 
ed by him a blaspheming his name. See Rev. 2. 9. 13. 
1. 5, 6. and unto the wicked saith God, Psal. 50. 16. 
What hast thou to do to declare my statutes, or to take my 
Covenant in thy mouth, Seeing thou hatest instruction, and 
easiest my words behind thee ? By all which it doth evident- 
ly appear, that the second proposition doth also stand firm. 

A sixth argument against the forcing of men against 
their understandings and consciences, is taken from the 
prohibition of Christ, and stands thus. 

6. Arg. If Christ Iesus the Lord hath expresly for- 
bidden his servants by such a force to seek to constrain or 
restrain another mans conscience, or his outward man 
against his understanding and conscience, in things apper- 
taining to God, although his understanding and con- 
science be cleerly discerned to be erronious and evil, then 
can no servant of Christ Jesus have any liberty, much less 
authority, from him so to practise ; This cannot be denied. 

But Christ Jesus the Lord hath expresly forbidden his 
servants so to practise, and for the proof hereof, take two 
or three instances, Mat. 15. 14. where Christ speaking to 
his disciples, touching the Pharisees, who were blind 
guides, seducers, hypocrites, strong opposers of Christ, yet 
seemingly full of zeal and devotion, and such as brought 
a vanity upon the worship of God, and made his com- 
mandements of none effect by their traditions, as appears, 
v. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. of the same chapter, yet v 14. saith 

4th s. — vol. ii. 14 



106 III Newes from New-England. 

Christ to his disciples, let them alone, they are blind, 
leaders of the blind, and so leaves them to that sad event, 
which is, their falling into the ditch, or perishing to- 
gether. See the parable of the wheat and the tares, Mat. 
13. 24. interpreted by Christ himself, v. 37, 38. And he 
that soiveth the good seed (saith Christ) is the Son of man, 
The field is the world, the good seed are the children of the 
King dome (which being sown by the son of man, must 
needs be meant faithfull and sincere-hearted proffessors of 
the truth of the gospell :) But the tares (saith he) are the 
children of the ivicked one, and the enemy that soiveth them is 
the devill, which being the children of the wicked one, 
and sown by the devill after the children of the Kingdome, 
must needs be meant such as crept in unawars, and were 
sent in as Paul speaketh, See Gal. 24. to spie out the Saints 
liberties, that they might bring them into bondage, and 
so were formall Professors of Christ at the first, but after- 
wards discovered to be Hereticks, Schismaticks, Apostats, 
Blasphemers, such as was Hymintus, Phyletus, Alexander, 
Demas, and such false teachers as Peter speaks of, 2 Pet. 
2. 12. That should bring in damnable heresies, even denying 
the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves 
swift destruction, whose pernicious wayes many should 
follow ; by reason of whom the way of truth should be 
evill spoken of: but to go on, the harvest, saith Christ, is 
the end of the world, and the reapers are no other than the 
angels ; Now the question (for our instruction in right- 
eousness) being made by the servants unto their Lord, 
when the tares were discovered, whether it was his will 
that they should go and gather them up, and take them 
out of the field, his first answer, v. 29. is nay, and the rea- 
son he renders, is this, lest while ye gather up the tares, ye 
root up also the wheat with them; And the next answer, v. 
30. is an express word of command, that they should let 
both grow together in the field, which is the world, and un- 
till the time of the harvest, which is the end thereof, and 
then his purpose is to speak to the reapers, which are not 
men but Angels, to gather them up, and bind them in 
bundles to burn them. I shall produce but one instance 
more to shew that our Lord Jesus forbids such a practice 
as this among his Disciples or servants, 2. Tim. 2. 24, 25, 



Ill New es from New-England. 107 

26. The servant of the Lord, saith Paul, in the word of the 
Lord, must not strive, but be gentle unto all men, apt to 
teach, not to strike, patient in meekness, instructing those 
that oppose themselves ; which word signifieth a setting a 
mans selfe in an opposition to the trnth in a more than 
ordinary manner, even by way of covenant or resolution 
of spirit, yet are they still to be waiting with meekness 
upon them, if God at any time will give them repentance to 
the acknowledgement of the truth, that they may recover them- 
selves out of the snares of the devil, who are taken captive by 
him at his will. 

Another argument that there can be no warrant from 
Christ for such a practice as this, is taken from such ex- 
pressions of his, whereby he shews his dislike thereof, 
and it standeth thus. 

7. Arg. If Christ Jesus the Lord have sharply re- 
proved and checked his servants when he hath espied 
such a spirit as this but breaking forth in them, then can 
no servant of his have any countenance, much less au- 
thority from him so to practise. But the first is true, he 
hath sharply reproved them when he espied such a spirit 
as this but breaking forth, witness his words Luke 22. 
24. 25. &c. Joh. 18. 10. 11. Mat. 26. 51. 52, 53, 54, & 
Luke. 9. 46. 47. & 49, 50. & 52, 53, 54. 55. 56. where it is 
said, when the Samaritans perceived that Christs face was 
towards Jerusalem they did so envy him for lerusalems 
sake, which was the place of Gods worship, that they 
would not receive him nor afford unto him such common 
curtesie as belonged unto strangers, for which discurteous 
repulse of their Lord and master, James and lohn in a 
preposterous zeal judged, that they deserved to dy, and 
thereupon moved the question to Christ in these words, 
verse, 55. Wilt thou that we command fire to come down 
from heaven and consume them ? but what is the answer 
of Christ 1 it is said, he turned, and rebuked them, saying, 
ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of They were 
scarce awar that they were hereunto moved, by no other 
spirit than the spirit of Antichrist, for saith he, The Son 
of man is not come to destroy mens lives, but to save them, 
and if he came into this world to save mens lives, and not 
to destroy them, and will have his Servants to learn of 



108 III New es from New-England. 

him meekness, and mercy, and to be as he was in this 
present evil world, I say, if he came to save mens lives, 
even the rebellious, then no servant of his can have any 
authority from him for such cases as these to destroy them. 

The last Argument standeth thus. 

8. Arg. That which of it self is inconsistent with the 
civil peace, liberty, prosperity and safety of a Place, Com- 
monwealth or nation, no servant of Christ Jesus can have 
liberty, much less authority from his Lord to do. But 
this outward forcing of men in matters of conscience to- 
wards God to believe as others believe, and to practise 
and worship as others do, cannot stand with the Peace, 
Liberty, Prosperity, and safety of a Place, Commonwealth, 
or nation. Therefore no servant of Christ can have any 
liberty, much less authority so to doe. 

The first proposition can scarce be denyed if these 
things be considered sci. That Christ Iesus the Lord is 
the Prince of Peace, Isa. 9. 6. Heb. 7. 2. and the more a 
man is made partaker of, and led by the Spirit of the 
Lord, which is the Spirit of Peace, the more peaceable 
and quiet is he like to be towards all those with whom he 
hath to do, for this Prince of Peace hath given express 
command unto all his Servants, who are the Children of 
Peace (in whose hearts his word stands, with power, as 
the word of a King) to be at peace among themselves, 
1 Thes. 5. 13. To love in peace. 2 Cor. 13. 11. To follow 
peace ivith all men, Heb, 12. 14. To seek peace and ensue 
it, 1. Pet. 3. 11. To follow after those things that make for 
peace, Rom. 24. 19. If it be possible as much as in them 
lyeth to have peace with all men, Rom. 22. 16. Yea not to 
seek their own, but every man another s wealth, 1 Cor. 10. 
24. To seek the peace of the place, where God hath bounded 
his habitation, yea, and to pray unto God for it, and for the 
rulers thereof, Jer. 29. 7. 1. Tim. 2. 2. By all which it 
doth evidently appear, that that which of it self cannot 
stand with the peace and prosperity of a place, and nation, 
that can be servant of Christ have by the authority of 
this Lord, unless by a just judgement from him upon the 
rulers of this world for giving their power, and sword, to 
the beast, thus to be chusecl and made drunk with the 
blood of the Saints, which his tender heart cannot but 



Ill Newes from New-England. 109 

avenge upon themselves, and upon the Nations for their 
loving to have it so. 

And as for the second Proposition, which is this, that 
this outward forcing of men in matters of conscience to- 
wards God to believe as others believe, and to practise 
and worship, not as themselves (but as others) are per- 
swaded cannot stand with the peace, liberty, prosperity, 
and safety of a Place, Nation, and Commonwealth ; this 
will as plainly appear in the examination of each particu- 
lar thereof. 

And first, it cannot stand with the peace of a Common- 
wealth, for as there could be no peace expected in the 
Israel of old, so long as that harlot Jezabell (who thirsted 
after innocent blood) could at her pleasure obtain the seal 
and power of the King, to effect her bloody design upon 
the servants of the Lord, who withstood her Idolatrous 
Priests, and that Idolatrous way and worship which they 
had set up, so likewise as long as that spirituall Jezabell 
among those that account themselves the Israel of God, 
(who is seen in Rev. 17. 3. to .ride upon that scarlot-col- 
oured beast, and to own herself as the City and spouse of 
that great King, the King of Saints, so long I say as she, 
can by her glorious deckings and splendours, so deceive 
and allure the Kings and Rulers of the earth, to commit 
fornication with her, and to give their sword and power 
to the beast that bears her up, there can be no expecta- 
tion of peace in the earth, but still of wars, and rumors of 
wars, untill mens hearts fail them : for so long as there is 
an outward force or power to be had to maintain and up- 
hold the carnall interests and advantages of some upon 
religious accounts, and so prosecute others, who for con- 
science sake towards God, dare not, yea cannot conform 
to their way. What hopes are hereby begotten and 
nourished in some'? what jealousies, suspitions and fears 
in others % what revengefull desires in most % yea, what 
plottings and contrivings in all 1 and as a fruit and effect 
hereof, what riding 1 running % troublesome, and tumultu- 
ous assemblings together, and sidings \ yea, and outra- 
gious murderings and bloodshedings are hereby produced 
in a Nation, to gain that power and sword to their party, 
either to crush, suppress, or cause the other to conform, or 



110 III Newes from New-England. 

at the least and best to save themselves from being crushed, 
suppressed or forced to conformity I But were this snare 
of the destroyer and murderer once discovered and broken, 
which is under a specious and religious pretence of doing 
God good service, to oppress and slay his innocent ser- 
vants and children, and to force men to that which their 
minds and consciences are not perswaded unto, which is 
worse than Idolatry ; or at least would it please the most 
high to help the Kings and Rulers of the earth, to take 
King Davids counsel!, Psal. 2. which is, to kiss the son 
lest he be angry, and in his anger smite that glorious Image, 
(which Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream) Dan. 2. 31, 32, 
33, 34. upon his feet, that were part of iron, and part of 
clay, and so break them to peeces, that the iron, the clay, 
the brass, the silver, and the gold be broken to peeces to- 
gether, become as chaff, and so vanish away, that there 
should no place be found for them ; And would it please 
the most high to put it into their hearts, to manage that 
power and sword of steel which he hath put into their 
hands (and takes out again at his good pleasure) so that 
it might onely attend the very thing for which it is be- 
stowed upon them, which is to do justly, and to shew 
mercy, as those that walk (in such eminent places) hum- 
bly before the Lord, which are things more pleasing to 
him, then such burnt offerings and sacrifices, although 
they amounted to thousands of rams, or ten thousands of 
rivers of oyl, especially being such as he hath not re- 
quired at their hands, how soon would the earth which 
now is moved exceedingly, reel to and fro like a drunk- 
ard, and is removed like a cottage, become a quiet and 
peaceable habitation, for if there were neither fear on one 
hand, nor hope on the other, that this sword should be 
drawn forth to maintain the carnall interest of some, 
which they enjoy upon religious pretences, and to sup- 
press the understandings and consciences of others, to 
the hazard of their proper and lawfull interest and out- 
ward enjoyments, and all men should see the Rulers 
as resolute in this point as Galle was, so that men of all 
sects and religions, which now are pious, were become 
hopeless of any other help to support themselves and 
their way, or to draw others thereto, than what by the 



Ill Newes from New-England. Ill 

word of God they can attain unto, how soon would these 
tumults cease, the enmity in point of Religion be slain, 
and all things be in peace 1 and for my part I cannot ex- 
pect that the swords should be beaten into plowshares, 
and spears into the pruning-kooks, that nation shall not 
rise against nation, neither shall they learn war any more, 
which is a thing which the mouth of the Lord hath 
spoken of, untill that be accomplished which should oc- 
casion it, which is [expressed] by the Prophet in these 
words, For all people will walk every one in the name of 
his God, and we will walk in the name of the Lord our God 
forever and ever. Mich a. 4. 3, 4, 5. 

And as his forcing of men for their conscience sake, 
cannot stand with the peace of a Nation or Common- 
wealth, so neither can it stand with the liberty thereof, as 
those two instances Rev. 13. 10. and 15. 16, 17, together 
with daily experience, doe lively demonstrate, in which 
Scriptures it is plain to be seen, that whilst the Beast 
reigneth, through the power of the Kings of the Earth, all 
are restrained of their liberty, and brought to conformity, 
they cannot buy nor sel, unless they conform to the 
Beast, no not the great ones. Kings and Eulers them- 
selves, they shall rather cease to be Kings than cease to 
conform, when once they have given their power to him, 
for then they have not been able to stand before him, as 
Emperors, Kings, Princes and Governors have by wofull 
experience (through a sad hand of God) found to be true. 
And as by the righteous judgement of God, they that 
have upon this accompt killed with the sword, must have 
a time also to be killed with the sword ; so they that have 
led into captivity, must also be led into captivity ; so that 
by this it appears, it cannot stand with the liberty of a 
place and Nation. 

And that it cannot stand with the prosperity and safety 
therof will appear from a twofold consideration, the first 
whereof is with respect to piety, the second to policy. 

That which is taken from piety is this, If the matter 
be duly considered and weighd, it cannot be expected but 
that this outward constraint or restraint of men in mat- 
ters of conscience, & for the worship of God (in this pres- 
ent evill world, and by the powers therin) must chiefly 



112 III Neivesfrom New-England. 

reflect, and light upon such as being called out of the 
world, can neither conform to worldly vanities, nor world- 
ly worships, but to the pure voice and word of God, and 
to the testimony of Christ Jesus the Lord, which if true, 
as indeed it cannot be denied, then it will easily appear 
to be both unsafe and unprosperous for a state or nation 
to be found medling herein, for as much as the Lord of 
hosts hath said, he that toucheth you, toucheth the aple of 
mine eye, Zach. 2. 8. and again, Touch not mine anointed, 
and do my Prophets no harm, 1 Chron. 16. 22. and King 
David had well observed concerning the Israel of old, that 
the Lord suffered no man to do them wrong, but even re- 
proved Kings for their sakes, Psal. 105. 14. And if the 
Lord of hosts who is full of bowels of compassion, be so 
taken with the oppression of the poor, and sighing of the 
needy, that he will not long forbear, but will arise, relieve 
him, and set him in safety from him that puffeth at him, 
or would insnare him, Psal. 12. 5. shall he not much 
rather avenge his own elect, which give him no rest, but 
cry night and day unto him % Luk. 18. 7. yea, I tell you 
(saith Christ) he will avenge them speedily. And now 
how unsafe and unprosperous it is for a Kingdome, or 
State, to ly thus open to the vengeance of God, which if 
it breaks forth is like to overturn, overturn, overturn it as 
the prophet speaks, Ezek. 21. 25, 26, 27. will not be a 
hard thing to discern. 

Again it cannot well stand with the prosperity and 
safety of a State, or Nation, upon a politick ground or 
consideration. For it best suits with policy (be the power 
in the hands of Kings and Princes, but especially of 
States and Commonwealths) 1. To engage (not only one 
party or sect alone, but) all parties therein to the present 
power, and to the supporting thereof. 2. To do this (not 
by giving away any part of the power to any party or sect 
to oppress or inforce others to their way for their carnal 
and private respects, for that (as hath been shown) is the 
way to lose it themselves, except they conform, yea to be 
brought to conformity, but) to afford its protection equall 
to all without respect unto any, at least in this, sci. keep- 
ing them thereby safe, under God, in respect of their 
persons, names, and estates; 3. And to engage them all 



Ill Neives from Neiv-England. 113 

upon the strongest engagements, which are not carnal 
outward advantage, (they being oftentimes so far from 
advancing the same, that they prove notable means to 
make the obstruction) but this, wherein one man may be 
as wel assured that he shall not be forced to another 
mans understanding and conscience, as that another shall 
not be forced unto his. Which indeed is an engagement 
that is stronger than death, the voice of each mans con- 
science being to him as the voice of his God; by this 
means shall all parties be deeply obliged to the utmost of 
their lives and estates, to bear up that power, without 
which they cannot expect to enjoy peace, liberty, and 
safety themselves, so shall the rulers also have somewhat 
more vacancy to consider what it is that the Lord of hosts 
doth require at their hands, which is to do justly, to love 
mercy, and to walk humbly before the Lord, Mic. 6. 7, 8. 
And whereas it is added (every man being such &c.) 
which is to shew that whether such liberty as this should 
be granted or not in this present world, yet it concerns, 
and also well becomes the servants of Christ, not to alter 
their course, but to be still found keeping the command- 
ments of God and the testimony of Jesus, and to be bear- 
ing in mind what is said, Rev. 12. 11. And they over- 
came him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word 
of their testimony, and they loved not their lives unto the 
death ; harkning also for his voice, who saith Rev. last 20. 
Surely I come quickly, with the like closing therewith as 
there is exprest. Amen, even so come Lord Jesus. 



FINIS, 



4th s. — vol. ii. 15 



LETTER 



FROM CERTAIN MINISTERS AND OTHERS OF NEW ENGLAND 
TO CROMWELL, UPON HIS APPLICATION TO PERSONS HERE 
TO SETTLE IN IRELAND. 



[The following letter is copied from the third volume, second series, 
page 360, of Ellis's Original Letters on English History. The Editor 
refers to the original thus, " Mss. Soc. Antiq. num. 138. art. 34. Orig.," 
and remarks : " The Letter here introduced to the Reader was the an- 
swer to one of the expedients proposed by Cromwell for gradually im- 
proving the condition of that country [Ireland] Whether any 

of the New-Englanders absolutely settled in Ireland, in consequence of 
Cromwell's proposal, the Editor of these volumes is not aware. Some 
other correspondence probably exists upon the subject. The warmth 
with which Cromwell's butcheries are applauded in this Letter affords 
matter of astonishment." Hutchinson, Vol. I. p. 190, says : " Crom- 
well had been very desirous of drawing off the New-Englanders to 
people Ireland after his successes there, and the inhabitants of New 
Haven had serious thoughts of removing, but did not carry their design 
into execution." It may doubtless be affirmed with truth, that Cromwell's 
plans as regards the people of the Colony of Massachusetts were equally 
unsuccessful. C. D.] 



Eight Honourable 
As the state of England hath bene pleased to call you 
to cheife place of civil and military Command in Ireland, 
so hath the Lord to admiration prospered your undertak- 
ings there and made you a glorious Instrument of the 
execution of his just vengeance upon those bloody mon- 
sters of mankinde, and therein heard the cries of his dye- 
ing and liveing people in Ireland, together with those of 
his Saynts in both Englands, who have cryed in his eares 
for vengeance against the inhuman murtherers of his 
poore people in Ireland ; and what can the remnant left 
of his people there, or the rest of their bretheren in both 
Englands doe lesse, than thankfully acknowledge amongst 



116 Letter from New England Ministers to Cromwell. 

all other wonders of Gods grace done for you and by you, 
that he hath there also compased you about with his 
favor as with a sheld, and crowned you with renowned 
victories over these bloody rebells and enraged enemies oi 
his name and saynts ; nor can we doe other then thankfuly 
acknowledge this as a superadded mercy to all the rest, 
that by his grace he hath kept it in the frame of youi 
heart amidst all the glorious victories which under God 
you have gotten, thankfully to ascribe the glory thereoi 
to him alone, who is the King of Glory, the Lord oi 
Hoasts mighty in battel, and your pious care in abaseing 
men and meanes to exalt the Lord in all your Victoryes. 
as it hath not a little honoured you in our eyes ; soe have 
we looked at the same, as a speaking pledge that God 
will yet goe on to perfect his admirable worke by you : 
now therefore Hedoubtecl Worthy, thinke with yourseli 
6 What shall I render to the Lord for all his benyfits to- 
' wards me, what further service hath the Lord to use m€ 
4 in, whoe hath done soe great things for me and by me; 
Yea you are studdying (thrice noble Sir) which way to 
lift up the name of Jesus Christ there where it hath beene 
most vilely trampled upon, and where you are called tc 
cheife place of rule, there to take effectual care that Jesus 
Christ alone may reigne, and that desolate Ireland which 
hath bene drenched and steeped in blood, may be moys- 
tened and soaked with the waters of the Sanctuary, for 
which end your Honour is pleased to cast your eyes, as 
upon godly people and ministers in England, soe upon 
such like in America also, whose hearts the Lord maj 
moove to soe blessed a worke, We therefore whose names 
are underwritten doe, in behalfe of ourselves and some 
others here in New England humbly returne to youi 
Honour many thanks for your noble offers respecting us 
also, and since your Honour hath so large a heart given 
you of the Lord as to desire to build him a Temple amidst 
the ruinous heaps in Ireland, and so royal a spirit as to 
be ready soe nobly to befreind the freinds (even in Amer- 
ica also) of any such workes, soe farr as to improve youi 
uttermost interest for their furtheraunce in removing 
thither, and for their safe and comfortable habitation 
there, together with like care had of their injoying the 



Letter from New England Ministers to Cromwell. 117 

Lord in his ordinances there, we know not but we may 
attend this providence of the Lord soe far also as to ob- 
serve what further of the minde and counsel of God may 
appeare to us in your seasonable prosecution of your 
noble proposals, hopeing that as we came by a call of God 
to serve him here, soe if the Lords mind shall cleerly ap- 
peare to give us a sufficyent call and incouragement to 
remove into Ireland, to serve the Lord Jesus there, wee 
shall cheerfully and thankfully imbrace the same. Thus 
commending your Honours weighty occasions to the 
Lords guidance and blessing, we humbly take our leaves, 
resting 

Your Honours to serve you in the Lord 

Peeter Bulkley, min. 

Sam. Whiting, min. 

John Knowles, min. 

Tho. Cobet, min. 
New England, Danyel Denyson. 

31. 10 Month 1650. John Tuttell. 



[" The Conditions which these Ministers and godly persons proposed, 
previous to setting out for Ireland, are entered upon another Paper. 
They were as follow " : — ] 

" That in mater of Religion we may have like liberty 
established by favor of the State of England, for the exer- 
cise of the worship and government of Christ as here we 
enjoy in New England. 

" That such a proportion of outward encouragements 
in houses and lands as the State shall thinke fit in favour 
to bestow upon suche as principally and personally en- 
gage in this worke may be set forth by the Parliament or 
Counsel of State, and after divisions to be made by us 
with some appointed by the Parliament to our Assocyates. 

" That some quantity of land may be granted for the 
advancing of learning, by a Free-Scoole and College. 

" That we may have free choyce of the cheife millitary 
governour to be over the Garrison where we shall sit 
downe, and such a one as may be of our owne company, 
if we have any fit person amongst us, or if not, that we 



118 Letter from New England Ministers to Cromwell, 

may have liberty to nominate some other godly man which 
the state of England may aprove of. 

" That in regard we come from a pure Ay re, we may 
have a place in the more healthfull part of the country. 

" That in regard of the meanness and inabillity of sun- 
dry godly persons (which doe or may desire to joyne with 
us) to transport themselves and famelies, the State would 
be pleased to think of some way of lending them some 
helpe. 

" That we and our company may for some yeares be 
freed from publique charges. 

" That noe Irish may inhabite amongst us, but such as 
we shall like of. 

" That we and our company may have convenyent 
tyme allowed us for our transportation into Ireland. 

" Lastly intimate our sufferings under the tyranny of 
Episcopacy, which forced us into exile (to our great haz- 
zard and losse) for noe other offence but professing that 
truth which (through mercy) is now acknowledged." 



LETTER FROM WILLIAM BRADFORD TO 
JOHN WINTHROP. 



[The following letter was copied from the original in my possession, 
written in Governor Bradford's clear and beautiful hand. C. D.] 



S r . I am requested to write these few lines vnto you* 
in the behalfe of some Indeans of Yarmoth ; who com- 
plaine that Mr. Offley owes them 6 coats of trading cloath, 
and a pair of small briches, for seruise they did him, in 
taking of sturgion. Some of them affirme that they were 
loath to haue leaft their hunting, when he Importuned 
them to help him, and now not to pay them for their 
laboure they take it very ill ; and take occation therby 
to scandalice all y e English. I am Informed by Mr. Free- 
man that many of y e neigbours know these debts to be 
due, and are yet vnsatisfied. To which this bearer can 
also say sumething. Haueing not els at presente with 
my best loue remembred vnto you, I take leaue & rest 
Your affectionate freind 

William Bradford 

Plim. 11 (10) 45. 

[Superscribed, " To his much honoured freind Mr. John Winthrop 
Deputie Gou r . of y e Massachussets these be dd."] 



LETTER FROM EMANUEL DOWNING TO 
JAMES USHER. 



[In the Life of the learned James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, by 
Richard Parr, his chaplain, folio, London, 1686, p. 16, is a very striking 
letter, addressed to Usher at London, the same year that he was made 
Bishop of Meath, from Emanuel Downing. By the biographer he is 
called " a worthy divine," and to me it seems highly probable, that he 
was father of that Emanuel, the lawyer, of London, who married a 
sister of our Governor Winthrop, and brought her and his family to 
Salem. That Usher was highly esteemed by the Puritans is clear 
enough from his being invited to a seat in their famous Assembly of Di- 
vines, called by the Long Parliament ; and though he could not comply 
with that request, he was by Cromwell held in veneration to his death. 

On account of the rarity of this work, which is not frequently seen in 
England, and might not easily be found in this country, I have procured 
from Rev. Joseph Hunter a transcript as here given. 2.] 



Reverend Sir, 
I hope you are not ignorant of the hurt, that has come 
to the Church by this name, Puritan, and how his Majes- 
ties good intent and meaning therein is much abused and 
wronged ; and especially in this poor country where the 
Pope, and Popery, is so much affected. I being lately 
in the Country had conference with a worthy, painful 
preacher, who hath been an instrument of drawing many 
of the meer Irish there from the blindness of Popery to 
embrace the Gospel, with much comfort to themselves 
and heart breaking to the Priests, who perceiving they 
cannot now prevail with their jugling tricks, have forged 
a new device. They have now stirred up some crafty 
Papists, who very boldly rail both at Ministers and peo- 
ple, saying they seeke to sow this damnable heresy of 
Puritanism among them, which word, tho' not understood, 



Letter from Emanuel Downing to James Usher. 121 

but only known to be most odious to his Majesty, makes 
many afraid of joining themselves to the Gospel, though 
in conference their consciences are convicted herein; so 
to prevent a greater mischief that may follow, it were 
good to petition his Majesty to define a Puritan, whereby 
the mouths of these scoffing enemies would be stopt. 
And if his Majesty be not at leisure, that he would ap- 
point some good men to do it for him ; for the effecting 
thereof you know better than I can direct, and therefore I 
commit you and your affairs to the blessing of the Al- 
mighty, praying for your good success there, and safe re- 
turn hither, resting 

Your assured friend to his power 

Emanuel Downing 
Dublin 24 Oct. 1620. 



4th s. -—vol. ii. 16 



SUPPOSED LETTER FROM EEV. COTTON 
MATHER, D.D. 



Honourable S r 

As soon as your horr has considered y e Contents hereof, 
I request you (for several reasons) to burn it. I being 
lately in y e Company of Dr. Mather, was made sensible of 
some things, wch. I tho't I might do well to lay before 
your hon r and the rather because I understand he is a 
person, that you have some value for. I am not without 
fears that y e heavy & many troubles, that oppress him., 
may have such an Effect upon, that wee shall quickly 
loose him except redressed speedily, and indeed had it 
not been for some singular attainments wch. I suppose 
he is master of, he could never have born up so well as 
he has. Your Honour I believe is not acquainted wth. 
his troubles, but I find that wch. most overwhelms him 
is, y e wretched Administr'con as he calls it in wch. he has 
been ensnared, by his Love to some whom he finds full of 
Ingratitude. Your hon r can deliver him if you please, 
and if Incapacity to Admin r be a just cause for a Judge to 
lay aside an Administrator, you have it already before 
you, or if you think you have not, you will (it may be) 
have it either in the Death, or in some thing worse than 
that soon coming on that distressed tho' worthy Gentle- 
man. I am inform'd by those who have it from Mr. Boy- 
dell, that the accounts of y e Administracon given in are 
beyond expectation fair & clear and to your hon rs satis- 
faction. 

Every one that I speak w th are of Opinion that y e man- 
nagers deserve to have more allow'd them than all that 
Whittamore has applyed for his owne support in the busi- 
ness, for y e Incredible fatigue wch. they have undergone. 



Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather. 123 

But if so much be not allowed then y e Doctor must pay it 
out of his pockett, wch. I percieve he is ready to do, 
rather then the orphans should be defrauded of a penny. 
But until your hon r shall release him, his condition as he 
sayes, and I partly know it, is intolerable ; every one y l 
knocks at his door surprizes him, that his heart dies w th in 
him as he sayes, fearing there is an Arrest to be serv'd on 
him, or some body to dun him for a Debt, due from an 
Estate, which he nor his can be a farther the better for. 
Old Mrs. Fy field keeps worrying about y e ruins that her 
Estate must suffer because of her husbands suretyship. 

Your honour gave the old doctor some hope that you 
would deliver his son out of his Extream distresses. He 
sayes you told him, it was in your power, and then he 
adds I hope the good Judge will think 'tis his duty. 

The brave and good old Doctor, who is longing for 
Heaven does also vehemently long for your hon r to deliver 
his son. But this morning, I find the distressed Gentle- 
man viz 1 y e young doct r almost sunk into a total clispair of 
any deliverance, he sayes the affair Labours as if it were 
inchanted, they have been two years doing what might 
have been done in less than two months, the Doctor 
speaks of your hon rs judgem 1 and goodness wth. y e great- 
est respect, but he seems to be apprehensive of a strong 
plott laid to ruin him, by them for whom he alwayes had 
y e bowels of a Tender father. He is commonly Informed 
that your Nephew stirs up people to arrest him, and has 
given y e Doctor reason to think, that he has consulted 
w th an able Lawyer, to molest him for male administracon. 
he is told, that Mr. Faneuils arrest was contrived on pur- 
pose to prevent your hon r from delivering of him, w ch ar- 
rest tho now dropt, (by y e good perswasion of my great 
& good friend) will be speedily renewed for that pur- 
pose. His Tirrible wife (whose character Mr. Jon. Sewell 
has given (as y e Doctor understands) to others, and can 
give to your honour if he pleases) will have a great Estate 
whether there be one or no. the women talk like mad 
people about it. the story of a sham Inventory Mr. Boy- 
dell can tell your hon r . 

The Estate has already fared much the worse, as I am 
inform'd because your Nephew refused to act as an attor- 



124 Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather, 

ney in y e administracon, & will do so more & more. 
It seems his wife wont let him act, & the doctor thinks 
its from an ill intention to plague the doctor. 

Considering some strange things that your Nephew 
knows relating to his predecessor, the doctor has often 
wondered at his barbarous carriage towards him (whereof 
I belive the Doctor can give your hon r a strange Instance) 
and that he is not afraid of Dreadful consequences, the 
Doctor thinks your nephew studdies all y e Litigious arts 
he can to defeat your honours just & good purposes to 
deliver y e poor afflicted servant of God, and the Doct r ex- 
pects hell be successful in them, wch. causes the doctor 
to be so dejected that it would move your hon r3 compas- 
sion to a great Degree were you to see him. The Doctor 
I percieve esteems y r hon rs conversation above any in the 
Land, & would have waited on you often, but his dejec- 
tion ab l this wretched administracon so dispirits him that 
he is fit for to speak with none, to talk of nothing. His 
burthen certainly is almost insupportable, for he would 
fain have preach'd a Lecture sermon, to stir up devout 
persons to pray for y e conversion of y c Jews, on y e next 
week, but he sayes this wretched administracon undoes 
him, he cannot fix his tho'ts & must let it alone. 

Good S r make haste with your helping hand to this 
distressed afflicted minister of Christ & save him from 
y e Plotts of those whom you may see would ruin him. I 
beseech you S r let not your nephew, or by him, his wife 
be to hard for you 

I am your lion™ most humble 

& obedient serv 1 &c. 
[Reed. Ap. 13. 1120 To 

past 9 at night.] The Hon 6 Judge 

Sewall 
These. 



On this anonymous epistle the Judge made, in the corner, near the 
end, the significant memorandum here inclosed in brackets [ ] ; but on 
the outside, as the paper is folded in the common form of filing letters, 
is noted only, " Reed Apr 13 th 1720 in behalf of Dr. Cotton Mather." 

Presuming that some explanation of this curious letter might be de- 
rived from the Journal of Chief Justice Sewall, one of whose family in a 



Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather. 125 

collateral branch had given the original to a former member of our His- 
torical Society, who presented it to the Society, I sent on the 19th of 
March an exact copy, with request for such aid, to Rev. Samuel Sewall, 
of Burlington, a descendant of the Judge. His reply follows : — 

Burlington, March 22, 1844. 
Dear. Sir : Your kind letter of the 19th instant, containing a copy 
of the strange letter lately presented to the Historical Society, was re- 
ceived yesterday. ¥ For that copy I give you many thanks. This morn- 
ing I applied myself to the work of tracing out the letter itself, aided by 
the copy you sent me, and succeeded beyond my expectations. The 
following extracts from the Judge's Journal, Letter-Book, and Probate 
Minutes (a small quarto volume, containing a brief account of his Pro- 
bate business, copies of wills, as Grove Hirst's, his son-in-law, Governor 
Dudley's, &c, &c.) throw much light on this mysterious letter, although 
they do not reveal precisely the cause of Dr. Mather's uneasiness, &c, 
&c. I have arranged them in chronological order ; but the first I stum- 
bled upon was that numbered 6. 

1. " 1716 May 2. Mr. Nathan Howell dies at Oldham's near Oliver's 
Spring." — Journal. 

2. " * Nota. Br. Cotton Mather had Letters of Administration 
Granted him on the Goods, Rights & Credits of Nathan Howell late of 
Boston Merch 1 deceased. June 4, 1716." — Prob. Min., margin. 

3. " 1716 Dec r . 22 Gave Cousin Sewall Mr. Henry on y e L. Supper, 
for his Spouse, Mrs. Katharine Howell" &c, &c. 

4. " 1716-17 Jan v . 15. 3 — Visited Cous. S. Seivall, and his new 
married wife." — Journal. 

5. " 1717 Dec r . 5 Mr. John Winthrop, Mr. Sam 1 Seivall and Katharine 
Ms wife, dine with us, and Jonathan Sewall. Mr. Winthrop sent home 
Mrs. Sewall in his coach." — Journal. 

6. "To Dr. Cotton Mather, March 1. 1719-20 

" Sir, — Your Obliging Letter of the 22 d of Decr. last, I reed, the 
next Day ; but one remora after another hindred my answering till now. 
I am truely sensible that I am the greatest Loser by any Interruption 
there has been of our most agreable conversation ; and therefore earnest- 
ly desire that the Causes of that Interruption may be removed. 

" And the proper Way to obtain freedom from this perplexing Admin- 
istration (wherein I sympathise with you) is to bring in an Account of 
what has been receiv'd and paid to A. B. C. D. the express Sums with 
the Vouchers ; as also what the Managers of the affair propose to have 
allowd them for their Reward : which I see not yet done. To this end I 
have desired Mr. Boydell to assist in drawing up the Administration 
Account in form ; which he is ready to doe. I very much desire that 
this may be done with all convenient Expedition, for your sake, and for 
the Orphans, and my own. Nine Months of the fourth Year are now 
spent since the Letters of Administration were taken out. 
" A Visitation of Mr. Williams's School," &c, &c. 

" I am, Sir, your humble Serv* S. S." 

7. " 1720. 8 r 12. Give Mr. Whittemore & Willard y r Oath to Dr. 
Mather's Inventory." — Journal. 

8. " 1720. 8 r 17 Monday. Give Mr. Dan 1 Willard, and Mr. Pelatiah 



126 Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather. 

Whittemore y r Oaths to y e Accts. and Mr. John Briggs to his, as they are 
Attorneys to Dr. Cotton Mather Administrator to y e Estate of Nathan 
Howell deceased."" — Journal. 

9. " 1727-8 January 8. George & Nathan Howell ab l 15 & 14 y ,s 
old, went a skating at the bottom of y e Common, & were both drown'd. 
O Ld. sanctify thine awfull Prov dce to the near Relations; Support & 
Comfort y m . Be to y ne Handmaid better y n 10 Sons. To y e Town," &c, 
&c. — Rev. Br. SewalPs Journal. 

From the above extracts it appears, that, shortly after Mr. Howell's 
death, Dr. Mather undertook to administer on his estate ; and Samuel, 
son of Major Stephen Sewall of Salem, and brother of Jonathan and of 
Chief Justice Stephen, married his widow. The two boys referred to, 
Extract 9, were doubtless children of this Mr. Howell, and the " or- 
phans," or at least two of them, named in the anonymous letter, and in 
the Judge's to Dr. Mather. The " Nephew," so frequently named in 
the anonymous letter, as contriving the Doctor's ruin, was not Jonathan 
Sewall, as I supposed till I came across Extract 5, but his brother Samuel. 
And the nephew's "predecessor" was doubtless Mr. Howell, the first 
husband of his " Tirrible wife." Concerning the trait in the character 
of this " Tirrible wife," what in particular it was, I am unable to say. 
But concerning her second husband and his brother, the two nephews of 
the Judge referred to in the letter, Samuel and Jonathan Sewall, the 
Judge writes in a letter, dated Oct. 29, 1717, to a cousin and corre- 
spondent in England, as follows : " I suppose you are not unacquainted 
with Mr. Samuel Sewall, Son of Maj'" Sewall of Salem. He is an ac- 
complish'd Merch 1 and dwells in town. If you might transfer the buis- 
ness wherein you employ'd Mr. Hirst upon him, I hope it would be for 
your Profit, and you would therein very much gratify me. His brother 
Jonathan Sewall liv'd with Mr. Hirst several years, who was pleased 
with his skillfull & faithfull Services, and has often in my hearing given 
him a very good character. Jonathan now dwells with his brother, and 
joins with him in his Ship Chandlers Business." In the same letter the 
Judge communicates to this cousin (Mr. Samuel Storke of London) the 
death of Mr. Hirst. In another letter written the next day, Oct. 30, 
1717, to a brother of the above Mr. Storke, and probably a partner in 
business, the Judge writes as follows : " I am thankfull to you & others 
that may be concerned for y e profitable buisnesse you Imployed Mr. 
Hirst in, &, now if you should see meet to transfer your Buisnesse to my 
Cousin Mr. Samuel Sewall Eldest son of my Brother Maj r Sewall of 
Salem, It would very much gratify me : he has a good Storehouse just 
by Mr. Hirsts & I hope would transact for you w th Integrity ability & 
application. His brother Jona. Sewall dwells with him, who formerly 
lived several years with Mr. Hirst, who gave him a very good character, 
& he understands &, is well acquainted w lh Mr. Hirst's affairs." — Letter- 
Book. 

The above nephew of the Judge's, Samuel, may have been unfortunate 
in his wife, but I can hardly think that either he or his brother would be 
guilty of entering into any plot to ruin or " to plague " Dr. Mather. 
The probability seems to me to be, that the business of the administra- 
tion had been very negligently or unskilfully managed by Dr. Mather 
or his agents, or both ; and that now, after it had been conducted above 



Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather. 127 

three years in this manner without being brought to any close (when it 
might have been " in two months " according to the doctor's own con- 
fession), the father-in-law of the orphans had begun to use some threat- 
ening, and perhaps other legal measures, to oblige the administrator and 
his attorneys to fulfil their trust. And the letter of the Judge to Dr. 
Mather seems by the event to have contributed to this end. How it 
should have ever been necessary for him to remind the Doctor of the 
necessity of rendering into the Probate Office a regular particular ac- 
count of his receipts and expenses in this administration, before he could 
obtain a discharge, it is difficult to conceive. 

The above Samuel Sewall, nephew of the Judge, is, I have no doubt, 
the " Major Sewall " to whom Rev. Mr. Upham refers in his Lectures 
upon Witchcraft, as introducing into the General Court, nearly fifty 
years after the witchcraft, a resolution " for the appointment of a Com- 
mittee to make an inquiry into the condition and circumstances of indi- 
viduals and families, that might have suffered from the ' calamity of 
1692 ' as it was called." (Page 122.) Mr. Upham mentions him as 
" a son of the Judge." But the Judge's son Samuel never had the title 
of " Major," by which, I believe, this son of Major Stephen of Salem 
was known. His brother Jonathan's first wife was Elizabeth Alford (of 
Charlestown, I presume), by whom he had two daughters. After her 
death, Sept. 11, 1723, he married Mary Payne, a sister of Edward Payne 
of Boston, by whom he had two other daughters, and Jonathan, the cele- 
brated Attorney-General. This Jonathan died November, 1731, leaving 
a widow and the above children. His mother also, the daughter of 
" matchless Mitchel," was then yet living, and I presume in Boston, 
perhaps with Jonathan. 

If I can lend any further aid, dear Sir, in explaining the document in 
question, I will cheerfully do it. The above is all that is now in my 
power. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

Samuel Sewall. 

Perhaps every reader would be satisfied with these illustrations, equal- 
ly ample and judicious, of the descendant of the first Chief Justice Sew- 
all. Some additional light on the relation of Cotton Mather to the 
wretched administration is derived from our records of marriages. 

Nathan Howell and Katherine George were married by Mr. Benja- 
min Colman, 7 Oct., 1708. 

The Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather and Madam Lydia George were mar- 
ried by the Rev. Dr. Increase Mather, 5 July, 1715. 

Samuel Sewall and Katherine Howell were married by the Rev. Dr. 
Cotton Mather, 1 January, 1716, i. e. in our computation 1717. 

Notice of the death of Howell is contained in the Boston Newsletter 
of the 7th of May, No. 629, and the birth of his sons is recorded in our 
town books, George, son of Nathan Howell and Katherine his wife, 1 
November, 1712, Nathan, 21 March, 1713-4. 

The most curious evidence, however, is furnished by the records of 
our Probate Court, of which Boydell, mentioned both in the letter of 
Judge Sewall and that, supposed, of Mather, was Register. Grant of Ad- 
ministration on Estate of Nathan Howell is found in Vol. XIX. p. 119, at 



128 Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather. 

the desire of Katherine, widow of the intestate, in favor of Cotton Mather, 
D. D., calling the deceased Ms son-in-law. So that it is evident that 
Mather had the preceding year married the mother of this lady, whom 
he describes as the terrible wife of the Judge's nephew, Stephen ; and 
that his own wife's daughter had solicited this neighborly and Christian 
trust of her departed husband's property to be granted to him. By the 
appointment, he was required to return inventory at or before the 4th of 
September, 1716, and plain and true account of administration at or be- 
fore the 4th of June, 1717 ; and from his own letter it may be inferred, 
that one of his sureties had great apprehension of ruin from his neglect. 
Stranger still is the fact, that no inventory is recorded, nor any account 
of the administration, although in his 'private memoranda the Judge has 
noted his giving the oath on the 12th of October, 1720, for the former, 
and only five days later for the accounts. May we infer, that both were 
surreptitiously withdrawn from the hands of the Register ? 

Greater promptitude was found in the action on the estate of Mather 
after his decease, on the 13th of February, 1728. By Vol. XXVI. p. 187, 
it appears that administration was granted on the 22d of July, 1728, to 
Nathaniel Goodwin ; and p. 189 contains the inventory, taken the next 
day after, and sworn to on the 5th of August of the same year. This 
document is observable for two things : the silver plate exceeds in value 
all the other personal property, and not a single book is mentioned 
among the assets of this eccentric scholar. 

It may, at last, be demanded, why this remarkable letter, which 
affords such insight into the character of Cotton Mather, is attributed to 
himself? 

Perhaps any critic, conversant with the epistolary productions of the 
author of Magnalia Christi Americana, would decide by the style of this 
composition ; but a general reader would infer from the disclosure of 
character and incidents, that nobody else was authorized to speak as this 
letter does of him, his intentions (as, for instance, about the Lecture for 
conversion of the Jews), and, above all, his private sufferings from the 
accident of being amenable to the jurisdiction of the Probate Court. 
Something like a parallel to the obliquity of the opening sentence in this 
document is found in a remarkable epistle to Governor Shute, of the 31st 
of October, 1718, preserved in the Appendix to Quincy's History of 
Harvard University, Vol. I. p. 524, where is shown a cunning less pro- 
found than disreputable : " Your Excellency's incomparable goodness 
and wisdom will easily discern and approve the intention of the freedom 
used in this letter, and have it and its writer covered under the darkest 
concealment." The injunction of the writer as to his immunity of dark- 
ness seems to have been equally disregarded, probably scorned, by the 
Judge and the Governor. 

Yet more direct proof of the origin of this letter is deducible from mi- 
nute, than general, inquiry. It would not, likely, have been produced by 
a scribe under dictation ; and four several petty occurrences in this origi- 
nal manuscript delivered to Judge Sewall prove it to be a copy from a 
draft lying before the transcriber, and that the author read his letter to the 
amanuensis, instead of taking this paper to see if it exactly conformed. 

I. In the third sentence, Mm is omitted, without doubt, in the clause, 
" such an effect upon." 



Supposed Letter from Rev. Cotton Mather, 129 

II. Near the end of second paragraph, " can be a farther the better 
for," may be judged a blunder for farthing. 

III. The malediction of Major Stephen Sewall's wife, under the epithet 
of " Tirrible" was, by the meek author's autograph, unquestionably 
given terrible. Some other words may appear spelt in an older style 
than then prevailed. 

IV. In the concluding sentence " to hard'''' is manifestly curtailed of 
an o. 

Still a higher confidence may be felt from inspection of this curious 
paper, which, though of so great length, contains not a single erasure or 
interlineation, clearly showing, in my opinion, that it must be a tran- 
script, not a first draft. In his manuscript Cotton Mather made many 
corrections, both of erasure and insertion, almost universally. 

How much the occurrence in this document explained affects the 
reputation of Cotton Mather, may be unnecessary to determine. It sure- 
ly goes far to elucidate the ill repute in which he was held in his latter 
days, that was so prevalent as to cause him to lament that old admirers 
would not recognize him as he passed through the streets. Many of the 
deceased members of our Society, and a few survivors, have received 
traditional stories of an unfavorable bearing, of which the whole founda- 
tion may have been only the transaction above detailed, or similar ones. 
The high reverence in which he had been held may naturally have con- 
duced to a greater depreciation of his character than justice would au- 
thorize. Pity is due to his hypochondriac lamentation of ingratitude, 
under which the father also suffered, but with too proper a self-esteem to 
utter perpetual complaint. The great misery of Cotton Mather was his 
vanity ; and this gangrene, first applying to his literary, then to his social, 
may ultimately have tainted his moral reputation, in the judgment of his 
fellow-citizens. 

The copy is most carefully made from the original, with every variety 
of spelling, and every abbreviation. 

JAMES SAVAGE. 

Boston, July, 1844. 



4-TH S. — VOL. II. 



MEMOIR OF REV. THADDEUS MASON 
HARRIS, D. D. 



By NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D. D. 



A Memoir of this learned and amiable divine belongs 
of peculiar right to the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
of which he was for a time the Librarian, and had been 
a diligent member, at the period of his death, for just half 
a century. Such a Memoir was expected from the hand 
of one of his earliest associates. But as the Society has 
been disappointed in this, the writer of the present notice 
succeeds to the task, and feels that in obeying an injunc- 
tion he is at the same time performing a labor of love. 
The task is made an easy one by his being permitted to 
make use of a manuscript Account of Dr. Harris's Life 
and Writings by the late venerable Dr. John Pierce, whose 
accuracy can always be relied on, and whose very words 
he may cite at pleasure with perfect propriety. 

Thaddeus Mason Harris was born in Charlestown, July 
7, 1768. He was the son of William Harris. His mother 
was Rebekah, daughter of Hon. Thaddeus Mason of 
Charlestown, afterwards of Cambridge, — a gentleman of 
excellent quality, who filled, in the course of a long and 
useful life, many offices of honor and trust in the Com- 
monwealth and in the County of Middlesex, and among 
the rest that of Clerk of the Courts of Session and of Com- 
mon Pleas, which he held during fifty-four years.* This 

* Thaddeus Mason was a graduate of Harvard College, in the class of 1728. 
After the destruction of Charlestown, he resided at Cambridge, where he died in 
1802, in the ninety-sixth year of his age. 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 131 

was being well-born. His mother was a woman of great 
worth, of a highly intellectual and religious character. His 
father, a man of talent and education, left his native town 
of Boston, when about twenty years old, to take charge 
of the public writing-school in Charlestown, at the invita- 
tion of the inhabitants of that place ; sustained his charge 
" with the highest reputation," * till the battle of Lexing- 
ton alarmed him for the safety of his family ; then re- 
paired to Chockset, the west precinct of Lancaster, since 
called Sterling, where he became captain and paymaster 
in a regiment raised for the service of the country ; and 
there dying, October 30, 1778, at the early age of thirty-four 
years and three months, was buried with military and re- 
ligious honors, leaving behind him the memory of a just, 
kind, and good man. Of these parents Thaddeus was 
the first-born child. His constitution was delicate, and 
his health exceedingly precarious in infancy and early 
childhood; so that great fears were entertained for his 
life. And this is all that we hear about him till the first 
great trouble that crossed his young life, — one that 
convulsed the whole country, and shook the shores of Old 
England and the European continent. Just before the 
battle of Bunker Hill, when he was not quite seven years 
old, his father and mother were driven by their apprehen- 
sions from the home-spot that was so soon to be a scene 
of blood and fire, and took their departure, without any 
distinct purpose or thought whither or how they should 
be led. It was a hasty flight. "With a few necessary 
articles of clothing, such as they could easily carry, they 
set out, — Thaddeus with his twin-sisters next in age to 
himself, the father and mother each carrying a child in 
the arms, an aged grandmother being also with them. 
On arriving at Lexington, they spent a night at Munroe's 
tavern, kept by a widow woman to whom they were dis- 
tantly related. While they were there, an empty wagon 
was about leaving the public house ; and in this they be- 
spoke a passage, to go wherever the owner was bound. 
It took them to Chockset, a part of Sterling." He soon 
went back to his forsaken dwelling for the sake of bring- 

* Joshua Henshaw, in the Independent Chronicle, Nov. 19, 1778. 



132 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

ing away a few articles of value which had been left be- 
hind. He was but just in season, for now came the great 
fight. By the burning of Charlestown and the scattering 
of its inhabitants, he lost not .only his school, but a new 
and commodious house, which he had built and fur- 
nished with the savings of eleven years. His father-in- 
law, Mr. Mason, lost a large and elegant mansion, to- 
gether with a great deal of valuable property, by the same 
conflagration. Thus he was suddenly reduced from a 
state of competence to poverty. He obtained temporary 
employment as a teacher in some of the country towns ; 
but the unsettled state of public affairs rendered this un- 
certain and unprofitable; and he was at length induced 
to join the army, as has been said. But he was soon 
swept off by a violent fever, while on a visit to his family, 
which he was compelled to leave in most trying and indi- 
gent circumstances. 

After his father's death, " Thaddeus went to live with 
Mr. Houghton, a farmer. He afterwards went to Deacon 
Kilbourne's at Westminster, where he became acquainted 
with Rev. Asaph Rice. His next remove was to Mr. 
Kendall's at Templeton, where he experienced the kind 
offices of Rev. Ebenezer Sparhawk. In the latter part of 
1779 he returned to Chockset, and was soon introduced 
into the family of Dr. Ebenezer Morse of Boylston, who 
had been obliged to leave the ministry on suspicion of 
Toryism, and was supporting his family by the practice of 
medicine and the fitting of boys for college. This good 
man took the unprotected orphan into his study, and pre- 
pared him for college at the same time with his own son. 
While here, young Harris did something towards his own 
support by stripping ash or walnut clefts for the manufac- 
ture of brooms ; and by making axe-handles, whip-lashes, 
button-moulds, and cat-gut for bass-viols and violins. At 
length he procured wild honey, with the profits of which 
he clothed himself for college." In July, 1782, he went 
to visit his mother, who, after suffering much distress 
from grief and poverty in her widowed state, had entered 
into a second marriage somewhat more than two years be- 
fore, with Mr. Samuel Wait of Maiden, who opened for 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 138 

rer and her children a comfortable home.* He informed 
ler of what had taken place ; and that he had completed 
lis preparatory studies under the charge of Dr. Morse, 
vho advised him to present himself for admission into 
Harvard College, trusting to the beneficiary provisions 
here made for needy students. This plan, however, did 
lot meet with her approbation. She opposed strongly 
uch aspiring views, and persuaded him to become an ap- 
prentice to the trade of saddle-tree making. This project 
vas broken off by a fortunate misfortune. He injured 
me of his wrists in performing some piece of labor, and 
vsls thus obliged to give up the place that had been pro- 
dded for him. He now went to write in his grandfather 
Mason's office, being always remarkably expert with his 
>en; and his thought was to become a merchant. In 
>rder to obtain means for engaging in this pursuit, he 
.greed with his grandfather to defray the cost of his 
loard by writing, and repaired to the school in Cambridge 
:ept by Mr. Kendall. This gentleman, afterwards Dr. 
Kendall of Weston, finding the youth an apt scholar, 
arnestly recommended a collegiate education for him. 
>o warm an interest did he take in this, that he induced 
lev. Drs. Stillman and Thacher of Boston to issue 
ubscription-papers on behalf of the young man, which 
•rocured for him funds to meet his college expenses. He 
fas admitted to that institution in July, 1783. Such 
xvor did he find, through the docility of his manner and 
is evident literary tastes and ambition, that in the outset 
f his Freshman year he was invited to live, free of all 
harge, in the family of Professor Williams, whose son 
fas his classmate. During the two following years, a 
faitership in the Commons Hall entitled him to free 
>oard. He was thus taken care for as to what he should 
at. But how he should be clothed was another matter, 
n the month of March, 1786, while he was in the Junior 



* This exemplary woman died, February 2, 1801, a little more than sixty-two years 
id. Her son, in an appendix to a sermon on her death, says of her : " To have conse- 
nted her heart to God, to have formed her religious principles, and commenced her 
ious habits so seasonably," — so early as her fifteenth year, — "was a source of 
ure and increasing satisfaction to her through life, of support and comfort in the 
arious trials and afflictions with which her faith and patience were exercised, and of 
ope and triumph in her death." 



134 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harr 



is. 



year, his mother came to his room to ascertain the state 
of his wardrobe. She found it scanty and poor enough ; 
indeed, so very destitute, that she proposed to him to take 
up immediately whatever money was due to him from his 
grandfather for his services as scribe, and invest it in 
proper articles of dress. Arrangements were made ac- 
cordingly. He was to apply for his earnings, meet his 
mother on a certain day at Charlestown, and go with her 
to Boston, where she would help him lay out his money 
to the best advantage. But as an evil angel would have 
it, or rather an improvident spirit of his own, he neglected 
to call for his little fund till the morning of the very day 
that had been appointed for the expedition. He was too 
late. The good old man had left Cambridge, and was no- 
where to be found. In vain did he try to borrow what 
he needed. Every help for the exigency was as far off as 
his grandfather. With an anxious and bitter heart he 
set out on a weary trudge and a bootless errand, to a con- 
ference that he was ashamed to meet. If we may take 
his own word for it, he gave way to many moody and not 
very religious reflections on his hard lot. As he pursued 
his disconsolate way he whittled for himself a walking- 
stick, after the New England manner, and indulged in 
complaining thoughts of the Divine Providence, after the 
usual manner of man's peevish spirit. His personal 
troubles, however, were not allowed to make him insen- 
sible to those of others ; and his needy circumstances, 
pinched as they were, were yet made to contribute some- 
thing to the necessity that was greater than his own. He 
gave the few coppers that he had about him to a poor 
crippled soldier, who solicited his charity by the road-side, 
and who appeared to be faint and famishing. As he was 
crossing Charlestown Neck, where it had been raked but 
a few years before by the British shot, and while he was 
thinking less about that than about the battle that was 
going on in his own mind, he perceived that something 
had fastened itself to the end of his stick, and with all 
his brandishing he could not shake it off. On examining 
it, he found that it was a metallic substance, of what 
kind he knew not. Without giving much heed to it, and 
supposing that it might be some outcast bawble from a 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 135 

negro hut that stood near by, he dropped it into his 
pocket, where there was nothing that it could disgrace 
by its company. As he was leaning over the side of the 
ferry-boat, which had at that period to perform the office 
of a bridge, the new tenant of his pocket hurt his side. 
He took it out to be rid of it, and discovered that the 
friction it had undergone had given it quite a bright look. 
This encouraged him, on his arrival in Boston, to carry it 
to a jeweller's shop. The goldsmith, on cutting it open, 
pronounced it to be of pure gold, and pointed out to him 
a motto graven upon it, " God speed thee, friend." He 
then offered him two dollars as the value of the ring. 
This affected the young man to tears. He felt as if Prov- 
idence was thus rebuking him for his despondency and 
complaint, and was providing for him in spite of his re- 
bellious dispositions. The goldsmith, in return, struck 
with the sensibility that he saw displayed, added another 
dollar to the sum. Harris now hastened to find his 
mother, who it seems had failed to keep her appointment 
with him, to communicate to her the unexpected good 
fortune, and more than mere fortune, that had befallen 
him. She went at once with him to the shop, that she 
might see the curious little treasure with her own eyes ; 
and the tears sprang into them as she saw and read. 
The goldsmith's sympathies were again awakened, and he 
doubled the amount of what he had already given. Six 
dollars may seem to be a stinted allowance for the refit- 
ting of a young student's stock of apparel. But it was 
" amply sufficient " for the present necessity. 

This simple occurrence produced a very deep and per- 
manent impression on his mind. On the 3d of the 
following month of May he became a communicant mem- 
ber of the church in Cambridge, then under the pastoral 
care of Rev. Timothy Hilliard, who preached a special 
sermon on the occasion, from Psalm cxix. 9 : " "Where- 
withal shall a young man cleanse his way 1 By taking 
heed thereto according to thy word." 

He was graduated at Harvard College in July, 1787, at 
the age of nineteen. In the class of that year were Presi- 
dent John Quincy Adams, Judge Putnam, Judge Craneh, 
Hon. James Lloyd, and other gentlemen, among whom he 



136 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

sustained a respectable rank as a scholar. The part assigned || 
to him on taking his degree was a poem. Its subject was 
History; and it was received by the audience with such 
extraordinary commendation,, that the Rev. Drs. Belknap I 
and Thacher unitedly solicited a copy of it for publication 
in the Columbian Magazine, printed at Philadelphia) 
" fully persuaded that it would tend to increase the repu- 1 
tation of our College at the Southward." This flattering I 
request, however, he modestly but resolutely persisted in ij 
declining. After completing his collegiate course, he be- 1 
came the teacher of a school in Worcester. In this ser- • 
vice he remained for a year ; and here he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Miss Mary, the only daughter of Dr. Elijah 
and Mrs. Dorothy Dix, who was to be the partner of his 
whole life. Immediately on leaving this pleasant town, 
he was honored by an application to become private secre- 
tary to General Washington. His heart leaped at such a 
proposal, which promised to bring him into connection 
with the greatest man of his nation and time, and with 
the leading events of a wonderful era in the fortunes of 
his country and the destinies of the earth. His patriot- 
ism and his skill with the pen, his love of history and of 
poetry both, conspired to recommend such a preferment, 
and promised to open a career for his highest aspirations. 
Now the course of his life seemed to be beaten out for 
him in high places, and the motto of his ring was trans- 
lating itself into distinct prophecy. But no sooner had 
he signified his acceptance of the appointment than he 
was struck down with that terrible malady, the small-pox, 
which at that time had been relieved of only the smaller 
half of its original terrors. Public affairs cannot wait for 
the slow recoveries of sickness and for private conven- 
ience ; and before he was able to arrive at his post the 
place was filled by Tobias Lear, a gentleman who left the 
University the same year that young Harris entered it, 
and who afterwards went through a long course of diplo- 
matic service as Consul-General at St. Domingo and at 
Tripoli. 

Thrown back from this prospect of promotion, he now 
betook himself to the study of divinity, under the guid- 
ance of the Hev. Samuel Kendall of Weston ; but at the in- 



Mqnoir of Rev, Thaddeus Mason Harris. 137 

stance of Df :. Willard, President of the College, he returned 
to Cambridge, and took a room there as a resident gradu- 
ate, to com plete his theological course. He was " appro- 
bated to pi each " by the Cambridge Association, in June, 
1789, a lit le before he was twenty-one years of age. The 
pery next r lonth he made his first appearance as a preacher, 
n the pulpit of Hev. Joseph Jackson of Brookline. After 
;he usual ;erm of three years from taking his first degree 
)f A. B., he received his degree of A. M., and at the 
Commencement, July, 1790, he pronounced the Valedic- 
;ory Oration in Latin. On the following day he delivered 
m oration before the $. B. K. Society, on " Learned As- 
sociations." His habits were academic. His chief fond- 
less was for books and learning. This led to his becom- 
ng the Librarian of the College, on the resignation of the 
Rev. Isaac Smith, with whom he had already been associ- 
ated in that important literary charge. This was in 1791. 
[n August of the succeeding year he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and was as 
ibundantly qualified to be useful to it as his diligent 
idelity succeeded in making him. Meanwhile he was 
employed in preaching among the surrounding parishes, 
vherever his services were sought. On the 23d of Oc- 
;ober, 1793, he was ordained as the pastor of the church 
n Dorchester; successor to Rev. Moses Everett, who had 
resigned the charge about nine months before. His pas- 
;orate was permitted to be long-continued, and from the 
beginning to the end it was a most devoted one. Dr. 
Pierce bears the following testimony to him in the manu- 
script account which has been referred to : — 

" As a pastor, he was diligent, affectionate, conscien- 
:ious, greatly beloved. For more than ten years he had 
:he ministerial charge of the whole town, which then com- 
prehended also the whole of what is now called South 
Boston. He was truly c in labors more abundant ' ; writ- 
.ng more sermons than almost any of his brethren ; pub- 
ishing more discourses and other works than almost any 
contemporary divine ; visiting the sick ; attending funer- 
als ; and frequently repairing to the University, of which 
luring his whole ministry he was an overseer, arranging 
its library, and making an elaborate report of the con- 

4th s. — vol. ii. 18 



1 

i 

138 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

dition of the same, almost every year. As a preacher, he 
was earnest and full of tender feeling. He took a pecu- 
liar interest in the rising generation, often preaching dis- 
courses especially for their benefit, always meeting them 
with great cordiality, having 6 a word in season ' to se- 
cure their affections. At the communion-table and at i 
the baptismal font he was peculiarly interesting. In I 
visits to the sick and the bereaved he was a genuine ' son 
of consolation ' ; so that he could truly say : ' Who is 
weak, and I am not weak % Who is offended, and I burn \ 
not \ ' Besides the appropriate duties of his profession, i 
he labored much for the public, being an active member | 
of several literary and benevolent societies, to which he | 
rendered many invaluable services. He devoted much of | 
his leisure to the superintendence of the public schools. 1 
Of the Academy at Milton he was a faithful trustee." As I 
if to connect himself posthumously with the great Presi- 
dent whose secretary he came so near being, " he sorted \ 
and arranged the 132 volumes of the Writings of Wash- j 
ington, furnished them with copious indexes and notes, ! 
and thus prepared them for publication," at the request : 
of their distinguished editor, Mr. Sparks. " The secret of 
his accomplishing so much was his untiring industry, and 
such methodical arrangement of his day that he had few 
waste hours. He was an early riser, and had a time 
for everything, and did everything in its time. His' punc- 
tuality to engagements was a rare trait in his character. 
No instance can be recollected in which he was at the 
appointed place of meeting one moment too late." 

Such is the tribute paid to his professional character 
and habits by an associate, whose thread of life ran nearly 
even with his own for many years. 

Fifteen months after taking the vows of a clergyman, 
he assumed those of a husband, being united to the lady 
who has already been named. She was truly a lady. 
Nature had endowed her with a commanding person, un- 
usual intelligence, and great force of character. Her 
manners were so stately as to appear at times stern ; and 
her keen dark eye may have seemed rather to penetrate 
the thoughts of others than to seek to win their affec- 
tions. In this, she stood in striking contrast to the meek 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 139 

and yielding spirit of the man she had chosen to wed, It 
may possibly be that she had no considerable success in 
attaching the feelings of the parishioners to her, and no 
special anxiety to secure such an influence. But she was 
a woman of a noble and benevolent nature ; she was 
abundantly capable of guiding her affairs with discretion. 
If she was formed to rule, she wished to secure the happi- 
ness of her subjects. All this appeared in her dignified 
old age, when the bearing of a lofty but gracious courtesy 
was chastened by the touches of many a sorrowful experi- 
ence, and by the dispositions of a religious and kindly 
heart ; and she sat at the head of her house, making it as 
wide as it could be spread for the sheltering home of as 
many as it would hold. This union, that was solemnized 
on the 28th of January, 1795, gave birth to eight chil- 
dren, five of whom still survive, — Thaddeus William, 
the learned Librarian of Harvard University, and one of 
the most distinguished entomologists of our country, 
Mary Dorothy, Clarendon, John Alexander, and James 
Winthrop. In the early part of his married life, he was 
greatly embarrassed and his mind was much distracted 
by the consequences of building " a large and expensive 
house." He did not enter upon this unfortunate under- 
taking without being advised to it from the most en- 
couraging quarter, — that from which he had reason to 
expect the greatest assistance in completing the work. 
That expectation, however, was doomed to utter disap- 
pointment. The fortune of his father-in-law turned out 
to be no resource for him; and this led to mortifications 
that were deep and lasting. Dr. Pierce says of them: 
" It would be difficult to describe the sufferings which he 
endured from this source. Constituted as he was, it is to 
the surprise of all who best knew him, that he did not 
sink under the accumulated weight of his misfortunes and 
trials." But these disquietudes, and the various others 
that can hardly be separated from a laborious and anx- 
ious ministerial life, were not all with which he had soon 
to struggle. In the summer of 1802 a virulent disease 
broke out, which was pronounced to be yellow-fever. 
Mr. Harris was assiduous in his attendance upon the 
sick. In consequence of his exposure to the effluvia of 



140 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

an apartment where eight adult persons died within a few 
days of each other, he was himself taken down with the 
malignant distemper. His recovery from it was slow; 
and when the spring of the following year opened, he was 
found to continue so debilitated as to be induced to leave 
his home for a tour into Ohio, which at that time had 
just arrived at the dignity of a State. Special motives of 
a private kind led him in that direction, and so far. But 
no other stimulus could have been needed than the attrac- 
tive condition of that part of the country to an inquisitive 
mind. He loved to see for instruction's sake, and to 
learn that he might communicate what he had acquired; 
and Ohio, now so nourishing a commonwealth in the 
American Union, had then the charm, not inferior to the 
curious eye, of fresh, picturesque, and most luxuriant 
Nature, with the promise of future social greatness. He 
was absent four months ; and within two years after his 
return he published the result of his journey in an octavo 
volume, " Journal of a Tour into the Territory Northwest 
of the Alleghany Mountains, with a Geographical and 
Historical Account of Ohio." This work did him great 
credit as an observer and as a writer. It has been out of 
print for a long time. Dr. Pierce says : " The celebrated 
John Foster, of London, author of Essays on Decision of 
Character, &c, employed a friend to procure it for him. 
As it could not be found, in any bookstore, I reluctantly 
parted with my own copy, to satisfy the curiosity of this 
learned man." 

The introduction is so characteristic of the writer, with 
its quaint plaintiveness, that the first and last portions of 
it are here inserted. " Having long labored under wast- 
ing sickness, which obliged me for a time to relinquish 
the duties of my ministry ; my mind, naturally feeble and 
timid, sunk under its depressions and yielded to despond- 
ency A much esteemed neighbor, Mr. Seth Adams, 

was about making an excursion into the territory north- 
west of the Ohio, and proposed my accompanying him 
thither. My brother-in-law, Mr. John Dix, kindly offered 
to be my attendant, and assisted me in summoning resolu- 
tion for the undertaking." 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 141 

" To the candor of the Public, 

I submit my work ; 

to the 

providence and favour of Almighty God, 

I commend my beloved family ; 

and to the hopes, 

not of the present, 

but 

of the future life, 

I resign myself." 

Shortly after his return from this Western expedi- 
tion, — indeed but a month or two afterwards, — he 
published a compilation, " The Minor Encyclopaedia," 
in four small volumes. Though I am not aware of its ob- 
taining any great notoriety, it seems to have left an im- 
pression upon the memory of one of the greatest men of 
this generation. Daniel Webster, on meeting Dr. T. W. 
Harris at the foot of the White Mountains, the summer 
before last, said to him : " Your father was the Rev. Thad- 
deus Mason Harris. He prepared a useful work called 
the Minor Encyclopaedia, which I remember to have seen 
many years ago." In 1805, Mr. Harris appeared again 
before the $. B. K. Society at their annual celebration, re- 
citing a poem " On the Patronage of Genius," and it 
was in the same year that he was elected a member of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. After five 
years more of persevering service as a professional and 
literary man, he sailed from New York to England. This 
was a great event in his recluse and sedentary life. He 
was allowed to gratify that filial reverence for the land of 
his forefathers, which he entertained very deeply ; to see 
with his eyes what had always been painted fondly upon 
his imagination, and to make personal acquaintance with 
learned men of the old hemisphere. In these expectations 
he was not doomed to be disappointed. The shy student 
admired with a keen delight the wonders of which he had 
only read, and entered into correspondences that added 
not a little to the satisfaction of his after days. Having 
visited several parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
he embarked at Liverpool for New York, where he ar- 



142 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

rived May 13, 1811 ; his voyage and visit having occu- 
pied about nine months. Many of the letters that passed 
between him and excellent persons abroad are still in the 
possession of his family. 

The following year the Antiquarian Society was incor- 
porated. His turn of thought led him to take peculiar 
interest in the researches which such a society was de- 
signed to promote ; and he may be regarded as one of its 
founders, since his diploma is dated on the same month 
with its act of incorporation. He loved everything that 
carried him back to the remote past, while at the same 
time he had no servile adherence to what was old, as if it 
could thereby obtain any authority for us, but looked for- 
ward with sanguine hope of great improvements to be 
continually making hereafter. It may be properly men- 
tioned in this connection, that when Judge Winthrop, in 
1788, made a copy of the famous inscription on the 
" Dighton rock," which has mystified the wisdom of so 
many wise men of the North, Mr. Harris, then a young 
man of twenty, accompanied and assisted him. I have 
heard him describe the pantographic process by which it 
was done. Considering the amount of fiction and of con- 
troversy to which this supposed writing has given occa- 
sion, and considering also the injury done to the document 
itself by the fading of the characters and the wearing of 
the stone through the action of air and wave, this tran- 
script may be considered valuable. It is preserved in the 
library of Harvard College, and a part of it has been en- 
graved in the great Danish publication. A different 
diploma awaited him the next year ; one that was not of 
his seeking, but rather marked his deserving, — that did 
not show his wish for further instruction, but was a re- 
ward for having already attained to so much. So at least 
his degree of Doctor in Divinity was considered at Har- 
vard College, in 1813. It was richly merited, and con- 
ferred at comparatively an early age. 

The most considerable of Dr. Harris's works, if esti- 
mated by the amount of patient scholarship that it con- 
tains, appeared in 1820. It was the " Natural History of 
the Bible." As early as 1793, while he was Librarian of 
the University, he printed a small volume under this title. 



Memoir of Eev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 143 

But the present edition was greatly enlarged and im- 
proved, so as to be substantially a new book. " The late 
Cardinal Cheverus, then resident in Boston, spoke in high 
terms of this treatise." It is extremely valuable as a 
manual on this pleasant subject. Biblical students will 
find nowhere a volume that can be compared to it in this 
line of inquiry. He was very desirous to publish it in an 
illustrated form, and would most gladly have called in 
the art of the engraver to second the descriptions of his 
pen. But such a project was too costly, and he aban- 
doned it. The undertaking, even as it was, and with all 
its praise upon its back, was destined to rather more than 
the usual share of literary misfortune. " Laudatur et 
alget" to be commended and to starve, was written for it 
in the higher book of the Fates. In the first place, it 
found but a slow sale, and of course gave small remunera- 
tion for the toil of its author. In the second place, an 
English pirate pounced upon a copy of it that had found 
its way to the other side of the sea ; recast it, with some 
variations and additions, in a pictured and popular form, 
changing the alphabetical into a scientific arrangement; 
then published it under his own name, with a grand 
parade of always giving his " authorities," and " consci- 
entiously " respecting the rights of " literary property," 
and realized substantial profits from the sale of it through 
several editions. Not content with this theft and hypoc- 
risy, he had the effrontery to allude in his preface to a 
Mr. Harris, who had written a book on the same subject, 
which was rendered " unfit for general use by the utter 
destitution of evangelical sentiment " in it. A notice of 
this Mr. William Carpenter and his " Scripture Natural 
History " may be found in the American Monthly Eeview, 
Vol. IV. pp. 80-86. The "Natural History of the 
Bible " met with its final disaster at the great fire in 
Court Street, Boston, which destroyed the extensive 
book establishment of Messrs. Wells and Lilly, its publish- 
ers. All the copies that remained unsold, and this was 
by far the greater part of the edition, were then burnt up. 
Such was the fate of a book that met at home a recep- 
tion far inferior to its deserts ; while it has gone through 
several editions in England, and has been published on 
the Continent in a German translation. 



144 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

Mention has been made of several societies of which Dr. 
Harris was a member, and, with his activity and faithful- 
ness, membership always implied something really done. 
The list of these might be easily enlarged, for he loved to 
take part in every association that was meant to promote 
the objects of natural science, or any good learning, or so- 
cial improvement, or religion, or charity. He was a mem- 
ber of the Humane Society, of the Massachusetts Bible 
Society, the New York Historical Society, the American 
Peace Society, and the Horticultural Society. Of the 
Congregational Charitable Society he was at one time the 
Vice-President. The Society for Propagating the Gospel 
among the Indians found him a useful coadjutor. Later 
in life he became a corresponding member of the Georgia 
Historical Society, and of the Archaeological Society in 
Athens, Greece. But there was one institution in which 
his mind and feelings took a peculiar interest, for which 
he studied and wrote more than almost any of his contem- 
poraries, and in the cause of which he suffered for a long 
time such a quantity and coarseness of printed abuse, as 
would have been hard to bear even by a stoic or a man- 
at-arms, and must have cut such an extremely sensitive 
nature as his to the quick. He seems to have attached 
himself early to this association, for in 1792 he collated, 
revised, and published the " Constitutions of the Ancient 
and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons " ; 
an octavo volume, printed at Worcester, Mass., which 
came to a second edition in 1798. For a number of years 
he was Chaplain and Secretary of the Grand Lodge, and 
rendered frequent and various service to that body by occa- 
sional addresses, by his defences of Masonry, — sometimes 
in anonymous tracts, — and a volume of Masonic Dis- 
courses published in 1801. These works, says an adept,* 
" constitute a large part and valuable portion of the Ma- 
sonic, classic literature of America. They contain a faith- 
ful and dispassionate exhibition of our principles, in that 
chaste and captivating style, that forcible and earnest lan- 



* Rev. Benjamin Huntoon, in " A Eulogy, delivered by the Request of the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts, at the Funeral Services in Commemoration of Rev. and 
R. W. Thaddeus Mason Harris, D. D., and R. W. Brother Samuel Thaxter, at the 
Masonic Temple, May 4th, 1842/' 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 145 

^uage, which characterize all the productions he has 
*iven to the public." In 1816 "A. L. 5816" the Lodge 
presented to him a silver vase in token of their high ap- 
3reciation of the benefits he had conferred on their order, 
kvith the inscription : " Memoria tenemus quae non remu- 
lerare possumus." In the storm of obloquy that was 
*aised against Free-Masonry and Free-Masons, after the 
;ad events of 1826, that swept over the vast field of poli- 
ces as well as through the sanctuaries of private life, 
ind convulsed the whole nation, Dr. Harris, from his 
;ocial position, his talents and learning, and the leading 
Dart that he had taken in the concerns of the fraternity, 
vas a conspicuous mark for attack. Papers of all kinds 
vere continually sent to him, loaded with indecent re- 
nonstrances and personal insult. But of these he took 
10 notice in any way. He showed neither anger, nor 
notification, nor fear. Though he felt them deeply, he 
;aid nothing. Through the whole of that trying emer- 
gency, he preserved his patience and kindliness ; provoked 
;o no retort, and quietly persevering in the course that he 
continued to think right. His friends who knew best his 
ispen-like sensibility could not fail to be struck with the 
calmness and firmness with which he held his peace and 
lischarged his duty. He once pointed to a high shelf in 
lis library, that seemed to be stored with papers of differ- 
ent shapes, and said to a young man who had the privi- 
ege of his friendship : " All the pieces there contain 
iomething abusive of me; but I have put them far out of 
;he way, I never take them down." Such was the truly 
Christian temper that he showed of meekness and forgive- 
less ; while at the same time, as he spoke these words, 
m expression came over his face, half of painful feelings 
md half of a sly comic wonder, that a poor minister like 
lim, who had never wished or done the least harm to 
mybody all the days of his life, should be singled out for 
such a whirlwind of vituperation. 

In the winter of 1832-33, he was visited with an 
ilarming fit of sickness, which reduced him to so great a 
state of debility, that it was thought advisable for him to 
seek the aid of a milder climate than that of New Eng- 
land before another winter came round. Georgia was now 

4th s. — vol. ii. 19 



146 Memoir of Rev. Thacldeus Mason Harris. 

the point of his destination. On the first day of Decem- 
ber, 1833, he embarked for Charleston, S. O, where he 
remained about two months, enjoying the hospitalities of 
that cultivated and high-mannered city. The 10th day 
of February, 1834, found him at Savannah. Here he 
had no sooner arrived, than he began to make inquiries 
about the early history of the town that lay about him, so I 
large and populous, but yet in so much repose and rural I 
beauty. He was reminded that it was just a hundred and j 
one years since the first settlers landed, and the first Geor- tj 
gian city w r as laid out. February 10, 1733, is the date of 
the first letter which Oglethorpe, the founder of the new 1 
colony, wrote to the trustees in England. The answers \ 
that he received to his questions, and the further re- | 
searches that he w T as led to make, awakened in his mind f 
a great interest in the history of that remarkable man, 
who was certainly a nobler cekist than any that Mr. Grote 
has brought before us in his History of Greece, whether 
we consider the personage himself or his object. He was 
surprised to learn that no biography of him existed, and 
the thought occurred to him, that he would try to supply 
that deficiency by preparing " an authentic and tolerably 
minute life" of one who had lived so long and so illustri- 
ously that even the planting of a great and free common- 
wealth was but a small part of his fame. After spending \ 
about three months here and in Augusta, appearing occa- 
sionally in the pulpit, he returned home, where he arrived I 
on the last day of May. He found his health refreshed I 
and somewhat invigorated by this excursion. But the I 
effect was not so great or so lasting as had been hoped 
for. He still remained feeble, and on the following year he 
requested the aid of a colleague, in his ministerial charge. 
Mr. Nathaniel Hall was ordained as liis assistant, July 
16, 1835, the senior pastor being then sixty-seven years of 
age. Even this diminished care, however, proved to be too 
much for him, and he resigned wholly his pastoral office 
in the autumn of 1836, having sustained it precisely forty- 
three years. His valedictory sermon was preached October 
23, 1836, and is among his published discourses. Both of 
these proceedings towards the large parish, in the midst of 
which he had in youth begun his sacred labors and con- 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 147 

tinued them till he was bent and whitened with age, were 
entirely spontaneous. They were suggested by his own 
mind, and carried through with a resolute purpose that 
had a great deal of affectionate opposition to overcome. 
" This measure," says Dr. Pierce, speaking of the applica- 
tion for a colleague, " was wholly of his own choice ; not 
a single member of the parish ever having even hinted 
the expediency or the desirableness of such a step. So 
also when he sought the dissolution of his pastoral con- 
nection, it was not only without the desire, but contrary 
to the remonstrance, of all who took an active part among 
his people." The old and the young minister separated 
with mutual expressions of kindness and equal prayers of 
intercession for the congregation which one of them alone 
was hereafter to guide. On the next Lord's day, Rev. Mr. 
Hall preached his sermon of accession, which was also 
published. 

In the summer of 1838, Dr. Harris and his wife trans- 
ferred their church relation from the First Church in Dor- 
chester to the First Church in Boston ; and they remained 
in that connection till, one after the other, they were dis- 
missed to the communion of the Church above. The past 
minister of that old congregation at that time cannot 
think it improper here to add one affectionate word in 
memorial of his respected parishioner. It has been often 
declared, that the most undesirable hearers are those who 
have ceased to preach, and the poorest parishioners are 
those who have just come down from the desk. After 
some considerable experience, he has never found it to be 
so. He believes the assertion to be an injurious and un- 
warranted one. Certainly, Dr. Harris was a remarkable 
example of the contrary ; being always encouraging and 
helpful to the pulpit under which he sat, and an excellent 
member of the society which he had often instructed and 
moved with his voice. After the resignation of his pas- 
torate, he continued diligently occupied in study and in 
the various business of a studious man. He frequently 
preached, as circumstances invited him. He was busy 
where he could be of use. He rendered essential service 
to the libraries of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and of Harvard University, — to the first in arranging its 



148 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

treasures, and to the last in increasing them, and in sug- 
gesting means of further improvement. His most consid- 
erable literary labor was the carrying out of the project 
which he had formed upon the Savannah River. In 1841 
appeared his " Biographical Memoirs of James Ogle- 
thorpe, Founder of the Colony of Georgia," in one octavo 
volume. The expenses of the publication were defrayed 
for the most part by gentlemen belonging to that Com- 
monwealth. It would have been strange if they had not 
felt a peculiar interest in such a work. They had reason 
to take pride in setting such a name as Oglethorpe's at 
the head of their short annals and comparatively late be- 
ginning in the great brotherhood of American States. 
He was a soldier, a statesman, a scholar, and a philan- 
thropist. He was the friend of Johnson, and is praised 
in the verses of Thomson and Pope. Hannah More 
called him " the finest figure of a man she ever saw," when 
he was much above ninety years old, " with his faculties 
as bright as ever " ; and Edmund Burke told him " that 
he looked upon him as a more extraordinary person than 
any he had ever read of; for he had absolutely called 
into existence the province of Georgia, and had lived to 
see it become an independent State." He belonged to 
the seventeenth century, and served with Prince Eugene, 
first as his secretary and afterwards as his aide-de-camp, 
and yet called on John Adams a day or two after he ar- 
rived in London as Ambassador of the United States. 
Where shall we find more claims to distinction? This 
book, which ought to do much to spread and perpetuate 
a vivid image of him among the lovers of our national 
history, is written in a pure and simple manner, and has 
many pleasant anecdotes for the general reader. 

The last work of Dr. Harris was now issued. His last 
sermon was about to be delivered. His old congregation 
at Dorchester heard him preach once more, and once only, 
on the anniversary of his ordination, October 31, 1841. 
Age seems to grow more attached to anniversaries as their 
rounds are coming to an end. He felt a wish to preach 
at Brookline for his friend Dr. Pierce, whose ordination 
sermon he had delivered just forty-five years before ; and in 
this wish he was gratified. On that occasion he appeared 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 149 

unusually well in the services of the desk, and seemed more 
likely to hold on for a few years longer than he had done 
for some time. But it was appointed to him to stop there. 
He was animated that day with new purposes of literary 
labor, as well as with an increase of spirits and strength. 
" At parting," writes Dr. Pierce, " he expressed his inten- 
tion of soon renewing his visit, to see if he could obtain 
aid in a History of Dorchester, which he was preparing 
for the press, agreeably to the solicitations of his former 
parishioners. He had singular qualifications, and pos- 
sessed a great variety of documents, for such a work. But 
he has left it unfinished ; and it is doubtful whether any 
survivor will be able to complete it according to his origi- 
nal plan." On the Saturday night following, he was sud- 
denly seized with severe pains in the chest, which became 
at once alarming. The disease was an inflammation of the 
lungs, that immediately prostrated him, and at length de- 
prived him of the use of all his faculties. He lingered 
but a week, and then expired tranquilly early on Sunday 
morning, April 3, 1842, aged 73 years, 8 months, and 27 
days. Some of his friends have expressed the thought 
that it was a merciful decree of the Divine Providence, in 
pity to his constitutional apprehensiveness and nervous 
excitability, thus to drop a veil over his consciousness, 
and shorten and darken for him the way of death. 
Doubtless it was merciful. It spared him a trial from 
which he might possibly have shrunk, as any one else 
might. But the most delicate natures are often made as 
calm and stout as the hardiest, when their need comes ; 
and there is no reason to think, that, with all his manifold 
preparation for leaving this life, he would have been un- 
sustained or found wanting. He was buried on the an- 
nual Fast-day, April 7. The domestic funeral service 
was performed at his house in Boston, by the minister of 
the First Church, and attended by a large company of 
those who were desirous of paying this mark of respect. 
A more public service took place at the meeting-house in 
Dorchester, in the afternoon. Though the weather was 
rainy, the church was crowded with hearers ; and it was 
remarked that as deep an emotion pervaded the assembly 
as if the deceased had been taken away in the midst of 



150 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

his ministerial life. The funeral sermon by his successor, 
affectionate and discriminating, was afterwards given to 
the public ; and another, preached on the following Lord's 
day, in Boston, was also printed. A discourse by Dr. 
Pierce, delivered both at Brookline and Dorchester, was 
not yielded to the request of the society in the latter place 
that he would furnish a copy of it for publication. The 
body of Dr. Harris was laid in the cemetery of the town 
where he had been a religious teacher and comforter the 
greater part of his days. An obelisk of white marble, 
about seventeen feet high, is there erected to his memory. 
The leading traits of his mind and character have 
already been incidentally traced in the preceding narative. 
Little, therefore, remains needful to be said on these 
points. He was a man of fervent, unaffected piety. In 
his theological opinions he belonged to the early liberal 
school. In his mode of presenting religious truth he was 
evangelical, in the truest sense of that term. His style 
of preaching, though not captivating, was earnest, tender, 
and instructive. In the early part of his ministry he was 
accustomed to exchange pulpit services, not only with all 
ministers of the Congregational denomination, but with 
some who belonged to other sects. Dr. Stillman and Dr. 
Baldwin, Baptist clergymen, were upon the list of these 
exchanges. He always lamented the divisions that after- 
wards arose and broke up this harmony. He refused to 
assume any party position in the Church Universal. He 
would not consent to derive his title from any other name 
than " that which is above every name." He was unwill- 
ing that his church, so long as he had the superintend- 
ence over it, should be otherwise denominated. Certainly 
this repugnance to sectarianism was founded in the best 
feelings of brotherhood, and to some extent in a just per- 
ception of abstract truth. But after all, every man and 
every body of men may perhaps as well make up their 
mind to wear patiently such appellations as suit them the 
nearest, and others may find it convenient to bestow. 
Differences will have words to express and designate 
them, whether we choose the words or not, — whether we 
like them or not. The churches of Dorchester and 
Brookline were assuredly not Catholic, but Protestant; 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 151 

not Presbyterian, nor Episcopal, nor Baptist, nor Metho- 
dist, but Congregational ; not Trinitarian and Calvinistic, 
but something else. What that something should be 
called need not have exercised him much, and probably 
did not. He laid chief stress on the practical parts of 
religion, attaching comparatively little importance to its 
theories. The spirit of the Gospel, its lessons for the 
heart rather than the speculative reason, its obligations, 
its comforts, its divine assurances, were to him the believ- 
er's great concern. His affections were quick, his sym- 
pathies overflowing, his sensibilities tremblingly alive. 
So marked a trait was this in his disposition, that a ribald 
writer, in a collection of miscellaneous essays called 
" The Puritan," had the effrontery to describe him under 
a ridiculous nickname as disqualifying- himself, by a 
mawkish tenderness, for the duties of his holy office. 
The indecent slander was refuted by the united testimony 
of his people, who had been confirmed and consoled times 
without number by his pastoral faithfulness. He had his 
weaknesses, of which no one was so well aware as him- 
self; but they were not allowed to interfere with the dis- 
charge of his duties. Nay, that very readiness of his to 
melt with his emotions would sometimes give the highest 
efficiency to his acts of condolence ; and when he was 
weakest, then was he strong. He was subject to great 
changes of mood ; sometimes depressed beyond the point 
of a sustained manhood, and then again elated — at least 
in the earlier part of his life — beyond the point that ap- 
peared strictly becoming ; but he never lost sight of his 
relations to an Almighty Father, and never abated his 
benevolent feelings towards those fellow-sufferers and fel- 
low-sinners who were " also in the body." He was in- 
variably modest, gentle, compassionate ; grateful as a 
child for every kindness ; ambitious of maintaining a good 
esteem and report among men present and to come ; and 
loving to lean upon those friendly regards, which he 
loved still better to return, and which he strove to de- 
serve, while he had too much self-respect to solicit or to 
stoop for them. His manners were affable, very engag- 
ing to most persons, and not repulsive to any. There 
was nothing hard, or morose, or severe about him ; noth- 



152 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

ing vehement ; nothing importunate or unduly pressing ; 
and nothing too yielding either, when his conscience and 
not his feelings stood concerned. He was a courteous 
Christian gentleman. In spite of the pensive and almost 
plaintive tone of his mind, it had its playful keys, that 
were not seldom in motion. His wit stole out, half-sup- 
pressed, by the side of his learning, and made him at 
times the most agreeable of companions. This comic ele- 
ment of his nature always seemed to come shyly forward. 
It was kept in check by his native diffidence, the deco- 
rums of his profession, the sober hues of his habits of 
thought, and the working experiences of an anxious life. 
But perhaps it seemed the pleasanter on that very ac- 
count. It never heightened its flavor by satire and ill- 
nature, nor amused itself at the expense of others. 

As a thinker and writer, he is represented by an unusual 
number of printed performances. They are not famous, 
they are not Remarkable for profoundness, or novelty, or 
force, or elegance. They were prepared because stated du- 
ties demanded them, or historic taste led to them, and not 
because a fervid genius inspired them. They are composed 
of occasional pamphlets that are apt to die with their oc- 
casions, and of researches in natural and civil history 
which require patient toil and scarcely admit of a talking 
popularity. Most of them must dissolve in the general 
current of improvement, and be nameless, though not in- 
operative, or else give place to successors that shall be 
more valuable or more showy than they. But they do 
great honor to his industry, his accuracy, and his intel- 
lectual and spiritual culture. They are written in a sim- 
ple and pure style; written with pains-taking and a 
scholar-like zeal ; written to impart knowledge and to do 
good. They had their uses once, and retain some of their 
virtues still. They have won for him an estimable place 
among the worthies of his generation and of the land. 
His work was done in the day of it, and done well ; and 
it will follow him with approbation, though little may re- 
main to challenge applause. It ought not to be omitted 
in this connection, that there was another Muse besides 
that of History standing by him, whose favor he carefully 
sought. He often composed verses that met commend- 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 153 

Jy the circumstances that called them forth. Some of 
em were sung or recited in public assemblies, and never 
Lied to please. If they carried with them neither fire 
»r tears, nor showed any extraordinary gifts of fancy, 
ey breathed an excellent spirit, and flowed in skilful 
d graceful numbers. They have the good fortune to 
ntinue in memory, and to have a life upon the tongues 
men. The yet growing fame of Edward Everett has 
lite lately revived some lines of his, and brought them 
dely into notice. He was the minister who baptized 
e future orator and statesman, and he prepared these 
rses for him to speak, when a very little boy, at a school 
hibition. Nothing can be more felicitous than they 
e, with their perfect ease and unforced playfulness. It 
not often that one's early pleasantries can be brought 
) at a distant day, recommended by their own merits, 
Ld even made illustrious by noble associations. 
The following list of Dr. Harris's publications is the 
ost complete that can be furnished : — 

1. Sermons and Addresses. 

. New Year's Sermon. Jan. 1, 1796. 

. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. John Pierce, Brookline. March 

15, 1797. 
. Sermon on the National Fast. May 9, 1798. 
. Century Sermon, to a Society of Young Men. Dec. 25, 1798. 
. Sermon on the Death of Washington. Dec. 29, 1799. 
. Sermon on the Death of his Mother. Feb. 8, 1801. 
. Sermon after the Execution of Jason Fairbanks. Sept. 13, 1801. 
. Sermon on the Church Covenant Dec. 6, 1801. 
-20. Twelve Masonic Discourses. 1801. 
. Sermon at the Installation of Rev. Abiel Abbot, Beverley. Dec. 14, 

1803. 
. Address at the Interment of Three Persons drowned. Dec. 28, 1803. 
. New Year's Sermon to the Young. Jan. 1, 1804. 
. Sermon on the Death of Deacon Abijah White. Oct. 10, 1804. 
•. Artillery Election Sermon. June 3, 1805. 
!, Discourse before the Humane Society. June 10, 1806. 
-29. Three Discourses before the Second Church, Dorchester. 1806. 
I. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. C. H. Sherman, Dover, N. H. 

May 6, 1807. 
. Sermon before the Union Lodge, Dorchester. June 24, 1807. 
L Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Enoch Pratt, Barnstable. Oct. 

28, 1807. 
t. Thanksgiving Discourse. Nov. 27, 1807. 
c. Discourse on Forefathers' Day at Plymouth. Dec. 22, 1808. 
4th S. — VOL. IT. 20 



154 Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

35. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Samuel Osgood, Springfield. 

Jan. 25, 1809. 

36. Sermon on the Death of Hon. James Bovvdoin. 1812. 

37. " Earnest Caution against Suicide." A Sermon. 1812. 

38. Sermon on Sensibility. Preached and published in England. 

39. Sermon on the Death of Ebenezer Wales, Esq. March 5, 1813. 

40. Sermon on the Death of Judge Moses Everett. March 29, 1813. 

41. Sermon before the Boston Female Asylum. Sept. 24, 1813. 

42. Address before the Washington Benevolent Society. Feb. 22, 1813. 

43. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Ephraim Randall, New Bedford. 

Oct. 26, 1814. 

44. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Lemuel Capen, Sterling. March 

22, 1815. 

45. Sermon at Thursday Lecture. " Pray for the Jews." August 15, 

1816. 

46. Sermon on leaving the Old Meeting-House. I iqi« 

47. Sermon at the Dedication of the New Meeting-House. ] 

48. Sermon before the Rising Star Lodge, Stoughton. 1818. 

49. Sermon on the Death of Nathaniel Topliff. Dec. 4, 1819. 

50. Sermon before the Philanthropic Lodge, Marblehead. 1822. 

51. Sermon before the African Society in Boston. 1822. 

52. Sermon before the Society for propagating the Gospel. Nov. 26, 

1823. 

53. Address at the Interment of James Davenport. 1824. 

54. Address to the Union Lodge. 1824. 

55. Sermon on the Death of Mrs. Dearborn, Boston. 1826. 

56. 57. Memorials of the First Church in Dorchester. Two Dis- 

courses. July, 1830. 
58. A Valedictory Discourse on leaving his People. Oct. 23, 1836. 

2. Miscellaneous Publications. 

1. The Triumphs of Superstition. An Elegy. 1790. 

2. A Clear and Practical System of Punctuation. 1797. 

3. A Chronological and Topographical Account of Dorchester. 1804. 

4. Account of the Happy Death of a Young Child. 1815. 

5. A Textuary, or Guide to Preachers. 1818. 

6. Serious Soliloquies, interspersed with Hymns, for Children. 1819. 

7. Biographical Memoir of Father Rasles. (Mass. Hist. Col.) 

8. Some Account of the Old Book of Records, Dorchester. 1834. 

3. Larger Works. 

1. Natural History of the Bible. 1793 and 1820. 

2. Journal of a Tour to Ohio. 1805. 

3. Biographical Memorials of James Oglethorpe, Founder of Georgia. 

1841. 

4. Compilations, Abridgments, &c. 

1. Constitutions of the Fraternity of Masons. 1792 and 1798. 

2. Massachusetts Magazine or Monthly Museum. Edited by him in 

1795 and 1796. 



Memoir of Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 155 

. Beauties of Nature delineated. From Sturm's Reflections. 1800, 

2d edit. 1801. 
. Exercises of Piety. From Zollikoffer. 1803, 2d edit. 1807. 
. The Minor Encyclopaedia, compiled from the best Authorities. 4 vols. 

1803. 
. Hymns for the Lord's Supper, original and selected. 1801, 2d edit. 

1820. 
. Sephora, a Hebrew Tale. Abridged and corrected from the London 

Edition. 1835. 

At the time of his death, he had commenced a History of Dorchester, 
f which only three chapters were written. 



THE FIRST PLYMOUTH PATENT. 



[It is well known that when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, in 1620, 
they had no patent or charter authorizing them to make a settlement 
there. They had intended, before leaving Holland, to plant near the 
Hudson River, and had secured a grant accordingly from the Virginia 
Company. Finding themselves beyond the bounds of their patent, which 
therefore became " void and useless," on the return of the Mayflower, 
in May, 1621, they made application, through the Merchant Adventurers, 
to the President and Council of New England, established at Plymouth, 
in the county of Devon, for a grant of the territory on which they had 
unintentionally settled ; and the document which follows is the result of 
that application. 

Mr. Weston, in a letter to Governor Carver, dated London, July 6, 1621, 
sent by the Fortune, writes : " We have procured you a Charter, the 
best we could, better than your former, and with less limitation." 
(Prince, Vol. I. p. 114.) Judge Davis, in a note on Morton's Memorial, 
p. 73, remarks : " This intimation refers to a patent from the President 
and Council of New England to John Peirce and his associates, which 
was in trust for the company. It was probably brought in this ship 
[the Fortune], and was a few years since found among the old papers 
in the Land Office at Boston, by William Smith, Esq., one of the Land 
Committee. It bears date June 1, 1621." This original instrument, 
after it was used by Judge Davis, appears to have been lost or mislaid 
for a number of years, as Dr. Young, in his Chronicles of the Pilgrim 
Fathers, p. 235, remarks : " I have sought for the original in vain in 
the archives of the State. It was never printed ; and it is to be feared is 
now lost." 

Fortunately, however, this ancient memorial of the Pilgrims has been 
recently recovered at Plymouth, where it most appropriately belongs, 
among some papers which were once in the possession of the late Judge 
Davis. By the kindness of Mr. William S. Russell, the Register of Deeds 
at that place, and with the aid of Mr. David Pulsifer, distinguished in the 
art of deciphering ancient chirography, I have been enabled to secure an 
exact copy. 



The First Plymouth Patent 157 

It may not be deemed uninteresting to state, that this first Plymouth 
patent, now for the first time printed, is the first grant, of which we have 
any record, made by the great Plymouth Company, which had received 
its act of incorporation seven months before, viz. on the 3d of Novem- 
ber, 1620. The instrument is engrossed upon parchment, twenty-one 
by twenty-four inches in size, and is signed by the Duke of Lenox, the 
Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl of Warwick, Lord Sheffield, and Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges. It has the remnant of another signature which has 
nearly disappeared with the seal that was affixed to it. The seals of 
Hamilton and Sheffield are also wanting, while those of Lenox, War- 
wick, and Gorges yet remain attached to the instrument, in good preser- 
vation. 

The editor of the Memorial gives an abstract of this patent in his Ap- 
pendix, p. 362, and adds : " It does not appear what use was made of 
this patent by the Plymouth planters ; it was, not long afterward, super- 
seded by the second patent, surreptitiously obtained by Peirce, for his 
own benefit, and which, after his misfortunes, was assigned to the Adven- 
turers." The second patent (which is not extant) was obtained April 
20, 1622, as appears from one of the following memoranda, furnished 
me by Rev. J. B. Felt, from the State Paper Office in London : — 

" June 1, 1621, Peirce had a grant from the Council for New Eng- 
land, of lands in N. E. for a plantation." 

" April 20, 1622, he obtained a grant for himself and associates, as a 
joint interest, but on same day gave this up, and procured a patent or 
' Deed Pole ' of the said lands to himself for his heirs, associates, and 
assigns forever. With this proceeding the adventurers in Plymouth 
Colony find fault, and conceive themselves deceived by Peirce." 

" May 18, 1623. Difficulty between John Peirce and his associates 
settled." 

The difficulties concerning this second patent were finally settled by 
in assignment of it by Peirce to the Merchant Adventurers for five hun- 
dred' pounds. See Morton's Memorial, Davis's edition, pp. 95 to 97; 
^rince, Vol. I. p. 136 ; Baylies's Memoir of Plymouth Colony, Vol. I. 
)p. 185, 186. 

The original of the third patent, granted 13th January, 1629, O. S., 
o William Bradford and his associates, is preserved in the office of the 
Register of Deeds at Plymouth. This has been frequently printed. In 
his grant their territorial limits are defined, which was not the case in 
he first patent. 

A patent of Cape Ann, dated January 1, 1623, O. S., was granted to 
he Plymouth people, by Lord Sheffield, a member of the Council of 
Slew England. This place, used for a time for their fishing stages, 
hey soon after abandoned. The patent is extant, and will soon be 
iublished. 

The terms and conditions of the grant which the Pilgrims procured 
rom the Virginia Company at London, for a settlement about the Hud- 
on River (alluded to above), and which was taken out " in the name of 
m\ John Wincob, a religious gentleman, then belonging to the Countess 
f Lincoln," are not known. The correspondence and negotiations that 
3ok place in procuring it may be seen in Young's Chronicles of the Pil- 
;rim Fathers, pp. 52 - 76. C. D.] 



158 



The First Plymouth Patent 




JjCss Indenture tnafre tije 

First Day of June 1621 And in the 
yeeres of the raigne of our soilaigne 
Lord ^$ti\%\%U by the grace of god 
King of England Scotland Fraunce and 
Ireland defendor of the faith &c^ That 
is to say of England Fraunce and Ire- 
land the Nynetenth and of Scotland the 
fowre and fiftith/ Betwene the Pres- 
ident and Counsell of New England of the one ptie And John 
Peirce Citizen and Cloth worker of London and his Associate of 
the other ptie 212Eltt!f$&&£tf) that whereas the said John Peirce 
and his Associate haue already transported and vndertaken to 
transporte at their cost and chardges themselves and dyvers psons 
into New England and there to erect and build a Towne and 
settle dyvers Inhabitant^ for the advancem 1 of the gerDall planta- 
con of that Country of New England NotB tJje UftgUt Pres- 
ident and Counsell in consideracon thereof and for the furtherance 
of the said plantacon and incoragem 1 of the said Yndertakers haue 
agreed to graunt assigne allott and appoynt to the said John Peirce 
and his associate and eGy of them his and their heires and assignes 
one hundred acres of grownd for eily pson so to be transported 
besides dyvers other pryviledges Liberties and coiiiodyties here- 
after menconed/ And to that intent they haue graunted allotted 
assigned and confirmed/ And by theis pnt^doe graunt allott as- 
signe and conlirme vnto the said John Peirce and his Associate 
his and their heires & assignes and the heires & assignes of e% of 
them sefially & respectyvelie one hundred sefiall acres of grownd 
in New England for eSy pson so transported or to be transported 
(Yf the said John Peirce or his Associate contynue there three 
whole yeeres either at one or seilall tymes or dye in the meane 
season after he or they are shipped with intent there to inhabit 
The same Land to be taken & chosen by them their dep- 
uties or assignes in any place or places whersoeil not already 
inhabited by any English and where no English pson or psons 
are already placed or settled or haue by order of the said Presi- 
dent and Councell made choyce of, nor within Tenne myles of 
the same (vnles it be on the opposite syde of some great or 
Navigable Ryver to the former pticuler plantacon, together with 



The First Plymouth Patent 159 

;he one half of the Ryver or Ryvers, that is to say to the middest 
ihereof as shall adioyne to such land^ as they shall make choyce 
)f together with all such Liberties pryviledges j>ffitt^ & coino- 
lyties as the said Land and Ryvers which they shall make 
moycfe of shall yeild together with free lrbtie to fishe in and 
rpon the Coast of New England and in all havens port^ and 
jreekes Therevnto belonging and that no pson or psons what- 
loeii shall take any benefitt or libtie of or to any of the grownds 
>r the one half of the Ryvers aforesaid (excepting the free vse 
)f highwayes by land and Navigable Ryvers, but that the said 
undertakers & planters their heires & assignes shall haue the 
sole right and vse of the said grownds and the one half of the 
said Ryvers with all their pfritt^& app'tennc^/ SUlttl forasmuch 
is the said John Peirce and his associate intend and haue vnder- 
;aken to build Churches, Schooles, Hospitalls Towne howses, 
Bridges and such like workes of Charytie As also for the mayn- 
eyning of Magistrat^and other inferio r Officers/ In regard where- 
)f and to the end that the said John Peirce and his Associate his 
& their heires & assignes may haue wherewithal! to beare & 
support such like charg^/ ®t)tVtf®Vt the said President & 
Uouncell aforesaid do graunt vnto the said Vndertakers their heires 
fc assignes Fifteene hundred acres of Land moreover and aboue 
he aforesaid proporcon of one hundred the pson for eily vnder- 
;aker & Planter to be ymployed vpon such publiq, vses as 
;he said Yndertakers & Planters shall thinck fitt/ Sltlfr they do 
,'urther graunt vnto the said John Peirce and his Associate their 
leires & assignes, that for efry pson that they or any of them 
shall transport at their owne prop cost^ & charg^ into New 
England either vnto the Lands hereby graunted or adioyninge 
lo them within Seaven Yeeres after the feast of S* John Baptist 
next coming Yf the said pson transported contynue there 
three whole yeeres either at one or seilall tymes or dye in the 
meane season after he is shipped with intent there to inhabit 
that the said pson or psons that shall so at his or their owne 
sharg^ transport any other shall haue graunted and allowed to 
him & them and his & their heires respectyvelie for eily pson so 
transported or dyeing after he is shipped one hundred acres of 
Land, and also that efry pson or psons who by contract & 
agream 6 to be had & made with the said Vnder takes shall at 



160 The First Plymouth Patent 

his & their owne charge transport him & themselves or any- 
other and setle and plant themselves in New England within 
the said Seaven Yeeres for three yeeres space as aforesaid or dye 
in the meane tyme shall haue graunted & allowed vnto e% 
pson so transporting or transported and their heires &, as&ignes 
respectyvely the like nomber of one hundred acres of Land as 
aforesaid the same to be by him & them or their heires & 
assignes chosen in any entyre place together and adioyning to 
the aforesaid Land^ and not straglingly not before the tyme of 
such choyce made possessed or inhabited by any English Com- 
pany or within tenne myles of the same (except it be on the 
opposite side of some great Navigable Ryver as aforesaid 
"STCiUriniJ and paying vnto the said President and Counsell for 
eiiy hundred acres so obteyned and possessed by the said John 
Peirce and his said Associate and by those said other psons and 
their heires & assignes who by Contract as aforesaid shall at 
their owne charg^ transport themselves or others the Yerely rent 
of Two shilling^ at the feast of St. Michaell Tharchaungell to 
the hand of the Rentgatherer of the said President & Counsell and 
their successor forefr/ the first paym 1 to begyn after the'xpiracon 
of the first seaven Yeeres next after the date hereof SlttS further 
it shalbe lawfull to and for the said John Peirce and his Asso- 
ciate and such as contract with them as aforesaid their Tennt^ 
& srvant^vpon dislike of or in the Country to returne for England 
or elsewhere with all their good^ & chattells at their will &> 
pleasure without lett or disturbaunce of any paying all debt^ 
that iustly shalbe demaunded EUtlH likewise it shalbe lawfull 
and is graunted to and for the said John Peirce and his Associate 
& Planters their heires & assignes their Teilnt^ & srvant^ and 
such as they or any of them shall contract with as aforesaid 
and send and ymploy for the said plantacon to goe & returne 
trade trafflq, inport or transport their good^ & iSchaundize at 
their will &, pleasure into England or elswhere paying onely 
such dueties to the King^ ma tie his heires & succeso's as the 
President and Counsell of New England doe pay without any 
other taxes Imposicons burthens or restraint^ whatsoeil vpon 
them to be ymposed (the rent hereby resved being onely except- 
ed) gJilH it shalbe lawfull for the said Yndertakes & Planters, 
their heires & successor freely to truck trade & traffic^ with 



The First Plymouth Patent. 161 

the Salvages in New England or neighboring thereabout^ at 
their wills & pleasures without lett or disturbaunce/ As also 
to haue lrbtie to hunt hauke fish or fowle in any place or places 
not now or hereafter by the English inhabited/ $Stl9 tljf UUi 9 
President & Counsell do covennt &> promyse to and with the 
said John Peirce and his Associate and others contracted w th as 
aforesaid his and their heires & assignes/ That vpon lawfull 
srvey to be had & made at the charge of the said Vndertakers 
& Planters and lawfull informacon geven of the bownd^, meet^, 
and quantytie of Lands so as aforesaid to be by them chosen 
& possessed they the said President &> Counsell vpon srrender 
of this pnte graunt & Indenture and vpon reasonable request to 
be made by the said Vndertakers &< Planters their heires & as- 
signes within seaven Yeeres now next coming, shall and will 
by their Deede Indented and vnder their Comon seale graunt in- 
feoffe & confirme all and eily the said land{_ so sett out and 
bownded as aforesaid to the said John Peirce and his Associate 
and such as contract with them their heires & assignes in as 
large & benenciall manner as the same are in theis pnt£. graunted 
or intended to be graunted to all intent^ &> purposes with all and 
eily pticuler pryviledge & freedome resVacon & condicon with 
all dependances herein specyfied & graunted/ And shall also at 
any tyme within the said terme of Seaven Yeeres vpon request 
vnto the said President & Counsell made, graunt vnto them the 
said John Peirce and his Associate Vndertakers & Planters their 
heires & assignes, Letters & Graunt^ of Incorporacon by some 
vsuall & fitt name & tytle with Liberty to them and their suc- 
cessors from tyme to tyme to make orders Lawes Ordynaunc^& 
Constitucons for the rule governement ordering"^ dyrecting of 
all psons to be transported & settled vpon the land^ hereby 
graunted, intended to be graunted or hereafter to be granted 
and of the said Land^ & proffitt^ thereby arrysing/ And in the 
meane tyme vntill such graunt made, Yt shalbe lawfull for the said 
John Peirce his Associate Vndertakers & Planters their heires 
& assignes by consent of the greater pt of them/ To establish 
such Lawes & ordynaunc^as are for their better governem 1 , and 
the same by such Officer or Officers as they shall by most voyces 
elect & choose to put in execucon/ HlftT lastly the said President 
and Counsell do graunt and agree to and with the said John 
4th s. — vol. ii. 21 



162 The First Plymouth Patent. 

Peirce and his Associate and others contracted with and ym- 
ployed as aforesaid their heires & assignes/ That when they 
haue planted the Land^ hereby to them assigned &> appoynted, 
That then it shalbe lawful! for them with the pryvitie & 
allowaunce of the President & Counseil as aforesaid to make 
choyce of to enter into and to haue an addition of fiftie acres 
more for euy pson transported into New England with like res- 
vacons condicons & pryviledges as are aboue graunted to be had 
and chosen in such place or places where no English shalbe then 
setled or inhabiting or haue made choyce of and the same 
entered into a booke of Act^ at the tyme of such choyce so to 
be made or within tenne Myles of the same (excepting on the 
opposite side of some great Navigable Ryver as aforesaid/ And 
that it shall and may be lawfull for the said John Peirce and his 
Associate their heires and assignes from tyme to tyme and at all 
tymes hereafter for their seilall defence & savetie to encounter 
expulse repell & resist by force of Armes aswell by Sea as by 
Land and by all wayes and meanes whatsoeft all such pson & 
psons as without the especiall lycense of the said President or 
Counseil and their successo rs or the greater pt of them shall at- 
tempt to inhabit within the seilall psinct^ & lymytt^ of their 
said Plantacon/ Or shall enterpryse or attempt at any tyme here- 
after distruccon, Invation, detryment or annoyaunce to the said 
Plantacon/ Htftt U)t S#{8 John Peirce and his associate and 
their heires & assignes do covennt & promyse to &, with the said 
President & Counseil and their successor/ That they the said 
John Peirce and his Associate from tyme to tyme during the said 
Seaven Yeeres shall make a true Certificat to the said President 
& Counseil & their successors from the chief Officers of the places 
respectyvely of efty pson transported & landed in New England 
or shipped as aforesaid to be entered by the Secretary of the said 
President & Counseil into a Register book for that purpose to 
be kept lHUJr the said John Peirce and his Associate Jointly and 
seilally for them their heires & assignes do covennt promyse & 
graunt to and with the said President & Counseil and their suc- 
cessors That the psons transported to this their pticuler Planta- 
con shall apply themselves & their Labors in a large & com- 
petent manii) to the planting setting making & procuring of good 
& staple comodyties in & vpon the said Land hereby graunted 



The First Plymouth Patent 



163 



imto them as Corne & silkgrasse hemp flaxe pitch & tarre 
sopeashes and potashes Yron Clapbord and other the like materi- 
als/ Kll tottllC^ whereof the said President & Counsell haue 
to the one pt of this pnte Indenture sett their seales * And to 
th'other pt hereof the said John Peirce in the name of himself 
md his said Associate haue sett to his seale geven the day and 
jreeres first aboue written/ 




[On the Verso of the instrument is the following indorsement : — ] 
Sealed and Delivered by my Lord Duke in the Psence of 



C^cnTtt^r^ 




MjL 



* This word looks a little like sealc, with a punctuation mark following it. Tht 
sense would seem to require the plural ; there were originally six seals affixed to th< 
instrument. — C. D. 



LETTERS FROM DR. WILLIAM DOUGLASS TO 
CADWALLADER GOLDEN OF NEW YORK. 



[These letters were copied from the originals in the possession of the 
descendants of Cadvvallader Colden. — J. Sparks.] 



Boston, February 20th, 171?-. 
Dear Sir, 
Last fall I wrote to you by Mr. Wilson, and sometime 
thereafter received the favour of yours by post. Our 
winters are a dull dead time of the year affording nothing 
worth communicating, else should have troubled you 
again before this date. You have the good fortune to 
have successively gentlemen of genius and learning for 
Governors, and more happy in being favoured with their 
countenance and friendship ; my case in these particulars 
is the reverse. You complain of the practice of Physick 
being undervalued in your parts and with reason ; we are 
not much better in that respect in this place; we abound 
with Practitioners, though no other graduate than myself, 
we have fourteen Apothecary shops in Boston ; all our 
Practitioners dispense their own medicines. Colonel Bur- 
gess' design of coming over Governor, was the induce- 
ment that brought me hither from the prospect of very 
good business in Bristol ; notwithstanding of that disap- 
pointment I have resolved to fix here, and ramble no 
more. I can live handsomely by the incomes of my Prac- 
tice, and save some small matter. I reckon this place at 
present no better than a factory as to my interest, for here 
we have a great trade and many Strangers with whom my 
business chiefly consists. I have here practice amongst 



Letters from Dr. William Douglass. 165 

four sorts of People ; some families pay me five pounds 
per annum each for advice sick or well, some few fee me 
as in Britain, but for the Native New-Englanders I am 
obliged to keep a day book of my Consultations advice 
and Visits, and bring them in a bill ; others of the poorer 
sort I advise and visit without any expectation of fees. 

According to my promise I send you inclosed the His- 
tory of the winds and weather in Boston for last year. I 
keep a diary of the same, and from thence have extracted 
those Tables and Observations ; for the next year I hope 
to contrive a better method. I have no other instruments 
than the naked eye, pen, ink, and paper, I know of no 
Thermometer nor Barometer in this place. There is a 
pretty good Quadrant and Telescope in the College about 
four miles from this, and shall find some opportunity of 
taking the exact Latitude of this place, its longitude from 
London by some Eclipse of Jupiter's first sattellite, the 
variation and dipping of the Needle to be communicated. 

In my subsequent letters I may give you some scraps 
relating to the Natural History of this part of the Conti- 
nent particularly of the Vegetable Kingdom ; last year I 
made a collection of above seven hundred Plants within 
the compass of four or five miles from Boston, this year I 
think of extending ten or a dozen miles. Some small ac- 
count of our copper, iron and lead ores with what im- 
provements have here been made of them. We have no 
birds nor beasts peculiar to this spot of the continent, 
and therefore shall not pretend to give you any account 
of these things. I have a short history of our endemial, 
epidemical and incident diseases since my settling here, 
and shall give you (as a friend I may safely expose myself 
to) it rough, for it requires a long series of observations 
and a more penetrating genius than I had, to make them 
either intelligible or useful to others. 

There are other matters which perhaps you have not 
time to enquire into, or do not care to take notice of, v. g. 
the nature and constitution of this Country as a Body 
Politick ; the history of our first grants and alterations of 
grants ; limits of our Provinces ; our Indians their differ- 
ent Tribes and numbers. The quantity and value in 
gross of our yearly import and export, our most kindly or 



166 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

natural produce and such like things. I have minutes of 
all these as they from time to time fall under my own 
observation, or from very good vouchers. I expect from 
you returns of the same nature ; but pray send nothing 
but what is exactly true and fact ; take nothing from 
credulous people. If from the Governor's* favor you can 
contrive a method of Franking our letters, our corre- 
spondence may be more full and more frequent. My 
humble service to Dr. Johnson, Captain Kennedy and our 
good friends. I am 

Your most humble servant, 

Wil. Douglass. 

P. S. If Governor Burnet make a progress to the great 

falls this summer, as I am informed he hath some design, 

it is probable your curiosity may send you along with him, 

and you may bring back something worth communicating. 

Dr. Cadwallader Colden, New-York, 



Boston, July 28th, 1721. 
Dear Sir, 
Yours by Mr. Nicols I received ; I thank you for your 
account of the state of the Barometer and Thermometer 
at Philadelphia part 1717 and part 1718. I continue to 
keep a journal of the winds and weather and shall yearly 
transmit you the same. My simpling or botanizing is lost 
by reason of the small-pox ; about middle of April last 
from Barbadoes via Saltertudas we had the distemper im- 
ported here ; it was kept under strict confinement till 
middle of June, then broke loose and spreads moderately 
(it is now nineteen years since we had it in Boston last) ; 
by lucky-chance my first patient was an intricate case and 
her recovery gained me some credit so that at present my 
hands are full which diverts me from all amusements. I 
keep an account of all intricate incidents and shall freely 
communicate them to you. I have now a prospect of 
being well acquainted with the mazes of that distemper, 
having at present a large share of that practice and there 
are seven or eight thousands expectants of that disease in 
Town. The general and most common sort is the cohe- 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 167 

ent depressed sort accompanied with a salivation ; some 
ave the distinct, a few the confluent sort. The late 
oise of inoculation I refer to the Boston News letter. 

Excuse my not touching on any other subject at pres- 
Qt, guiding myself by the maxim of Hoc age and of mak- 
lg hay while the sun shines. My humble service to all 
ly friends particularly Dr. Johnson and Captain Ken- 
edy. I am 

Your affectionate humble servant 

Wil. Douglass. 

P. S. Pray let me hear from you more frequently. 

Dr. Cadwallader Colden in New York. 



Boston, May 1st, 1722. 
Dear Sir, 
Yours of the twelfth of March last I received, and the 
iclosed to Captain Kennedy I forwarded by a ship which 
ailed in a few hours after the receipt thereof; your letter 
oncerning the Indians I lent to a news writer that he 
light extract something for the public, but not with a 
esign of inserting it at length, there being some words 
i it which ought to have been omitted ; however in time 
oming write me freely. It shall be safe unless you give 
le some innuendo that it may be public ; your reasons 
gainst inoculation of the small-pox are strong, and I re- 
urn you thanks for the communication. Having the 
pportunity of my good friend Mr. Relf I could not 
eglect writing and your present entertainment shall be 
he general history of our small-pox in 1720 in Boston, 
.nd the inoculation thereof, without descending to partic- 
dars. I have by me some practical observations relating 
o the history, and method of cure in this distemper which 
f desired shall candidly communicate, providing you give 
, large allowance for the imperfections of a young practi- 
ioner ; cir titer eighty have died with purple Spots and 
>rofuse hemorrhage which cases I have particularly noted ; 
he cases of the inoculated as far as I have been able to 
earn and of which I am assured of for fact, being either 
;ye witness or from good information, shall also in due 
ime communicate. 



168 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

After nineteen years intermission we received via Sal- 
tertudas from Barbadoes the small-pox, middle of April 
1721, and by the January following it was nearly over, 
having affected only Boston and two or three adjacent 
Towns, which demonstrates that no condition of air &c 
can produce the small-pox without some real commu- 
nication of infection from a small-pox illness. At first 
it makes but small progress, the month of May prov- 
ing a cold wet month and the infected houses being shut 
up and guards set over them ; about the change of the 
moon, middle of June, it spread so much that the watches 
being of no use were removed, of this first parcel very few 
died ; beginning of July another and large parcel taken 
down whereof severals die, thus in the beginning they 
were taken all in distinct parcels at about sixteen or eigh- 
teen days distance from seizure to seizure ; but when the 
infection became universal this could not be so distinctly 
observed. Hence I made this remark, that the more de- 
cumbents, the infection was the more intense (abstract- 
ing from the influence of the weather and season v. g. in 
October though a fine Autumn month, was the time of 
the greatest decumbiture and mortality) and more died 
than in proportion to the number of the sick. My second 
remark is, I have frequently observed all along our sick 
time, that if one of a family by some accidental infection 
was taken down, it proved generally sixteen or eighteen 
days thereafter before the rest of the family were ill (if 
the infection was received at home). I shall not pretend 
to account for this only I observe first that about the 
eighth, ninth or tenth day of decumbiture, the small-pox 
pustules begin to crack run and smell, the infection then 
perspiring and making its way abroad ; secondly, that the 
inoculated generally begin to sicken the seventh or eighth 
day from their inoculation ; and of those who were taken 
ill of the small-pox at sea, having received the infection 
ashore, none, so far as I can learn exceeded nine or ten 
days being from home. 

Our small-pox burials were as follows, May 1 ; June 8; 
July 20; August 26; September 101; October 402; 
November 249 ; December 31 ; January 6 ; in all 844 
persons in Boston. Last February an exact scrutiny was 



to Cadwallader Cold en of New York. 169 

made, it was found that Boston consisted of 10,565 souls 
thereof 6000 have now had the smail-pox and of those 
399 dyd ; about 700 who never had it escaped and a few 
ivho remained in the country are free of it. 

Having, sometime before the small-pox arrived, lent to 
i credulous vain preacher Mather, Jr., the Philosophical 
Fransactions No. 339 and 377 which contain Timonius' 
md Pylermus' accounts of Inoculation from the Levant ; 
;hat he might have something to send home to the Royal 
Society who had long neglected his communications as he 
complained; he sets inoculation to work in month of June; 
3y 18th of November one hundred were inoculated, and by 
Fanuary in all some few more than 250 in Town and Coun- 
ty. Whereof some have been inoculated oftener than 
nice before it took effect ; with some it never wrought ; 
;hey all complained much of head disorders, even with 
;hose who had but very few and these imperfect pustules 
;heir incisions grew up in a few days as in common su- 
perficial wounds of the skin ; but about the seventh or 
3ighth day generally they begin to complain (some few 
sooner or later), are feverish, their incisions inflame, open, 
md discharge profusely with a peculiar noisome fetor, 
md continue running some weeks after their small-pox 
dimples are dried up and they abroad about their affairs 
nfect wherever they go (this spreading the infection and 
consequently rendering it more intense is a great objec- 
tion against inoculation practised at random in a place 
vhose greatest part of the people are liable to the dis- 
;emper). We all knew of nine or ten inoculation deaths 
Desides abortions that could not be concealed, we suspect 
more who died in the height of the small-pox, it being 
3nly known to their nearest relations whether they died 
3f inoculation or in the natural way ; some had the con- 
fluent kind, many were very full of a distinct kind, some 
tiad a large red burrow round every pustule, in some they 
appeared like red face pimples, but not of a determined 
round as in the natural distinct sort, some like the 
Chicken Pox, others so free and without pus, that they 
can scarce be said to have had the small-pox, in some the 
running of their incision sores has been troublesome 
many months and endangered the loss of limbs, with some 

4th s. — - vol. ii, 22 



170 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

there still remains a crusty scab which falls and returns 
on the place of incision. Many have had a good genuine 
distinct kind. What the consequences may be and if 
some of them may not be liable to the small-pox in the 
natural way, time only can determine. But to speak 
candidly for the present it seems to be somewhat more 
favourably received by inoculation than received in the 
natural way. I oppose this novel and dubious practice 
not being sufficiently assured of its safety and conse- 
quences ; in short I reckon it a sin against society to 
propagate infection by this means and bring on my neigh- 
bor a distemper which might prove fatal and which per- 
haps he might escape (as many have done) in the ordi- 
nary way, and which he might certainly secure himself 
against by removal in this Country where it prevails 
seldom. However many of our clergy had got into it 
and they scorn to retract ; I had them to appease, which 
occasioned great heats (you may perhaps admire how 
they reconcile this with their doctrine of predestination) ; 
the inclosed pamphlets which unwillingly I was obliged 
to publish, may inform you more at large of the contro- 
versy, they were calculated for New York,* and I am 
afraid will scarce bear reading anywhere else. Our Peo- 
ple at present are generally averse to it. 

Favour me with the nature and cure of that distemper 
you call " pain in the side " in New- York, as also of 
your dry Belly ache ; my service to all friends. I am 
Your obliged humble servant 

Wil. Douglass. 

To Cadwallader Golden, New-York. 



Boston, 25th July, Y122. 
Dear Sir, 
Having the opportunity of our good friend Captain 
Kennedy I thought myself obliged to pay my respects to 
you in writing. The accounts of our late Indian disturb- 
ances and the procedure of the Government in that affair, 

* Boston is evidently intended. 



to Cadivallader Colden of New York. 171 

with all the other occurrences commonly called news 
from this place you may learn at large from our friend. 
I have not hitherto had spare time sufficient to reduce my 
loose observations to any distinct method fit for communi- 
cation, finding it more natural to begin by reducing my 
small-pox accounts into bills and notes for the improve- 
ment of my purse ; but lest you should accuse me of troub- 
ling you with a letter without any little hint for our 
mutual improvement or amusement, accept of the two 
following general remarks in the small-pox. First, small- 
pox patients, even these in the confluent sort in our 
coldest winter weather scarce ever were delirious; does 
not this point out the cool regimen 1 In cold weather 
they seldom require opiates or anodynes as in the hot 
seasons ; this is to me another weighty argument for the 
cool regimen it being a sort of succedaneum for opiates. 
I have found some bad consequences from the liberal 
use of opiates in the small-pox which I may hereafter 
communicate more at large. Second remark is, that mild 
symptoms in the confluent, or otherways very numer- 
ous sort of small-pox is always a bad sign ; it seems to 
imply nature from the beginning so oppressed as not to 
be capable of making any exertion or struggle. 

Inoculation grows more and more in vogue in England 
though some there have died of it, I conjecture it may 
proceed from the Regis ad exemplum totus componitur 
orbus. We are now clear of the small-pox, and inocula- 
tion here made a poor exit ; for the last six inoculated 
persons were in danger of violence from the people. 
They were by warrant of the Justices removed out of the 
town and sent two leagues down the Bay to an island, 
and were afterwards, though well, confined there by a re- 
solve of the Assembly till the beginning of July ; the three 
grown persons were very full of the small-pox, one of 
them was in danger of his life, the three children had the 
distemper favorable. The number of all that have been 
inoculated in New-England is circiter 240 persons. My 
humble service to all my friends. I am 

Your most humble servant 

Wil. Douglass. 

Cadwallader Colden, Esq., New-York. 



172 Letters from Br. William Douglass 

Boston, November 20th, 1727. 
Dear Sir, 

According to promise in my last, you have here a fuller 
account of our late earthquake. First, what happened 
extraordinary in the weather and temper of the air for 
some preceding months, in order to investigate if any cer- 
tain presages of the earthquake may be obtained. Sec- 
ondly, an account of the earthquake itself, its direction, 
progress, violence, and extent, so far as I have learned. 
Thirdly, some remarks on earthquakes in general, and 
concerning some phenomena of this in particular. 

First ; from my diary of the winds and weather at Bos- 
ton which I have kept faithfully for many years, I find 
that last winter was open, moderate weather. — In June 
many fogs with little or no wind, so as to spoil more fish 
in curing than has been observed for many years. — End 
of July extreme heat, so as in my opinion to exceed that 
of the West India islands while I was there ; particularly 
first of August we had a very rare phenomenon, as the 
night set in for the space of an hour there were in the 
North-East continued corruscations and flashings, twenty 
to thirty in a minute, the light of each flash (though a 
dark night of itself) did illuminate the whole town and 
country so much that everything appeared as distinct as 
by daylight; these corruscations were not of the fiery 
color of lightning but of a silver color from behind some 
clouds as lightning is imitated in the play-house, they had 
no subsequent detonations or thunder claps, lightning 
thunder and heavy showers were at great intervals inter- 
mixed with them but entirely distinct from them. I must 
defer this phenomenon for the subject of some subsequent 
letter. — September twelfth, the storm of wind which did 
damage to our station-ships of war and some merchant- 
men was from 43° North latitude to the latitude of Ber- 
mudas, it did not with any violence reach our shore to 
the north and did not extend east to sea above two hun- 
dred leagues, as I learned by vessels which arrived soon 
after. — September sixteenth, a violent storm of wind 
with rain in our province at east north east; its violence 
was towards evening, and the strength of its central cur- 
rent passed through the county of Essex, the most vio- 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 173 

lent we have felt for many years, it drove all our fish 
ships at Marblehead in Essex ashore, brought down many 
chimnies, overset barns, rooted up vast number of trees 
to the ruin of some orchards ; its extent is well defined 
being much inferior to that of the earthquake. — Begin- 
ning of October much falling weather, and towards its 
2nd and beginning of November hard frosts. — According 
:o Mr. Fahrenheits notion in Philosophical Transactions 
lumber three hundred and eighty one, to find the temper 
)f the air by the accelerated or retarded motion of a 
pocket-watch compared with the sun's motion, I find that 
ji the months of September and October my watch lost 
considerably. 

We had no previous symptoms of this terrse motus 
nentioned by some authors, as sulphureous smells, spring 
water altered as to taste and smell, agitations in the sea 
without wind &c. ; neither can I find any of the effects or 
consequences that some historians relate as vertigos, ca- 
pitis gravedinos, nauseas^ menstruery obstructions &c. A 
(nan from the West-Indias did sometime before mention 
something relating to earthquakes because of ground 
:hunder (that is the noise of thunder in serene weather 
without clouds) which he had heard in the summer. 

Secondly ; wind in the morning west southerly, by 
light comes west northerly. October twenty-ninth, ten 
aours, forty minutes at night very serene and freezing 
lard, from the north (westerly) corner was heard first a 
aoise like a storm of wind at a distance gradually increas- 
ing to that of the roaring of a foul chimney afire, and at 
its height resembled the rattling of twenty or more carts 
unloading great stones. (Some say the dogs were ob- 
served to howl some seconds before the noise was noticed.) 
Good observers then in the streets say that the stars 
seemed to them to dance before they perceived the shock, 
so that the undulation in the earth was in some degree 
begun before the shock was attended to ; the vibrations 
or tremor did grow gradually more quick so as in the 
height of it to be more quick than any fiddler could touch 
the most airy jig, and went off by more leisurely vibra- 
tions. The tremor may be said to have continued in Bos- 
ton one and a half minute. The tops of chimnies suffered 



174 Letters from Br. William Douglass 

and the ladies sustained some damage in their china. 
About an hour after this was another rumble with a small 
shake, and about day break another perceivable to all 
who were awake ; some tell , us of more small shakes 
though not generally perceived ; but many rumblings as 
if at a distance from time to time were heard all the fol- 
lowing part of the night. — In the county of Essex along 
Merrimack river it was more violent in tremor and con- 
tinuance, some brick houses cracked, hundreds of chim- 
ney tops fell. In Newberry a spring of water broke out 
in a plain and brought up with it some fine gray sand 
like pipe clay dried and levigated, I tried it in the fire, it 
does not crackle, flame, fume, or afford any smell, this 
spring soon vanished and dried up. They write from 
thence that they have had daily rumblings and small 
shakes to this date. Friday, third of November, four 
oclock P. M. a small shock was felt all over the countries 
of Essex and Middlesex. 

We have accounts of it so far north east as our settle- 
ments reach being about one hundred and thirty miles 
from Boston, and so far south west as your accounts from 
New- York and Philadelphia; towards the south east 
from Boston, it did gradually decrease so fast that it can- 
not be supposed to reach far into the sea, the vessels that 
came in from sea soon after felt no agitation in the 
waters such as we had in our bay. Comparing all these 
accounts together I find that the centre of its violence 
must be somewhere in the wilderness north west of our 
settlements, and that it gradually decreased towards the 
south-west, and north-east ; to the north east, it must reach 
a great way because it was violent one hundred and thirty 
miles north-east of Boston. 

Thirdly. To account for an earthquake is no easy 
affair, we know the earth is full of cavities and vast hol- 
low places. In are subterraneous lakes of 
some miles extent ; Captain tells us that in 
Glocestershire he was let down into an old lead ore pit, 
thirty two fathoms under ground and at length came to a 
river or great water twenty fathoms broad and eight 
fathoms deep ; I myself in Barbadoes have been in large 
spacious caves under ground and have walked in a direct 



to Cadivallader Colden of New York. 175 

course until our candles were half spent, it is called Cole's 
Hole, in it is a rivulet of fine water. We know that sul- 
Dhureous damps in coal pits and other mines do catch fire 
vith an explosion. The explosion of gun powder from a 
*reat gun occasions a tremulous vibrating motion in the 
^un itself. The cavity must be superficial to occasion 
my rent in the earth, the explosion of a sulphureous 
lamp may waste itself in the vast caverns of the earth, 
vithout requiring an eruption. 

there must then be a 
.ong underground communicating cavity. — As to the phe- 
lomena of this our earthquake ; the motion under ground 
? rom this explosion is progressive and not very swift ; be- 
cause the rumbling or noise of it was heard sometime be- 
fore it was felt; and we know that sound does not move 
above seven hundred miles an hour. — The progression of 
the terrse motus is not equable which may proceed from 
various resistances it may meet with in the interspersed 
cavities from the more solid sustentacula of the ground ; 
for in our several towns there seems to be a variety in the 
time of duration and violence of the schock. — I cannot 
account for this terrae motus being sooner with you by 
twenty minutes because it came from the north westerly 
corner and not from the west southerly corner. — The noise 
cannot well be said to be subterraneous but seemed rather 
to move along the surface of the earth, and in town when 
the schock reached us seemed to clamber up the houses ; 
it must therefore proceed from the agitation communi- 
cated to the ambient air by the trembling earth. 

I have since this phenomenon read over several ac- 
counts of earthquakes in Italy, Sicily, and also here, and 
some indistinct accounts of these in the "West Indias, in 
Canada, and this Province, but the page being finished I 
must forbear my tedious story until another time. - — I am 
overjoyed to learn from all parts that his Excellency Mr. 
Burnet is our governor, and that his ability and experi- 
ence are his recommendations. We are here a great peo- 
ple, and from the indulgence, indolence, or weakness of 
former governors, have got a habit of doing every man 
what is right in his own eyes with a leveling principle. 
I have for these twelve years last past, made my observa- 



176 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

tions and minutes of those who lead and of those who are 
led, of all the shelves and rocks on which Gov. Shute 
and our several parties and factions have ran foul. We 
have here at present two parties, Dudley and Cook, who 
from private family resentment's have drawn the country 
blindly into differences in public managements for several 
years, their characters I shall not now touch. "We have 
at present also a sort of temporary party viz. some for 
making more paper money and others against it; the 
merits of the case his Excellency and yourself know bet- 
ter than I can say. 

Our Assembly begins their session twenty third current. 
The affair of making more paper money, the granting of 
two lines of barrier towns, and the dividing of some 
counties will occasion long and tedious disputes so as to 
keep them sitting until Christmas. If his Excellency ar- 
rive here any time before they break up, doubtless they 
will make some handsome allowance for his charges of 
moving hither, and as is usual in the fall sessions make a 
considerable half-year's gratuity or sallary; perhaps by 
management (though they never hitherto could be brought 
into it) and keeping both parties at a distance equally, 
they may strive to engage the governor by bidding upon 
one the other, and be brought to make a settlement for 
term of years ; but the ne sutor ultra crepidam, admonishes 
me to stop short. 

Gov. Shute did make of his government three thousand 
pounds per annum ; by management it may be doubled. 
We have few places of any considerable profit in the 
governor's gift, but a great many small farms well leased 
out may be equivalent to a few great farms. The naval 
office is considerable and entirely in the governor's gift ; 
the captaincy of the castle by custom is conferred on the 
Lieutenant Governor. The captaincies of the forts to the 
eastward are at present of small value viz. Fort George, 
Richmond on Kennebeck river, Brunswick fort, and the 
fort on Saco river. The governor has the nomination of 
the sheriffs of the several counties, (good small farms, that 
of Boston is the most profitable post in this Province, next 
to the treasurer and commissary in war time) of the regis- 
ters of probates in the several counties. The governor 



to Cadivallader Colden of New York. 177 

ias also the negativing of treasurers, commissaries of pro- 
isions and stores, impost officers, and collectors of excise, 
fhich may be managed with a fellow feeling. By a new 
ommission of the peace and militia bestowed on certain 
iersons this county may be biased, for we are all ambi- 
lous of honor and places. — I should be glad by first op- 
ortunity to know who is to be our Lieutenant Governor ; 
i is but a name while the governor is in the Province, 
ot being allowed so much as a place in council ; doubt- 
3ss his Excellency may and will receive several solicita- 
ions for places before his arrival ; if my character of per- 
ons and the value of places can be of any service to his 
Excellency from time to time shall faithfully do it. 
*lease let me know when his Excellency may be expected 
ere ; he has been my toast in company these several years 
nd is now to my great joy become our toast next to the 
loyal family. Please also let me know what friends and 
ttendants he brings from York. 

May I be so happy in his Excellency's countenance and 
onfidence as you have been favored with, though I can- 
ot claim the same merit. My humble duty to his Excel- 
mcy and service to all friends. I am, dear Sir, 
Your most humble servant, 

Wil. Douglass. 

P. S. Please let me hear from you frequently. 

\) Cadwallader Golden, Esq., New-York. 



Boston, 4cth December, 1727. 
Sir, 

I expected to have been favored with a letter last 
>ost in relation to what affairs you may think proper 
o communicate to me concerning our Province, as also 
aore particularly of the extent of the late earthquake 
yest southward, its different time of duration, schock &c. ; 
ve have had repeated small schocks and rumblings like 
Listant thunder for some weeks along Merrimack river 
md the adjacent towns; I send his Excellency some of 
he sand brought up with a temporary eruption of water 
n Newberry during the great schock. As to the extent 

4th s. — vol. ii. 23 



178 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

east northwards, it did not pass the Bay of Fundy, they 
having had nothing of it in Nova Scotia. — The great and 
just character you give of his Excellency is the reason 
why I cannot forbear (even to a degree I am afraid of 
being officious) writing of affairs relating to his interest 
with us. Our Assembly as I wrote in my last do bid on 
each others party in favor of Mr. Burnet ; the lower 
house, I think, have agreed that the interest or profits of 
sixty thousand pounds now to be emitted as part of a 
new emission of paper money shall for ten years be a 
fund for a sallary. If the emission could be stopped (as 
to the affair of instructions from home against the emit- 
ting of paper credit, the present exigencies of the govern- 
ment excepted, Mr. Burnet knows best how that stands) 
until his Excellency's arrival here, I am apt to think it 
might be for his interest; as also a bill now depending 
concerning the laying out three lines of towns (a vast 
affair and in which former governors have always come 
in for a profitable share) on our frontiers. — I am sorry to 
hear that his Excellency's commission is not expected 
until next spring ; we have here numbers of candidates 
for every place of profit or ambition, if the governor 
thinks them a perquisite, it will be much for his inter- 
est to make no absolute promise of any until his arrival 
here. If you think proper to communicate to me any- 
thing relating to what applications are made or a making 
shall with integrity do his Excellency any service I am 
capable of. 

By way of amusement I design at this conjuncture to 
send you in scraps the present state of this Province. 
That for this letter was to have been relating to our Prov- 
ince bills now current but must defer to my next, busi- 
ness having interrupted me ; take for the present the fol- 
lowing summary scheme. 

Province hills circulating. 

On Funds. On Loan. Total. Price of oz. of silver. 

In the beginning of the years 1716, £80,000 £50,000 £130,000. . 9 2 
1720, 69,000 150,000 219,000 . . 12 6 
1727, 174,000 140,000 314,000 . . 16 or 200 pr. 

ct. exchange. 

Thus you may see the influence that the making of 
much paper credit has on the real value of silver and ex- 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 179 

change. — My humble duty to his Excellency and service 
to Mr. Kennedy and all friends. I am, dear Sir, 
Your most humble servant, 

Wil. Douglass. 
Please let me hear from you next post. 
To Cadwallader Colden, Esq., New-York. 



Boston, February 13th, 172-f-. 
Dear Sir, 

Tuesday January third, one hour fifty minutes P. M. 
we had a small undulating shake of an earthquake with a 
small concomitant noise all over the Province ; having 
wrote so often on this phenomenon it becomes tedious to 
myself and doubtless to you likewise, and therefore shall 
say nothing further on that subject if something very 
extraordinary do not happen, which I am apt to think 
will not be in our time. — I have presumed to trouble his 
excellency with a letter concerning some late divisions we 
tiave had in our church called the King's chapel which I 
thought it my duty to notify ; it is in relation to the 
choice of a minister, as I have more fully related in that 
letter. The high church party (being but a few though 
veiy noisy) would not delay the choice until Gov. Bur- 
ret's arrival, having a prejudice to the name of Bishop 
Burnet. By some unlucky persuasions, Mr. Jekyll our 
Collector was this time (though a loyal man) from some 
oersonal pique to Mr. Harris, induced to be of his party ; 
is was also Capt. Cornwall (a loyal officer) perhaps from 
some disgust two years ago to our government of this 
Province, who in a slight to him (being unprovided) fitted 
>ut a vessel of their own against the pirates ; the moder- 
ite churchmen, Mr. Burnets friends, being always in favor 
)f our government, it was thought he resented that affair 
)n them at this juncture. Mr. Burnets friends, the 
noderate party, are beyond comparison the most consid- 
erable men in the chapel, for estates &c. The others, 
hough but a handful of leaders, are industrious noisy, 
md mobbish. 

Your letter of January 29th came to hand while I was 
vriting this, against next post shall endeavour to satisfy 
fou in the particulars desired ; and shall be glad to know 



180 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

if his Excellency has had any apology from Captain Corn- 
wall &c for their conduct in this affair. My humble duty 
to his Excellency and service to all friends. I am 
Your affectionate humble servt, 

Wil. Douglass. 
Cadwallader, Colden, Esq., New-York. 



Boston, 18th March, 172£. 
Dear Sir, 

We have no vessel lately from Barbadoes, but by a ves- 
sel arrived here sixteenth current from. South Carolina, 
thirteen days passage, we are informed that the same day 
he sailed from South Carolina arrived there a vessel from 
Barbadoes with the news of Colonel Montgomery's arrival 
on that island. — The other part of the map of New-Eng- 
land which I promised some time ago, I cannot finish to 
my own satisfaction; it may be advisable for you to 
undertake that part of Connecticut which is adjacent to 
New- York (we having little or no communication with 
them) and transmit to me, the better to enable me to 
comply with my promise. 

As to the state of our paper currency (which I also 
promised) I shall go no further back than the year 1720 ; 
because in the year 1723 was finished the calling in of 
all Province bills on funds emitted preceding the year 
1720. Our first paper money was 40,000 pounds emit- 
ted in 1690 to defray the charges of the then Canada ex- 
pedition. — In 1712 paper began by some to be reckoned 
not so good as silver at 85. per ounce, which occasioned 
an act of Assembly that year making it legal tender for 
all debts contracted since 1705; and since that time our 
paper currency by too great emissions has gradually lost 
of its credit so that at present 16s. 6d. is but sufficient to 
purchase one ounce. Our paper emissions are of two 
sorts ; viz. some on loan to be paid in the principal at set 
times ; the interest goes towards defraying the charges of 
government; and some on funds to be called in after 
some years gradually by poll rates, impost, excise, pow- 
der money, and light-house money. The sundry emis- 
sions and times of their coming in again, I have reduced 
for brevity and perspicuity to the following scheme : — 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 



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182 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

So that there remains at present not called in 346,000 
pounds in Province Bills, whereof 32,000 pounds of the 
100,000 pounds lies dead in the trustee's hands; and 
£314,000 circulating in Massachusetts Bills, with £ 10,000 
circiter Connecticut Bills, £ 20,000 circiter Rhode Island 
Bills, and £25,000 New-Hampshire bills, (being all of 
the same value) makes £427,000 New-England paper 
money circulating. 

As to our church affairs, which I wrote you were in 
great confusion, John Checkley's party by a superiority 
of mob would not defer the affair of another minister un- 
til his Excellency's arrival, neither could we prevail that it 
should be left to the Bishop of London ; they have left it 
to Colonel Nicholson and Mr. Sanford of London to nom- 
inate a Parson, and in case we make any stand at home 
(as we design strenuously to do) against their proceed- 
ings, they have voted the church stock (which they have 
taken into their own hands) to defray all charges in com- 
passing their designs. Mr. Harris and his friends are a 
sending home remonstrances to the Bishop ; they proposed 
also to remonstrate to his Excellency in a body, which I 
prevented, because Mr. Burnet prudently declines med- 
dling with any affair in this Province until his arrival 
here. — A missive letter is too short to let you fully into 
the merits of the affair. On the one side is Mr. Harris, 
whose character for learning and correct sermons is known 
all over our continent, and who of late years has by his 
conduct rendered himself so agreeable in this Province, 
that if the presentation were in the Lieutenant Governor, 
Council and Lower House or Assembly, he would have it 
nemine contradicente. His friends in the congregation 
are men of substance generally and all moderate church- 
men. — On the other side is John Checkley a young 
man, ringleader of the party, his character is notorious, 
not long ago in this Government paragraphs in a pam- 
phlet he published reflecting on our present constitu- 
tion at home and our Government here ; he went twice to 
England for ministerial orders, and was as often refused 
by the bishops because of his bad character ; he has late- 
ly been under bonds for some vile actions under the color 
of making proselytes of our late hostages from the eastern 



to Cadwallader C olden of New York. 183 

Indians, as also of the ISTarragansetts Indians in Rhode- 
island government ; lastly to sum up all, as, not afFraid 
o own his principles, he wears a crucifix. His followers 
Captain Cornwall, Mr. Jekyll, and a few others except- 
;d) seem generally to be of the same principles ; Cornwall 
md Jekyll listed I think not so much for any esteem 
hey have to Mr. Checkley the leader of the party, as 
>ut of some pique to Mr. Harris. On their conduct I 
hall not pass any judgement, but they being engaged in 
such a party they are obliged to labor the more to vindi- 
;ate themselves. — Pray excuse me to his Excellency for 
>resuming without leave at this critical juncture (last 
veek was the crisis) to encourage Mr. Harris' friends, by 
icquainting Mr. Harris that his Excellency had a good 
character of him from good hands, but had no good opin- 
on of violent proceedings. — Please make my humble 
luty acceptable to his Excellency. — My service to all 
riends. I am, dear Sir, 

Your affectionate humble servant 

Wil. Douglass. 
P. S. I shall be glad to hear from you frequently. 

Dadwallader Golden, Esq., New-York. 



Boston, 22nd April, 1728. 
Dear Sir, 
Your favour of the first current came to hand. The 
business of stilling, to very great advantage, has been 
tiere kept a mystery with the distillers. I am using my 
sndeavors to be let into it, and so soon as I have fully 
understood it, shall freely communicate it. — Captain 
Franklyn arrived here last week from Barbadoes. Colonel 
Montgomery's being arrived with you prevents my writ- 
ing his news. — As to anything further relating .to his Ex- 
cellency Mr. Burnet's interest, I shall at all times be 
ready to acquaint you with, so far as it becomes me in a 
private station and capacity. — The committee appointed 
to provide lodgings for the governor in the interim, until 
the Province House be refitted, have ordered Dr. Cook's 



184 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

house for that end. Dr. Cook is my good friend; but 
pardon me if I express to you as my very good friend, 
the opinion of the gentlemen here who are of no party. 
I wrote you formerly that the two noted parties here are 
the Dudleys and Dr. Cook's, and so inveterate the one 
against the other, that the being with either may give a 
jealousy of bad consequence ; but if used with the same 
respect, or kept at the same distance will make everything 
easy, and they will bid upon one another for the gover- 
nor's interest and advantage. It is my opinion, (pardon 
my forwardness of duty to his Excellency) that if Mr. 
Burnet did write to the lieutenant governor to have a few 
rooms in the Province House fitted up for his reception 
(the family perhaps not coming so soon) would answer 
the end of giving umbrage to no party. The Dudleys 
are the more cunning, though perhaps not the more hon- 
est and sincere, and last Assembly had a great majority. 
His Excellency's prudence will direct him better than I 
can advise, and excuse my being so free with characters 
of parties, which I never did attempt before. 

The commissions for Mr. Dummer of this Province, 
and Colonel Wentworth of New-Hampshire, as lieutenant 
governor, arrived here last week from London. Captain 
Shepheard tells me that he was informed by Mr. Erank 
Wilks, our agent in London, that Mr. Burnet's commis- 
sion was taken out about six weeks before he left London, 
and was to be sent in the first ship for New- York. I 
shall be glad to hear of its arrival. — Most of the renewed 
commissions and deputations for our four home officers 
are arrived. Our countryman Mr. John Menzies, Judge 
of Admiralty, (one of the eldest in the list of our Scotch 
advocates, well versed in the sea laws, and customs, hav- 
ing been in this place Judge above twelve years) has not 
received his deputation. His friends in London write 
him that the admiralty did not incline to appoint any 
without Mr. Burnet's recommendation. He tells his 
countrymen here that he would have written to his Ex- 
cellency for his countenance, but understanding Mr. Bur- 
net declined meddling till upon the spot, he would not 
presume to trouble his Excellency. 

Pray do me the pleasure to let me know when his Ex- 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 185 

cellency's commission arrives, and when he may be ex- 
pected here. Though I am afraid the business of my pro- 
fession will so cruelly confine me, as not to allow me the 
honor of meeting him, my respect and duty to his Ex- 
cellency I hope will not be deemed the less. If in any- 
thing I can be useful, command me. Please make my 
humble duty acceptable. I am 

Your most humble servant, 

Wil. Douglass. 



New-England^ Boston, 14,th Sept 1729. 
Dear Sir, 

I had the favour of your agreeable letter by Mr. Drum- 
mond ; our correspondence not being so frequent, please 
charge to my negligence but not to any fault of yours. 
Your communications of the Eclipses of Jupiter's moons 
observed at New- York, Anno Domini 1723 and 1729 are 
v^ery acceptable; seeing no calculation can pretend to the 
exactness of observations, it may perhaps come nearer the 
truth, when the same Eclipse is observed at both places 
whose difference of longitude is required. (I mean it 
may be more exact than when we observe for one place 
md only calculate for the other) v. g. observe some 
Eclipses of the moon which also happen to be visible in 
London or Paris, then compare your observations in New- 
York with those of the same Eclipse as they come to be 
published in course (most all Eclipses of the Sun and 
Moon which are there visible are there published) in the 
Philosophical Transactions or Memoirs of the Hoyal 
Axademy of Sciences at Paris. 

It is with pleasure I understand that you incline to 
oblige the World with a correct map of North-America. 
[ am sorry that it is not in my power to contribute to- 
wards it by sending you a good map of the Provinces of 
New England ; there is not one extant but what is in- 
tolerably and grossly erroneous. I have at times (with a ( 
iesign of learning the country) travelled the greatest part 
of our four Colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island, and New-Hampshire, but cannot pre- 

4th s. — vol. ii. 24 



186 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

tend to reduce them to an exact plan ; I may however 
send you some hints which may enable you to make the 
maps far more exact than any hitherto published. When 
you have favored me (which I earnestly desire, as also the 
true boundaries of New-York Government in writing) 
with a copy of your map of New- York and the adjacent 
Indian countries I shall by that pattern be more capable 
of reducing my loose hints to some short intelligible 
method. In general, that you may not fall into the same 
mistake with former publishers, you are to observe that 
the lines or boundaries of our Provinces here at present 
are not exactly the same as laid down in the charters and 
grants but have been enlarged by consent ; as for instance 
the Massachusetts heads Rhode Island and Connecticut 
Governments by a due East and North-west line accord- 
ing to the charters ; this line by consent of Rhode Island 
is an East and West line without any variation allowed, 
and consequently to the prejudice of Rhode Island prop- 
erty, with Connecticut to some towns no variation allowed, 
to others nine degrees variation allowed so that it makes 
a sort of indented line. I presume the most natural easy 
and exact method of beginning a draught or map is by 
first laying down some certain fixed points accurately de- 
termined as to latitude and longitude, and the other prin- 
cipal parts laid down according to their exact distances and 
bearings from these invariable points will prevent any 
gross mistake. I know not what fixed points you may 
have collected for the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland ; 
Sir William Keith, I find by the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, has been at some pains to ascertain the latitude and 
longitude of Philadelphia ; New York is in your own ob- 
servation. Boston is accurately fixed by the observations 
of Mr. Robie (a Fellow and sufficiently practised in ob- 
serving) at Cambridge College which is about three and a 
half miles West Southerly from Boston ; Cambridge is in 
42° 29' North Latitude ; its longitude he has endeavoured 
to determine by sundry observations with a twenty-four 
foot telescope. I shall only trouble you with the most 
exact which was of an Eclipse of the moon on the fif- 
teenth of March, 1707, which Eclipse happened also to be 
observed at Paris by Cassini and De la Hire ; by those 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 187 

observations collated, Cambridge is 4 h - 55' 50" West of 
Paris (subducting 9' 40" London's westing from Paris) 
and consequently 4 h - 46' 10" from London ; so that with 
sufficient exactness Boston may be fixed at 42° 25' North 
latitude, and 4 h - 45' 57" west from the meridian of London, 
that is in west longitude 71° 29' circiter. Thus Boston is 
12' 43" east from New-York or 3° 10' difference of longi- 
tude, that is to say Boston is circiter 142 geographical 
miles east, and 105 of the same north of New- York ; and 
the nearest distance about 180 geographical miles, or 
207 English ; the common post road by its turnings, via 
Providence, New London, and New Haven, to New-York, 
is 265 miles (as I computed in my progress), but the near- 
est, though less used road, is via Mendon, Woodstock, 
Hartford and New-Haven to New- York ; 254 measured 
English miles. 

As to other helps we have a very exact draught of our 
most considerable river Merimack as it was surveyed 
three years ago by order of our government ; I may send 
you a copy of it from the records ; by it you will have a 
very exact map of New-Hampshire government (for by 
this survey we are in hopes to swallow up that petty gov- 
ernment according to the letter of our charter) and of 
about one quarter part of the Massachusetts. Bhode Island 
and Connecticut governments are small. When you have 
their outlines (which I can send you with great exact- 
ness) as settled some years ago by consent of the several 
Assemblies, there will be no great difficulty in placing 
the rivers and towns. I could procure from the Secre- 
taire's office plans of our several towns as they were when 
first granted, but the subsequent assemblies have made 
such considerable alterations in dividing, dismembering, 
uniting, &c. that they will not answer your design ; I can 
however from my own travels give you in general their 
situation with respect to one another and the considerable 
rivers, which may be sufficient for a general map. — Our 
station ships, Captain Durel, a very ingenious draughts 
man, in his several cruises has made a very exact sea line 
(with the makings and bearings of the land which are not 
in your way) of our coast from Boston Bay to Canso near 
Cape Breton ; but as he designs to make a present of it at 



188 Letters from Dr. William Douglass 

home, it is not proper for me to desire a copy of it here. 
Judge Dudley has for some years been hammering out a 
map of this country, but I fancy it will not make its ap- 
pearance yet awhile ; he pretends to be a sort of virtuoso ; 
therefore communicates nothing freely to a friend, lest he 
should be prevented in the reputation of being the author. 
To conclude for this time, I wish I could with you sing 
Deus nobis hcec otia fecit ; our labors in practice of Physic 
here are many and gains not much above a competency, 
and therefore cannot fall into sundry amusements which 
I could desire. — My duty to his Excellency Gov. Burnet, 
my humble service to Mr. Kennedy and all friends. I 
am 

Your most humble servant 

Wil. Douglass. 



Boston, February 11th, 173L 
Dear Sir, 
Your country retreat has for some time deprived me of 
the happiness of your correspondence. Lest peradventure 
you may be now in town, I could not omit this opportu- 
nity of saluting you, by the hands of my good friend Dr. 
Clark, in his way to Philadelphia. You may remember 
that some years ago you proposed the forming a sort of 
virtuoso society, or rather correspondence. We have 
lately in Boston formed a medical society, of which, this 
gentleman, a member thereof, can give you a particular 
account. We design from time to time to publish some 
short pieces ; there is now ready for the press number 
one, with this title-page. 

NUMBER ONE, 
MEDICAL MEMOIRS 

CONTAINING 

1. A miscellany. Practical introduction. 

2. A history of the dysentery epidemical in Boston in 
1734. 

3. Some account of a gutta-serena in a young woman. 

4. The anatomical inspection of a spina vertosa in the 
vertebrae of the loins in a young man. 



to Cadwallader Colden of New York. 189 

5. Some practical comments or remarks on the writings of 
Dr. Thomas Sydenham. 

Published oy a Medical- Society in Boston, New-England. 

When published I '11 take care to transmit you a copy ; 
if you transmit to us anything serviceable in our design, 
we shall esteem it a great favour. My humble service to 
Mr. Kennedy and family. I am, Sir, 

Your most humble servant 

Wil. Douglass. 
Cadwalladek Colden, Esq., New-York. 



THE DUNSTEE PAPERS. 



[The originals of the following papers belonged to Henry Dunster, 
first President of Harvard College. The branch of the family in Pem- 
broke, Massachusetts, having recently died out, they have come into the 
possession of Mr. Edward Swift Dunster, a member of the institution 
of which his ancestor was President, and he has kindly permitted them 
to be printed. 

The first letter was copied by Rev. Samuel Sewall, of Burlington, 
Massachusetts, who is connected with the family by marriage, and his 
copy has since been compared with the original ; and although a few 
words are obscurely written, it is confidently believed that an exact copy 
has been secured. 

In the last volume of the Society's Collections, page 252, President 
Dunster in a letter to Ravius remarks, " Ego enim Lancastrensis sum." 
In addition to the internal evidence furnished by the following letter, Mr. 
Sewall has obtained information from Lancashire men now resident in 
Massachusetts, that Balehoult, sometimes called at the present day 
" Billy Holt," where this letter is dated, and where President Dunster 
was probably born, is in Lancashire ; that it is not the name of an incor- 
porated or publicly recognized town, but of a private gentleman's seat in 
Bury in that county. 

Mr. Sewall remarks : " It is pleasant to observe the agreement of 
many political events and transactions mentioned in this letter, with the 
accounts given of the same in published accredited histories. But there 
are others referred to, which bear indubitable marks of the jealousy and 
prejudice with which every individual of the Court party in England 
was regarded at that day by the Puritans (excellent men as they gener- 
ally were in most respects), and under the influence of which the ac- 
tions and proceedings of the prominent men of that party were often 
misunderstood or unintentionally misrepresented. Who will believe at 
the present day, that the then Lord Deputy of Ireland (Strafford) con- 
spired with the Papists, as here alleged, against his Protestant country- 
men ; or that the Bench of Bishops, among whom were such men as 
Joseph Hall of Norwich, meant at any time (as the author of this letter 
asserts) to take the life of Lord Say and Sele ? " — Eds.] 



The Dunster Papers. 191 



Mr. Henry Dunster of Balehoult, Lancashire, England, 
to his Son, Rev. Mr. Henry Dunster, President of Har- 
vard College^at Cambridge, New England* 

Grace mercy and peace bee multiplyed in Christ 
"esus vppon you Amen Kind and Louinge Sonns I 
m very glad of your wellfare and good psperity I 
Laue receiued 4 letters from you since you Ariued in 
lew England the first dated the 17 th of August by 
lobte Haworth of Boulton the second dated the 21 th 
>f August both w ch came to my hands in seauen weekes 
ifter you sent them the Redd wheat I receiued but 
/ e Indian wampempegs weare lost out of your letter 
he third was dated y e 29 th of 8 ber w ch I receiued on 
ihristms eue w th a letter of Richards inclosed in the same 
he last dated the 12 th of 8 ber w ch I receiued of one 
Vlillns that had beene w lh you in new England who 
odged w th me about mid January but it seemes it should 
laue come by Colier your Sisters remember theire loues 
nito you both but you must not expect them so longe as 
four mother and I do Hue your brother Thomas re- 
nembers his loue and hath sent you 2 dozen of Alma- 
lacks but now he is a widdower for both wyffe and chyln 
ire deade since michaellms I pray god he take good 
vayes I do not know of any that you sent for that 
mtend to come as yett Touchinge Richard I would 
iduise him not to come over againe as yett for what soeuer 
s his due shall bee left in the hands of his sisters for I 
iaue taken a generall aquitance of Robte so that Richard 
md his sisters may haue what wee two ould folke leaue 
ind wee shall make no willfull wast now concerninge 
mr England since you went ouer wee haue beene sore 
troubled for the Scotts came into Engand a month afore 
nichaellms and came to Tyne watter where some of our 
Iroupers laye the Scotts proffered to come ouer and our 

* This letter was probably addressed to President Dunster, but was also intended 
or his brother Richard. 



192 The Dunster Papers. 

men w lh stood them for a while but ours beinge but 500 
weare not able to w th stand 30 Thousand but fledd amaine 
insomuch as one Cunstable a gentleman of a company 
cryed to his band Ryde theeues Ryde for your lyues and 
he himselfe for his pte Ridd so fast y l he lost his capp and 
mist it not of rydinge two myles Then the Scotts came 
pedentim towards newcastle in some 203 [2 or 3 !] dayes 
where y e yealded the towne immediatly Then was Eng- 
land in a fright for the did not knowe what to doe but att 
last all the freehoulders and trayned bande weare caled to- 
gather euery Hundred by itselfe and trayned for a fort- 
night togather also all betwixt 16 and 60 weare caled 
togather so that vpon the 8 th of 7 ber beinge Bury fayre 
there was at Burye 40 Thousand w lh such weapons as y e 
could gett and those that had no better tooke euery one a 
great clubb and it was caled Club fayre att Burye and all 
the prouision for the fayre was eaten vpp that daye So 
that y e 800 which trayned there weare scanted for a for- 
night after of vituals the Buchers and Allewyues made a 
gayne of them Then great troups of Souldiers weare sent 
into yorkeshire and it was thought that there would haue 
beene some Batayle speedely Butt the Lord turned all to 
peace and a Parliment was caled which began the third 
of 9 ber and the goe on very Joyffully god bee praysed for 
the same And the Scotts are to remoue from newcastle 
before the 25 th of march and the must receiue 300 Thou- 
sand pounds to bringe them whome againe Now for our 
great men of England the most of them are proued tray- 
tors first lord deputy of Ireland and the Archbishopp of 
canterbury and the great Judges the rest of the Bishops 
are found in a premunire except the bishopp of Lincolne 
who is suffered to bee in the parliment house all the rest 
are Excluded finch y e lord keeper is fledd wyndebancke 
the kings cheeffe secretary is fledd the Bishopp wrenn had 
thought to haue flowen but his wings weare to short All 
non conformists are ssuffred to preach and our Altars are 
some of them puld vpp Surplusses and communion books 
some torne the communion tabls brought downe into the 
bodye of the church : Burton and Preen are brought into 
the Parliment house w lh great respect and weare mett out 



The Dunster Papers. 193 

of the citye w th 200 couches in triumphe so that y e 
kinge did take it somwhat harshly and said so many did 
not meete him when he came from Yorke from quietinge 
the Scotts many peticions are p r fered into the Parliment 
against Idle dronken ministers and against double bene- 
ficed parson[s] and suite made that all Chappells shall be 
reliued out of church Linings your sister Elizabeth is 
turned scribe and can do very well of 3 weeks tyme I 
pray you giue Richard good counssell and bee the meanes 
to trayne him vpp in goodnes and make much of each 
other for it repenteth mee very sore of my lyffe hereto- 
fore spent in Idle company and I thanke god hartelye 
that plonged my lyffe to see my erors and foly The 
ould Lady Ashton and M r Rawsthorns heire dyed w th in 
2 howers togather vpon wednessday afore candlms t and 
weare buried att burye both in one graue vpon the mon- 
day folowinge The papists had conspired w th y e deputye 
of Ireland to sett fightinge in the north pts that y e might 
haue begun in the south where the should haue had ayde 
out of Ireland and the Spaniard laye watchinge vppon 
the seas likewise to haue Ayded them but the Holanders 
meetinge w th them gaue them a great shake and scattered 
them sore so that wee may well say that man purposseth 
but god disposseth my lord saye and my lord Brooke are 
sworne of the kings priuy Counssell whose lyves y e bysh- 
ops had ment to haue taken away not long since your 
ould freind doctor Cossins for his honesty is put in the cage 
to see if he can singe well or no All the monepolies for 
lycencesses are disanulled so that euery man may buye and 
sell att theire pleasure w th out controule we haue gotten 
ould M r Horocks to bee lecturer att Burye euery thurs- 
day he begun afore christms and hath promised for a 
tweueluemonth if god spare him health and abilitie M r 
Ashton of Midleton is one of our knights for the Parli- 
ment who hath w th him for aduise and counssell your 
freind ould M r Rathband who hath beene w th him since it 
began The Scotts assone as the came to new castle sange 
the 74 th psalme : why art thou lord so longe from vs # &c 
many great men are thought to bee faulty as I writt 

* Sternhold and Hopkins's version. 
4th S. VOL. II. 25 



194 The Dunster Papers. 

afore Thus committinge you bothe to the ptection of the 
Allmighty I rest 

Your louinge father 
from Balehoult this Henrye Dunster 

20 th of March 1640 [1640 - 1] 
This letter comes 
by London. 

II. 

Richard Saltonstall to President Dunster. 

For the Reverend my very worthy freind M r Dunster, 
President of the College at Cambridge New-England. 

Worthily endeared S r - 

Give mee leave to tell M r President that I make noe 
conscience of writing a very short letter to him ; when I 
want time as at this present I doe exceedingly ; being 
vpon a journey into Scotland by an invitation from my 
Lord Generall ; to some occasions there which are of a 
civill nature. 

This enclosed booke I must entreate you to accept in- 
steade of such lines as I should have added. 

What soever I have presented M r Cotton with which 
himselfe shall judge comunicable; I desire that yourselfe 
may have the seacond sight of: Provided always that in 
the seacond place you present this enclosed to M r Cotton. 

S r If this little bee not somthing better then just 
nothing I pray you lett mee vnderstand by your next. 

My best respects to good M rs Dunster. 

I pray you tell worthy M r Buckley that his sonn John 
whome I saw lately knowing my occasions hath vnder- 
taken to excuse my not writing to him at this time 
Helpe him to what newes you can. & lett mee have your 
prayers. I may truly tell you ; you are written in my 
Catalog with greate letters. Mercy & truth bee with you 
& all yours. 

Yours most vnfainedly in all christean respects. 

Richard Saltonstall. 

[Memorandum, in President Dunster's handwriting, " M r Saltonstalls 
by M r Sanders or M r Greens Received about 15 of May 51 answered 
by M r Willougby."] 



The Dunster Papers. 195 

III. 

William Cutter to President Dunster. 

ffor M r Henry Dunster President off Haruert Colledge in 
Cambridge these dd in New England. 

Loueing S r I know I am ingaged to write as often as I 
can to yo r selfe and other ffreinds : butt the late warrs with 
holland did much discourage vs when we heard w l shipps 
wer taken and losse not only off writeings [1] butt other 
goods now it hath pleased the Lord to cause the hol- 
landers to seeke peace and y 1 seuerall tymes : no quest : 
much against there hye spirritts : butt necessity hath no 
law : seuerall diurnalls I haue sent to seuerall freinds w ch 
I dyrect to M r Corlett : and some in ptic to yo r selff we are 
here blessed with peace butt espetially with a Godly 
magistracy & ministry 3 Independ 3 presbitter : I meane 
att newcastle butt in the Countyes adioyneing: a sect 
called quakers and others to popery doe much increase 
rayleing much att the ministry and refuseing to sho any 
reuerence to maiestrates we hope they wilbe confounded 
& ashamed off there Tenetts: butt I could desire: thatt 
s*ome stricter course were taken then is : Now in June 
next we are to chose a new parlyament & many Annabab- 
tists hope that this present peace well not contineu : butt 
most Godly & wisemen y l I know are off another mynd : 
the Rebells in Scotland doe contineu lurking in woods 
and mountaines & boggs & dare scarce eu r ingage: it 
is hoped now since the peace concluded with holland y l 
this sumer will putt an end to these distractions: itt is 
very like that y [] will haue much tradeing into NE [New 
England] ere long ffor (E [Old England] neu r was so 
ffull off shiping as now : Itts reported y l we haue taken 
& sunk in all off the hollanders aboutt 2200 ships : & we 
haue lost aboutt 800 in all: many good vessells being 
sold for small rates: and therffor merchants are contri- 
uing much how to trade into forraine pts : because the 
Lord hath blessed th[is] natyon with such plenty thatt 
this halfe yeare good wheatt is sould for eight shillings the 



196 The Dunster Papers. 

boule & cheaper too : often for 7 s : w ch is 3 off yo r Bush- 
ells it neu r was knoune so cheape by most men liueing 
her : we hope y e Lord will giue yo u tymes off praise & 
reioyceing as yo u haue had off prayer: we are to haue a 
day off Thanks giveing next week the inclosed will sho the 
reasons pray S r comfort my deare and ancyent mother 
and aunt wilkenson, with my bre: & sisters: I often wish 
I could se them againe & yo u all : butt it is not like ffor 
besides other hinderances : truly the sad discouragements 
in comeing by sea is enough to hinder: vnles it were as 
formerly: y l we could not inioy the ordina 3 of God I 
am sorry to heare lately y l M r hadden is to mary one off 
the daughters off a very great mallignant: and y l he 
keeps so much socyety with them : he comes seldom hither 
your sone M r John Glouer cald att our house as he went 
into Scotland to be ouer the hospitall with Coll fenwicks 
Bro : I hope he will proue honest : S r I rest : 

Yo r3 Wllm Cutter. 
Newcastle, May 19, 54. 



IV. 

Edward Roberts to President Dunster. 

ffor his truely Esteemed ffreind M r Dunstor; late Pro- 
uost of the Colleage at Cambridge in New England 
these 

Honored Ereind 
I am wholy a stranger to you further then as to Eeport 
which hath spread it selfe to y e rejoiceing of many y l feare 
y e Lord, and hearing that your Porcon hath been to Suffer 
in some measure for y e Crosse of Christ, my selfe and some 
other that truly Loue you on y e ground aforesaid made it 
our Eequest to y e Truly vertuous Lord Deputy to provide 
for you in this Land who readily embraced the same and or- 
dered fifty pound for y e bringing over yourselfe and family 
as you may see by a Copy of his Lorpps [Lordships] and 



The Dunster Papers. 197 

Councells inclosed, with Direccons for mee to send to 
you, which moneys I haue sent by Mr John Milam of 
Waterford once an Inhabitant of New England who is 
bound with a shipp to some parts of New England, and 
who will send to you and Contruie yo r passadg, and advise 
you as to y e state of this Countrey and y e Christians 
amongst us. You need not feare Accomodacons here, 
though I hope that will not be your cheife motive but 
rather hono r of y e Lord and his great name. You may 
through mercy haue free Liberty of your Conscience ; and 
opportunity of Assotiateing with Saints and free pub- 
lishing y e Ghospell of Truth which [is] greatly wanted 
amongst us there being but few able and painefull men 
who make y e service of god theire worke. I pray be not 
discouraged att any thing you haue heard or shall heare 
of this place but consider y e Providence of god who soe 
vnexpectedly as to you calls for your remoue. Paul did 
not in the like Case conferr with fflesh and Blood (hapily 
you may haue Lesse reason in some respect soe to doe) 
I desire you to haue a Care knoweing that there is a 
Crafty one that lyes in waite for to deceiue. I shall Add 
noe more but desire you to Consider that it is y e duty of a 
Christian to be guided by y e Call of god, and to be and 
doe what ever he shall require from you, by which Rule, 
I desire you to walke, and the god of mercy be your 
Councello r herein and guide you in the way he would 
haue you to walke and that his presence may attend you 
to the perfecting your Race with Joy, and witnessing a 
good Confession before men, that soe in y e end you may 
be perfected in the Joy and Glory of the Lord att his ap- 
pearance, In whome I trust to be found 

Yours and all Saints sincere freind & Seru* 

Edw Roberts 
Dublin, 3d, 1655. 

[Labelled, " Received 10th of July, 1656, from y e hand of goodvvife 
Price. y e order of y e counsel inclosed."] 



198 The Dunster Papers. 

V. 
Covenant between Edward Winshipp and Henry Dunster* 

These psents bearing date y e 29 th of May 1657 witness 
y l Edward Win ship of Wenatomy Yeoman hath coven ted 
& aggreed to allow & make good seven akers of meddow- 
land on y e northern syde of y e brook y l rims through 
alwife meddow to Henry Dunster & his heirs for ever 
for y l p l of y e sayd Henryes meddow y l lyeth on y e southern 
syde of y e sayd brook over against it to y e s d Edward & 
his heirs for ever, & in case y e sayd Edward canot flnde 
seven akers there of meddow land for y e sayd Henry y l y n 
y e sayd Edward shall allow y e sayd Henry two akers of 
upland for one of meddowland for all & every quantity 
of meddow wanting : & each pty ratifyeth this coven 1 for 
them & their heirs for ever, witness their hands her- 
unto subscribed w th mutual consent y l this their covenant 
shalbee publicly recorded as occasion is given. 

Henry Dunster: Edward Winshipp 

And its further aggreed y l s d Edward shall allow nine 
shillings annuall rent to y e s d Henry for y e foresd meddow 
on y e north syde of y e brook for 7 years next ensuing. 
Witness his hand. Edward Winshipp 

In presence of 

David Dunster 
ffrancis whitmor 



* In President Dunster's handwriting. The paper is labelled " Edw Winships 
Covenant." 



CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO A MEMOIR 
OF THE HON. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. 



Rev. George E. Ellis : — ■ 

Sir, — I inclose a letter to the President and Members of 
;he Massachusetts Historical Society, containing a request 
;o be released from the obligation of publishing in their 
Collections the Memoir of the late John Quincy Adams, 
which I have in a course of preparation, on the conditions 
which I communicated to you recently in conversation. 

I request that you would present this letter to the So- 
ciety at their next meeting, and that a vote may be passed 
exonerating me, on the terms specified, from the obliga- 
tions resulting from their vote and my engagement on 
the subject. 

Respectfully yours, 

Josiah Quincy. 

Boston, 10 April, 1854. 



To the President and Members of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. 

Gentlemen, — 
In March, 1848, I was requested by a vote of your So- 
ciety to prepare for your Collections " a Memoir of our 
late member, the Hon. John Quincy Adams, deceased." 
My engagements at that time did not permit me imme- 
diately to comply with your request, and my attention 



200 Correspondence relating to a Memoir 

was not again drawn to the subject until last autumn, 
when, at the solicitation of one of your Committee for Pub- 
lication, the Eev. George E. Ellis, I engaged to have the 
required Memoir in readiness for your ensuing contem- 
plated volume. My preparation is now such, that I can 
easily fulfil that engagement ; but my labors have resulted 
in a conviction, that it is not possible for me to compress 
within the limits usually assigned in your publications 
for this class of writings, nor indeed within the compass 
of one of your entire volumes, such a memoir of Mr. 
Adams as his character, services, and relations to society 
demand ; as what I have already written and the materi- 
als collected sufficiently evidence. Under these circum- 
stances, I am induced to request, that you would release 
me from the necessity of complying with the terms of 
your vote, so far as relates to the publication of my Me- 
moir in your Collections. If this favor be granted, and 
life and health be spared to me, I engage to prepare a 
more full Memoir of Mr. Adams than it is possible for 
me to include within the usual limits of one of your 
volumes, and put the work to, and, I hope, issue it from, 
the press, in the course of the present year. This work 
I will cause to be published in a style suitable to its char- 
acter, and, after acknowledging that it had its origin in 
the vote of your Society, I will obtain the copyright, take 
upon myself the entire cost and risk of the publication, 
and secure* and scrupulously place all its proceeds, should 
there be any, at the disposal of your Society. 

On these terms, I request to be released from the obli- 
gation your vote and my engagement on this subject have 
imposed upon me. 

I am, gentlemen, very respectfully, your associate, 

Josiah Quincy. 

Boston, 10 April, 1854. 



of the Hon. John Quincy Adams. 201 

Boston, 14 April, 1854. 
Hon, Josiah Quincy, LL. D. : — 

Dear Sir, — At a meeting of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, held yesterday, your communication of 
the 10th instant, addressed to the President and mem- 
bers, was presented by the Rev. George E. Ellis, chairman 
of the Publishing Committee, and the undersigned were 
appointed a committee to inform you of the views and 
votes of the Society in relation to the request which it 
contained. 

We need not assure you that the Society had earnestly 
desired to have in their Collections a memoir of their late 
distinguished associate, John Quincy Adams, from your 
own pen. It was to have formed the leading article in 
the forthcoming volume. 

The Society cannot fail to appreciate, however, the diffi- 
culty which you have so forcibly suggested, of compress- 
ing the details of a long and eventful life within the 
limits assigned to this class of papers in our Historical 
Collections. Nor have they felt at liberty, under all cir- 
cumstances, to decline acceding to your request to be 
released from an obligation to themselves, which might 
interfere with a free and full performance of the labor of 
love which you have undertaken. 

In signifying to you this release, they have desired us 
to express the grateful sense which is entertained by the 
Society of the very liberal offer which your communica- 
tion contains, and also to assure you of the interest which 
the members of the Society will take, in common with all 
their fellow-citizens, in the completion of the proposed 
biography of so distinguished a son of Massachusetts. 

We have the honor to be, dear Sir, very respectfully 
and truly, yours, 

John C. Gray, 1 committee of the 

GEORGE TiCKNOR, > Massachusetts His- 

ROBT. C. WlNTHROP, ) torkal Societ V' 



4th s. — vol. ii. 26 



MEMOIE OF THE LATE THOMAS L 
WINTHROP, 

PRESIDENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, ETC. 



The character and condition of a community like ours 
are adapted most happily to develop and occupy every 
talent. At the same time they render useful, and hence 
conducive ultimately to the general welfare, the diversified 
positions of life. And the gentleman of leisure, if he have 
but the desire to be useful, can find a field wide enough 
for the full exercise of all his benevolence. Nay, on such 
the burden is likely to be heavy, in proportion as ability 
is apparent, and the disposition to employ it is not want- 
ing. As a result, it has been made an object of founding 
and maintaining our Society, not only to notice scientific 
and literary productions, and preserve them ; but also to 
keep in view the elements of a nation's prosperity, and to 
cherish and record those statistical exhibitions of them 
which are calculated to interest as well the man of busi- 
ness, the patriotic politician, the lover of his species and 
of their well-being, as the meditative and accomplished 
scholar. 

Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop was a gentleman of a 
class, if so it may be termed, qualified to attract and 
gratify the moral observer. A beautiful harmony and 
propriety of character and deportment distinguished him 
most favorably, drawing toward him the respect, esteem, 
and, in the latter periods of life, even the veneration of 
those who enjoyed the honor and pleasure of associating 
with him. No airs of the parvenu, no disproportionate 
eagerness of hobbyism, no overbearing positiveness and 
obstinacy of opinion, and no exclusive feelings, obtruded 



Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 203 

themselves on such intercourse. But extending his liberal 
views over a large and variegated field of individual and 
social responsibilities, thoroughly known to him by per- 
sonal observation and experience as well as abstract 
study, he displayed habitually the result of a cultivated 
understanding combined with the best feelings of the 
heart. 

Contemplative and active life had both been opened be- 
fore him, and in good measure tried. For, descended of 
one of the first of the New England families, - — if not in- 
deed the very first, — and which had been distinguished not 
in the first generation only, but subsequently also, he en- 
joyed the advantage of the best education the country 
afforded; although he adopted the profession of a mer- 
chant, and was in that character long and successfully oc- 
cupied. 

And here it may be noted, that a liberal education is 
by no means to be considered as lost, which too many 
seem disposed to think, because he who obtains it does 
not engage in one of " the three learned professions." 
There are, indeed, those who are not anxious to obtain it 
for their sons, although it could be afforded them with 
ease. But would they reflect on the start it gives to the 
mental powers, — on the pleasure it communicates, the en- 
largement of the sphere of vision it produces, — rendering it 
easy, comparatively, to turn the attention, in after life, as 
circumstances may invite or require, to the various objects 
of human research and interest, and giving to the indi- 
vidual a taste for occupying liberally the leisure hours or 
moments which occur in the busiest life, and especially 
in its declining period, — such an opinion might well be 
abandoned. 

It is not intended here to attempt a history of the fam- 
ily of Winthrop. In addition to the fact, that, already, 
accounts have been given to the public in various vol- 
umes, and are familiar to almost every American reader, 
the limits assigned to the present article will not permit 
it. But it is necessary to say, that the immediate ancestry 
of our lamented President were inhabitants of the Con- 
necticut territory. There his father was born, and there 
his great-great-grandfather, the eldest and much beloved 



204 Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 

son of the venerated Governor of Massachusetts, acquired 
an extensive landed property, formed settlements, expend- 
ed his labor and much of his . fortune, and bequeathed to 
his posterity a noble inheritance. He is as justly regarded 
the founder of Saybrook, of the city of New London, and 
of Groton, as Governor of the State. 

No well-informed inhabitant, indeed, of either Massa- 
chusetts or Connecticut can pronounce the name of Win- 
throp with indifference. " It is," says Lord Bacon, " a 
reverend thing to see an ancient castle or building not in 
decay, or to see a fair timber tree sound and perfect ; how 
much more to behold an ancient family which hath stood 
against the waves and weathers of time ! " 

Soon after the almost total destruction of the Pequot 
tribe, in 1637, John Winthrop the younger, eldest of the 
thirteen children of his honored and excellent father, pro- 
cured a grant of Fisher's Island. The secure possession 
of this " gem of the Sound " was in time guaranteed to 
him and his heirs by the respective governments of Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, and New York. The patent of the 
Colony last named, in language recalling the feudal ten- 
ures of Europe, declares it to be " an entire enfranchised 
township, manor, and place of itself, in no wise subordi- 
nate or belonging unto or dependent upon, any riding, 
township, place, or jurisdiction whatever." "His house" 
on that island, observes the accomplished historian of New 
London, " was the first English residence in the Pequot 
country " ; and she adds, with reference to the city itself, 
" He brought out the first company of settlers, laid out the 
plan of the new town, organized the municipal govern- 
ment, conciliated the neighboring Indians, and determined 
the bounds of the plantation." * 

This gentleman, having married Martha, daughter of 
Thomas Fones, Esq., of London, February 8, 1631, had 
come to New England the same year. He had received 
every advantage of early and elaborate instruction afford- 
ed by the Universities of Cambridge and Dublin, at the 
latter of which he appears to have passed three years ; and 
this was aided by extensive travel on the Continent, even 

* History of New London, by Miss F. M. Caulkins, p. 39. 



Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 205 

as far as Turkey, and free and full correspondence with 
men of science and literature, at home and abroad. His 
fine natural powers were thus highly cultivated ; and, 
with an inquisitive, observing mind, he was eminently 
prepared to investigate a new country, and to avail him- 
self and his associates of all its productions. Hence we 
find him engaged in the new settlement of Agawam, or 
Ipswich, soon after his arrival,* and there he resided 
until the death of his wife, May 14, 1634, encountering 
the necessary hardships and privations of such an under- 
taking with heroic courage as well as fortitude. The 
intercourse of paternal and filial regard between his vener- 
ated father and himself, apparent in the letters appended 
to the Hon. Dr. Savage's edition of the Governor's His- 
tory, and in its admirable notes, is truly affecting, breath- 
ing as it does the genuine spirit of the Gospel. 

In 1643, Mr. Winthrop returned from one of his fre- 
quent voyages to England with pecuniary means and men 
to commence iron-works, both a furnace and forge. It 
was done at Lynn, and appears also to have been done at 
Braintree. But he had previously been intrusted, for a 
year at least, with the enterprise of a settlement at Say- 
brook. This was in 1635, f for after the death of his 
wife, who left no children, he had spent some time in 
England, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward 
Read, Esq., of Wickford in Essex, whose widow r appears 
to have married the celebrated Hugh Peter. He re- 
turned to this country in October. The activity of mind 
and body, the force of resolution, the enlargedness of 
view, and the success which attended his enterprises, all 
attract our regards, and exhibit him as an admirable 
leader in a colony. 

The grant from Massachusetts, grounded on a claim of 
conquest, which was obtained by him in 1644, to settle 
" a plantation " in the Pequot country, was, during the 
next year, carried into execution ; and on the 6th of May, 
1646, New London is considered as founded. In the 
autumn of that year he removed his family thither ; yet 

* See Felt's History of Ipswich,' at large. 

t See Savage's Winthrop, I. 170, and Trumbull's Connecticut, quoted there. Also 
History of JNew London, p. 40. 



206 Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Wintlirop. 

we find hirn often at Boston, and when afterward he was 
elected Governor he made Hartford his place of residence, 
having obtained, on the restoration of Charles II., a 
charter uniting the two colonies of New Haven and Con- 
necticut under one government, with what was then con- 
sidered a liberal organization. 

With all his cares and labors we find him intermin- 
gling philosophical speculations, and communicating with 
the Royal Society of London, of which he is also regarded 
as one of the founders. Fourteen years he was Governor, 
until, in 1676, during the distresses of Indian warfare, 
and while attending the business of the New England 
Confederation at Boston, he was seized with fever, and 
died on the 7th of April, having reached, on the 12th of 
the previous February, the age of 70. His remains were 
entombed with those of his father, in what is now called 
the Stone-Chapel burying-ground. His seven children 
survived him. His eulogy is forcibly but justly given by 
Dr. Savage, in calling him " the heir of all his father's 
talents, prudence, and virtues, with a superior share of 
human learning." 

Two of his children were sons : Fitz-John, who also 
became Governor of Connecticut, and Wait-Still, born 
at Boston, February 27, 1642, and who continued the 
line with which is our present concern. This gentleman, 
whose youth and early manhood were passed in Connecti- 
cut, until the death of his respected father, married Mary, 
daughter of the Hon. W T illiam Browne, of Salem. In 
1675, a year of much anxiety in regard to the intentions 
of the Indians, issuing in the destructive war of King 
Philip, he and his father were appointed Commissioners 
of the United Colonies. The year after, the adminis- 
tration of Andros commenced in New England, after he 
had for a considerable time been at the head of affairs 
in New York. Under him, at the time when his tyran- 
nical principles of government had not appeared, and his 
professions were at least plausible, both Mr. Winthrop 
and his elder brother accepted office, and became Coun- 
cillors. The board to which they belonged was, as is 
supposed by Hutchinson,* a check, for a time, on his 

* Their colleagues were Dudley^ Sloughton, Bulkeley, and Tyng, of Massachusetts; 



Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 207 

measures, which, in imitation of his sovereign, the infatu- 
ated James II., became more and more arbitrary. At 
length, when the jealousy of the people and their love of 
freedom were roused, and the Reverend Increase Mather 
had been deputed by some influential men to state their 
grievances to the new authorities at court, where the Eng- 
lish Revolution had placed William of Nassau as king, 
a temporary government was formed. Bradstreet was 
constituted its President, although more than fourscore 
years old, and "Wait Winthrop, as he was usually called, 
was made commander of the militia. This single circum- 
stance fixes our estimate of his principles. It was in the 
spring of 1689. 

Under the new charter of William and Mary, which 
was brought out in 1692, he was named of the Council. 
After this he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts, and died November 7, 1717, leaving 
two children, John and Ann. He had been a widower 
from the 14th of June, 1690. 

John Winthrop, the only son of Wait-Still, was born 
in New London, August 26, 1681. He was entered of 
Harvard College, and there received his first degree in 
1700, his name appearing first in his class, as did that of 
his kinsman, Adam, in 1668."* The literary taste of this 
gentleman greatly resembled that of his distinguished 
grandfather, and he was elected a member of the Royal 
Society. To him was dedicated the fortieth volume of its 
Transactions, in which the editor, Dr. Cromwell Morti- 
mer, alludes in the most respectful terms to that grand- 
father, and renders his thanks to the grandson for his 
devotion to the cause of science, and munificent remem- 
brance of the Royal Society, in presenting them " more 
than six hundred curious specimens, chiefly in the mineral 
kingdom, with an accurate account of each particular," 
— " intimating to England the vast riches which lie hid- 
den in the lap of her principal daughter." It is not 

Hinckley, Bradford, Lothrop, and Walley, of Plymouth; Coggeshall, Usher, and 
Wharton, of New Hampshire ; Arnold, Clark, Newbury, and Smith, of Narragansett. 
Connecticut, it is remarked, does not seem included in the actual government of 
Andros, although he is commissioned over New England. Hist. Mass. I. 357, &c. 

* Grandfather of the celebrated Professor Winthrop of Harvard College, who was 
graduated in 1732. 



208 Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 

wonderful, that, recording these praises, and exhibiting 
successively his notices of the family of Winthrop, the 
learned yet modest and moderate Dr. Eliot (whom the 
writer can never name without sincere expressions of 
esteem and gratitude, as a patron of his early studies) 
should add to his account of the first Governor this sen- 
tence : " Several of his posterity have exhibited the 
image of their illustrious ancestor, and his family have 
been more eminent for their talents, learning, and honors 
than any other in New England." 

Mr. John Winthrop married Ann, daughter of Gover- 
nor Joseph Dudley. They had seven children, two of 
whom were sons, John-Still, who continued the line, and 
Basil, the latter dying unmarried. On the death of Mr. 
John Winthrop's father, a difficulty arose respecting 
the division of property between himself and his sister, 
the only heirs. The sister, named above, had married 
Thomas Lechmere, Esq., Surveyor of the Customs in 
Boston, and brother of Nicholas, who was ennobled, 
August 25th, 1721, by the title of Baron Lechmere of 
Evesham in the county of Worcester, but who died in 
1727, without issue. The difficulty was of no small im- 
portance on a general view, and occasioned considerable 
agitation in the country. For, according to the English 
system of entailing real estate on a son as heir, and 
the eldest, where there are more than one, it had been 
the intention of Wait-Still Winthrop, and of his elder 
brother, Fitz-John, the Governor, who had held their 
father's landed property* without division, to continue 
this system of descent, and keep the land entire ; since 
Fitz-John had only a daughter, married to Colonel John 
Livingston, and, as this lady was destitute of children, 

* It is thus described in the History of New London : — " Winthrop's farm em- 
braced a tract about three miles in length from north to south, averaging, perhaps, a 
mile in breadth. On the south it was washed by the Sound, and intersected by in- 
lets of salt water. In this compass were all the varieties of forest and meadow, ara- 
ble land, pasture, and salt marsh, which are useful to the farmer, and pleasing to the 
eye of taste. It lay also in an opposite position to Winthrop's island farm, so that 
the owner of these two noble domains could look over Fisher's Island Sound, from 
either side, and rest his eye on his own fair possessions. 

"Winthrop's grant on the east bank of the river was 'right against the sandy 
point of his own home lot, the length eight score pole and the breadth eight score 
pole'; that is, on Groton bank, opposite the eastern spur of Winthrop's Neck." — 
p. 61. 



Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 209 

had intended, as appears, to make his nephew heir. But 
Mr. Lechmere sued for an equal division of the whole 
property. To this the Connecticut courts acceded, and 
gave judgment accordingly; but the brother appealed, 
and carried the cause before the King in Council. A de- 
cision was obtained in his favor, " declaring him the sole 
heir of all the landed estate of his father and uncle ; but 
such exertions were made, that, at length, although Mr. 
Winthrop had gained his suit, the English law of primo- 
geniture was not enforced on Connecticut.* 

The feelings excited on this occasion, and which are 
mentioned in the " Dedication " alluded to, seem to have 
alienated the mind of Mr. Winthrop from his fellow-sub- 
jects in America, for he took up his residence in England 
for more than twenty years, and never returned, dying at 
Sydenham in Kent, August 1, 1747. 

John-Still Winthrop was born at New London, Janu- 
ary 15, 1720, and graduated at Yale College in 1737. 
Four years after this he joined his father in England, and 
continued with him until his death. The family, how- 
ever, had not left New London. Not long after his re- 
turn, on the 4th of September, 1750, he married Jane, 
only daughter of Francis Borland, of Boston. Of this 
marriage he had John, who was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1770,f but died in 1780; also Jane; Francis 
Bayard, who died at New York, leaving four sons and 
three daughters ; Ann, who married the late David 
Sears, Esq., of Boston, and was mother of our respected 
fellow-laborer, the Hon. David Sears ; William, of New 
York ; Joseph, of Charleston, S. C. ; Mary ; and Thomas 
Lindall. By a second wife, daughter of William Sher- 
riff, a British field-officer, he had six children ; of whom 
were Benjamin, of New York, Egbert, an admiral in the 

* Trumbull's Connecticut, II. 54-57. See also History of New London, pp. 412, 
413. It is interesting to follow the descent of our American families when transferred 
to foreign countries, more especially to the land of their " fathers' sepulchres." Mary, 
second daughter of Richard Lechmere, son of Thomas and of Ann Winthrop, his 
wife, married in England James Russell, Esq., a brother of the Hon. Thomas Russell, 
of Boston, and was mother of the late Major-General Lechmere Graves Coore Rus- 
sell, of Ashford Hall, near Ludlow, Shropshire ; whose eight children are named by 
Burke in his " Dictionary of Landed Gentry." The family of Lechmere, of Hanley 
Castle, was of high antiquity. 

t In the class of which Hon. William Winthrop was also a member, one of the four 
sons whom Professor Winthrop educated at Harvard. 

4th s. — yol. ii. 27 



210 Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 

British navy, and Mrs. Sebor, of Middletown, Connecticut. 
He died at New London on the 6th of June, 1776. 

Thomas Lindall Winthrop, LL. D., his youngest son 
of the first marriage, was born at New London, March 6, 
1760. He entered Yale College in 1776, having been 
prepared under the instruction of Mr. Tisclale of Leba- 
non, whose reputation was high for classical literature. 
Dr. Daggett had resigned the presidency, to which the 
eminently learned Dr. Stiles was elected. Under him 
Mr. Winthrop studied the Hebrew language, which, as 
we gather from his " Life," the President had gained 
principally from a Jewish Rabbi at Newport. But he left 
Yale at the close of the Sophomore year with an honor- 
able dismission, and entered Harvard College, at which he 
took his first degree in 1780, after distinguishing himself 
as became his family. At this period his health was very 
low, compelling him to journey for its restoration. Hav- 
ing spent a short time in Philadelphia, then the seat of 
the American government, and seeing several of the 
Southern States, he enjoyed, though still feeble, the great 
advantage of foreign travel ; an advantage peculiarly de- 
sirable for its effects on the mind and habits of the well- 
educated man. Indeed, it may justly be considered a part 
of education itself. For it may improve the taste, as it 
exhibits the masterpieces of art and labor; and, while it 
engages agreeably the attention by the attractions of nov- 
elty, may suggest improvements, ripen designs of useful- 
ness, produce habits of comparison, and prove an almost 
exhaustless fund for the entertainment of subsequent life. 
Yet his experience abroad was trying. The Revolution- 
ary struggle with Great Britain was at its height. Mr. 
Winthrop embarked for Amsterdam, sailing from Nan- 
tucket. But the vessel was captured, and carried to 
England. He was permitted, however, by Admiral Duck- 
worth, to visit London and some of the interior counties. 
Then he passed over to the Continent, and travelled in 
France, Flanders, and Flolland, returning to America in a 
ship commanded by Captain (afterwards Commodore) 
Truxton. 

Several of his fellow-passengers on the return voyage 
were of an interesting character. Count Benyowski, a 



Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 211 

Polish general, and Commodore Manly, who had been 
taken prisoner in 1777, and suffered a long and rigorous 
confinement at Halifax, and had afterwards commanded 
an American frigate, were, with not a few officers of pri- 
vateers, who had been captured by British vessels of war, 
of the number. 

Mr. Winthrop's commercial transactions, which at 
length became very extensive, were commenced soon after 
his return from Europe, in connection, at first, with an 
elder brother, settled in South Carolina. He therefore 
resided at Charleston for a considerable period, and after- 
ward removed to Boston ; where for many years he was 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, with indefatigable indus- 
try, energy, and prudence. 

On the 25th of July, 1786, Mr. Winthrop married the 
eldest daughter of Sir John Temple, Baronet, Elizabeth 
Bowdoin Temple, granddaughter of James Bowdoin, at 
that time Governor of Massachusetts, and by him adopted 
and brought up from childhood. Her father resided at 
New York, as Consul General of Great Britain in the 
United States. Seven sons and seven daughters were the 
fruit of this marriage: - — 1. Elizabeth Bowdoin Temple, 
who became the wife of the Rev. Benjamin Tappan, D.D., 
of Augusta, Maine, one of whose sons is minister of the 
" Winthrop Church," in Charlestown, Massachusetts. 
2. Sarah Bowdoin, who married George Sullivan, Esq., 
originally of Boston, now of New York. 3. Thomas 
Lindall, junior, who was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1807, and died in 1812. 4. Augusta Temple, died 
young. 5. Augusta 7 Temple 2d, married Dr. John Smith 
Rogers, of New York, and died at Hartford, December 7, 
1828. 6. James Bowdoin, who was educated at Bowdoin 
College, Maine, where he was graduated in 1814, became 
an efficient and highly esteemed member of our Society, 
was a fellow also of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, and died deeply lamented at Havana, March 
6, 1833. 7. John Temple, who died at Valparaiso, South 
America, in 1843. 8. Francis William, died young. 
9. Francis William 2d, a graduate of Harvard College 
of the year 1817, but who died in two years after, having 
commenced the study of theology. 10. Jane, died un- 



212 Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 

married, in Boston, 1819. 11. Anne, who became the 
second wife of Dr. John C. Warren, and died December 
16, 1850. 12. George Edward, a graduate of Harvard 
College in 1825, still living. 13. Granville Temple, a 
graduate of Bowdoin College in 1827, attorney at law, 
and for a time Captain of the Cadets of Boston, with the 
rank of Colonel, but who died in 1852. 14. Robert 
Charles, LL. D., who was graduated at Cambridge in 
1828, attorney at law, Representative in Congress for 
Suffolk and for a time Speaker of the House, a Senator 
also of the United States for Massachusetts, Fellow of the 
American Academy, one of the Overseers of the Univer- 
sity at Cambridge, and an honored and beloved member 
of our Society, in whom his distinguished family avito 
virescit honor e^ and whose published speeches and ad- 
dresses, we doubt not, will perpetuate his well-earned 
reputation. 

Mr. Winthrop' s excellent lady, the mother of so large 
a family, died greatly lamented, July 23, 1825. He never 
re-married. 

Our venerated President, after retiring from active com- 
mercial pursuits, which had been rendered, it is believed, 
successful, retained, notwithsanding, an intimate relation 
to men of business, as holding for many years the first 
office of one of the banks. He presided also over the 
Massachusetts Agricultural Society, formed to encourage 
husbandry by rewards, exhibitions, and experiments, and 
took great pleasure in promoting its interests, which com- 
mend themselves to gentlemen of leisure, education, 
wealth, and patriotism. For six and thirty years he 
was a trustee, and his presidency included the last ten 
years of his life. 

Of the first bank instituted for " Savings," thus to en- 
courage frugality and foresight, as well as industry, among 
the less favored classes of the community, he was a Trus- 
tee and Vice-President, and zealously promoted its influ- 
ence in these offices during twenty years. From 1828 to 
1841 he was an Overseer of the University at Cambridge, 
and at the time of his death senior member of the Board 
of Visitors. The office of Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Commonwealth he held for seven years, by annual elec- 
tion of the people, from 1826 to 1832, inclusively. 



Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 213 

In the presidency of the Massachusetts Historical Soci- 
ety he succeeded Judge Davis in 1835 ; and was ever punc- 
tually and faithfully devoted to its interests, even to the 
close of life. He was likewise President of the American 
Antiquarian Society, an institution of similar character, 
whose location is fixed in the centre of the State, and whose 
purview extends, as its name indicates, to the whole coun- 
try. This Society he aided by his benefactions as well as 
influence. It was founded partially on the idea of safety 
for valuable documents, by having an additional deposi- 
tory for them, removed from a crowded city on the sea- 
board exposed to fire and invasion, — the latter of which 
was so destructive to the precious collection of Prince. 

He sustained also the office of Treasurer of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences for a series of years. 
The American Philosophical Society elected him a mem- 
ber, as did the American Statistical Association, and the 
Historical Societies of Pennsylvania, New York, Maine, 
Indiana, Georgia, and the Universal Statistical Society of 
France ; of the last named he was an honorary Presi- 
dent.* 

The interest he was known to take in matters which 
concern the public welfare, from the education of the 
young in the earliest branches of instruction to the mo- 
mentous affairs of nations, caused him to be selected by 
the city of Boston as one of the committee for establish- 
ing primary schools, and for three years he was its chair- 
man. The Academy of Industry, Manufactures, and 
Agriculture of Paris elected him a member, as did the 
Royal Society of Agriculture of Florence. He was like- 
wise a member and patron of the Royal Society of North- 
ern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, whose labors have illustrat- 
ed the early voyages to our coasts, and the Archaeological 
Society of Athens chose him one of their associates. 

With so many honors clustering around him, and such 
varied and interesting connections with his fellow-men, at 
home and abroad, it may well be supposed that advancing 
age would be greatly cheered and comforted, as well as 
occupied in a liberal pursuit of general information ; and 

* See the Quarterly Register of the American Education Society, Vol. XIII. pp. 
386-391. 



214 Memoir of Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop. 

that the intercourse with men of similar taste and pur- 
suits would be pleasing and improving. Such were, in 
fact, the occupations of his venerated old age, such the 
elegant hospitality of his house, and such his course of 
reading and general remark and inquiry, that he seemed 
not so much to grow old as to become more and more 
a receptacle of the best knowledge of former and present 
times. His respect for religion and for its institutions 
and ministers, his relish for literary intercourse, and his 
patriotic interest in all that concerned our beloved coun- 
try, never forsook him. 

Milton beautifully describes a privilege of literary age, 
in that it may " at convenient times, for memory's sake, 
retire back into the middle ward, and sometimes into the 
rear," of what has been read, " until one has confirmed 
and solidly united the whole body of his perfected knowl- 
edge, like the last embattelling of a Roman legion." * 
Such seemed the ripened acquisitions of our respected 
President ; and although but few, if any, printed or writ- 
ten documents remain, which might serve as annals to 
perpetuate the knowledge of his life, it is a consolation to 
believe, that his honored memory will long survive in the 
bosoms of our members, as in his own family, his imme- 
diate relatives, and his associates of every class. 

W. J. 

* Tractate of Education. 



MEMORIALS OF THE WHITES. 



[The following memoranda, relating to two individuals connected, 
influentially, with the settlement of the Massachusetts Colony, were 
prepared by Mr. Lemuel Shattuck, and read by him before the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, at their meeting October 31, 1850 ; and as 
the article contains some facts not generally known, or not easily acces- 
sible, we publish it as a valuable contribution to our Collections.] 



Rev. John White,* known as the Patriarch of Dorches- 
ter, was born at Stanton St. John, in Oxfordshire, where 
he was baptized the 6th of January, 1575. John White, 
his father, was descended, in the line of a younger brother, 
from one of the noble families in Hampshire. His mother 
was Isabel, daughter of John Rawle, of Litchfield. Jo- 
siah White, an elder brother, was minister of Horn 
church, in Essex, whose son, James, was a wealthy mer- 
chant, and died in Boston, leaving a will, which is recorded 
in the Suffolk records (Vol. I. p. 502). After being fitted 
for college, or " educated in grammar learning," at the 
Winchester School, John White was admitted a fellow of 
New College, at Oxford, in 1595, where he took his first 
degree of A. B. in 1597, and his second degree of A. M. 
in 1600. He afterwards received holy orders, and became 
a great preacher of the Puritan principles. In 1606, he 
went to Dorchester, county of Dorset, and became rector 
of Trinity parish. After the settlement of the Pilgrims 
at Plymouth, and about the year 1624, he, with some of 

* Authorities : —Wood's Athen. Oxon. (Bliss's ed.), Vol. II. pp. 117, 350 ; Vol. III. 
pp. 160,236; Fuller's Worthies, Vol. III. p. 24; Brooks's Lives of the Puritans; 
Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, Vol. XXXI. p. 404 ; Non-Conformist Me- 
morial, Vol. II. p. 145; Original MS. Memoranda. 



216 Memorials of the Whites. 

his friends, projected the new Colony of Massachusetts. 
The object was to provide a settlement or an asylum for 
those who could not conform to the church discipline and 
ceremonies. The project met with many difficulties, which 
had to be surmounted before the patent was finally ob- 
tained. By his personal intercourse, his advice, his 
preaching, his writings, and his great influence, Mr. White 
gave essential aid to the " Company of Adventurers," in 
securing the result of their labors. He frequently attend- 
ed the meetings of the company, and advised many of his 
friends and neighbors to join them for the purpose of emi- 
gration. On the day of their departure, he preached on 
board the Arbella. The active part he took in favor of 
the Puritans gained him notoriety, and excited the dis- 
pleasure of the opposing party, during the civil wars 
which followed. A marauding party of horsemen, under 
command of Prince Rupert, went to Dorchester in 1642, 
plundered his house, and carried away his library. On 
this occasion he made his escape to London, and was there 
appointed minister of Savoy parish, and on the 30th of 
September, 1643, rector of Lambeth parish, in Surry. In 
1640, he was appointed one of the learned ministers to 
assist the Parliamentary committee on religion. He was 
also chosen one of the divines which met at Westminster 
on the 1st of July, 1643; and was appointed, with Hev. 
Cornelius Burgess, his brother-in-law, assistant chairman 
of that venerable assembly. In 1647, he was offered the 
wardenship of the New College, but refused it ; and, as 
soon as he could, returned to his people at Dorchester, for 
whom he had the greatest affection, and where he passed 
the happiest of his days. He died there, suddenly, July 
21, 1648, in his seventy- fourth year, and was interred in 
the church porch of St. Peter, in Dorchester, which is a 
chapel belonging to Trinity Church. 

Fuller says he was " a grave man, yet without morose- 
ness, as who would willingly contribute his shot of face- 
tiousness on any just occasion ; a good governor, by whose 
wisdom the town of Dorchester (notwithstanding a casual, 
merciless fire) was much enriched ; knowledge causing 
piety, piety breeding industry, and industry procuring 
plenty unto it. A beggar was not then to be seen in the 



Memorials of the Whites. 217 

town, all able poor being set on work, and the impotent 
maintained. He absolutely commanded his own passions, 
and the purses of his parishioners, whom he could wind 
up to what height he pleased on important occasions. 
He was free from covetousness, if not trespassing on the 
contrary, and had a patriarchal influence both in Old and 
New England." Wood calls him a moderate Puritan, of 
great gravity and presence, one of the most attentive and 
influential members of the Westminster Assembly. " The 
Puritan party, near to and remote from him, bore him 
more respect than they did their own diocesan." In the 
course of his ministry at Dorchester, " he expounded the 
Scriptures all over and half over again, having had an ex- 
cellent faculty in the clear and solid interpretating of it." 

He was the author of the " Planter's Plea," or " Breef 
Relation." The authorship of the "Humble Address" 
has also been attributed to him. His other principal 
printed works were, 1. Commentary on the First Chap- 
ter of Genesis ; 2. Directions for the Profitable Reading 
of the Scriptures; 3. Of the Sabbath; 4. The Way of 
the Tree of Life, or the Duties of Perfection ; 5. Several 
Occasional Sermons. 

Mr. White married Ann, daughter of John Burgess, of 
Peterborough, and sister of Rev. Cornelius Burgess, one 
of the famous Puritan divines. By her he had four sons, 
John, Samuel, Josiah, and Nathaniel. The eldest was 
minister in Paupan, in Dorchester, and among those who 
were ejected for their non-conformity, in 1662. 

John White, Esq.,* commonly entitled " the Counsel- 
lor" was the son of Henry White, and was born in Hey- 
Ian, Pembrokeshire, on the 29th of June, 1590. After 
completing his preparatory studies, or, as his historian has 
it, " after he had been instructed in the faculty of gram- 
mar," he was entered by his elder brother, Griffith White, 
a member of Jesus College, at Oxford, in 1607. He re- 

* Authorities : — Wood's Athen. Oxon. (Bliss's ed.), Vol. II. p. 236 ; Vol. III. pp. 105, 
143, 144 ; Neal's History of the Puritans, Vol. III. pp. 51, 52, 56, 76, 275 ; Clarendon's 
Hist. Rebellion ; Brooks's Lives of the Puritans ; Young's Chronicles, pp. 69, 74, 
86, 101, 102; "The First Century," &c. (a copy of which is in the library of Har- 
vard University); Original MS. Memoranda. — Watts's Bibliotheca mentions two 
John Whites, "counsellors," but they are evidently the same individual. 

4th s. — vol. n. 28 



218 Memorials of the Wliite 



3. 



mained atcollege about four years, and afterwards studied 
law and became a barrister and counsellor of eminence, and 
one of the masters of the bench in the Middle Temple. He 
embraced the principles of the Puritans in early life, and 
during his professional career was their principal legal 
( adviser. The first charter of the Massachusetts Colony ivas' 
probably procured under his advice, and written by him. 
His name appears among the members of the Company, 
at their meetings before their embarkation for this country. 
In October, 1629, he drew up the articles agreed upon 
" between the Planters and Adventurers for the perform- 
ance of what shall be determined " ; and he was chosen 
one of the umpires to settle any disagreements that might 
arise. He did not emigrate to this country ; but many of 
his friends and connections who did come were advised 
and assisted by him. He was chosen a member, from the 
borough of Southwark, of the Parliament which began 
November 3, 1640; and in this, as in other spheres, he 
was a leading and influential, but zealous, member of the 
Puritan party. Pie was also one of the twenty commis- 
sioners chosen as " Lay-Assessors " of the Westminster 
Assembly of Divines. 

A general complaint existed at that time against the 
conduct and superstitions of the members of the Established 
Church, who held their benefices under the government ; 
and the House of Commons appointed, on the 6th of No- 
vember, 1640, very soon after its organization, a large 
" Committee on Religion," to inquire into their scandalous 
immoralities. Mr. White was chairman of this commit- 
tee, and also of the sub-committee, appointed on the 19th 
of the same month, " to consider how there may be preach- 
ing ministers set up where there are none, how they may 
be maintained where there is no maintenance, and all other 
things of that nature ; also to inquire into the grounds 
and causes of the great scarcity of preaching ministers 
throughout the kingdom ; and to consider of some way of 
removing scandalous ministers, and putting others in their 
places." Numerous petitions relating to these subjects 
were presented to Parliament and referred to these com- 
mittees. The benefices of several of the clergy were se- 
questered and given to others. These proceedings excited, 



Memorials of the Whites. 219 

as they would naturally do, great opposition. By some 
they were considered severe, and were highly censured, 
especially by the suffering party. It should be borne in 
mind, however, that party spirit at that time raged in its 
highest activity, amounting in some cases to open rebel- 
lion, civil war, and bloodshed ; and what one party might 
censure was by the other demanded as a right. To justify 
their proceedings, a report of one hundred cases — or a 
"century" — of the ejected ministers was made by Mr. 
White, and, on the 17th of November, 1643, ordered to 
be printed. It appeared under the title, " The First Cen- 
tury of scandalous malignant Priests, made and admit- 
ted into Benefices by the Prelate, in whose Hands the 
Ordination of Ministers and Government had been ; or a 
Narration of the Causes for which Parliament has ordered 
the Sequestration of the Benefices of several Ministers 
complained of before them, for Vitiousness of Life, Errors 
in Doctrine, contrary to the Articles of our Religion, and 
for practising and pressing superstitious Innovations 
against Law, and for Malignancy against Parliament." 
The author, in his preface, says the reasons of his ap- 
pearing in print were " that the Parliament might appear 
just in their doings; that the mouth of iniquity might be 
stopped ; that all the world might see that the tongues of 
them that speak evil of the Parliament are set on fire of 
hell ; and that they hide themselves under falsehood and 
make lies their refuge " ; and then he adds, that " the gross- 
est faults which were charged on the clergy were proved 
by many witnesses, seldom less than six." 

The publication of this account of the " First Century " 
or hundred of the " scandalous priests " whom he selected 
for notice, greatly increased the excitement, and drew down 
upon Mr. White the most violent opposition. A second cen- 
tury was prepared for publication, but, on account of Mr. 
White's death, fourteen months after the first came out, 
or for some other cause, it never appeared. He was re- 
proached, and nicknamed " Century White." Wood, and 
others belonging to the party of his opposers, have accu- 
mulated against him much of the party scandal of the 
times ; but their censure must be considered as unjust by 
every candid mind. " The obnoxious part he acted would 



220 Memorials of the Whites. 

naturally create many enemies, some of whom would in- 
vent, and others eagerly credit, the most reproachful cal- 
umnies against him." The slanders of his enemies can- 
not, however, cover up the noble deeds of this excellent 
man. The proceedings of his committee may be viewed, 
separated from contemporary events, as severe, but they 
tended greatly to hasten the reformation and the over- 
throw of the Established Church, though some innocent 
persons may have suffered in the general wreck. He has 
been styled " a grave lawyer, and an honest, learned, and 
faithful servant of the people, and a useful member of the 
House of Commons." To him the founders of the Mas- 
sachusetts Colony and their descendants are greatly indebt- 
ed, and they should ever gratefully cherish his memory. 

Mr. White died in London, on the 29th of January, 
1645, aged 54 years and 7 months ; and was buried, with 
great funeral solemnities, in the church belonging to the 
Temple, " at the high altar, on the Middle Temple side, 
close to the end where the altar stood." The members of 
Parliament, in a body, accompanied his remains to the 
grave. A marble slab was placed over his body, on which 
was inscribed : — 

" Here lyeth a John, a burning, shining lights 
His name, life, actions, were all White," 



THE LEVEEETT PAPEES 



I. 

1655. 
Account currant the Common Wealth of England is Dr 

10 March 55 To several summes pd. as 
appears before, nine thousand two 
hundred ninety three Pounds two shil- 
lings and eleven pence . . . £9293 2 11 

To severall mis casts & errors found as 
appears folio 27, found upon Examina- 
tion . . . . . . . 70 6 11 

To £ 30 for the use of my warehouse & 

man's labour 30 

To my Sallery from y e 3 d Febr y 1653 to 

March 55 at 20.9. pr diem . . 758 



£10151 9 10 

Acco 1 Currant of the CommonWealth of England Cr. 

By severall recytes of goods & by charge 

upon the Treasurer of the Navy five 

thousand four hundred and fiYe 

Pounds two shillings and tenn pence £54,05 2 10 
fol. 27 By severall Errors & mistakes 

found in Examination 10 March 55 . £3 19 7 

By so much to Ball a this acco 1 due unto 

me John Leverett .... £ 4742 7 5 



£10151 9 10 



222 The Leverett Papers. 

By this acco 1 the CornmonWealth of England is D r unto 
me four thousand seven hundred fortytwo Pounds seaven 
Shillings & five pence ; but Defaulke Sixtynine Pounds, 
one Shilling & six pence & there Rest four thousand six 
hundred Seaventy three Pounds five Shillings & eleven 
pence which they owe unto me, & have the Acco 1 dd : 
then attested by my oath of which ye Committee of his 
Highness Councill took of from my Sallery five Shillings 
pr diem & then Rested butt four thousand four hundred 
Eighty two Pounds three Shillings 11-J-d. for which I Reed 
his Highness the Lord Protectors Privy Seale bears date 
28 July 1656 posted into my Leager Letter A folio 3= 



[I. 

To the Kinges Most Excellent Ma tk 



'&' 



The humble petition of John Leverett Sheweth That 
your pet r upon the takeing of severall fforts from the 
French in Nova Scotia and coast of Accadie in America 
was left to command and keepe them in the yeare 1654, 
in w ch service your pet 1 ' for the payment of Souldiers & 
Seamen runn out his Estate & credit to severall Thou- 
sands of Pounds, for which in the yeares 1656 & 1658 
upon the Auditeing of his Accompts rec d Two Privie 
Seales for Payment out of the Exchequer, of which sumes 
there remaine due unto him £ 3799 Is. 4,d. whereby your 
pet r hath ben diverted in the way of his calling & occa- 
sioned to remove his habitation to the allmost ruineing of 
him and his family. 

And for as much as the moneyes were expended for the 
Takeing of a country which is an Addition to your Ma ties 
Dominions and by ymprovement may at present be some 
Addition of Revennue, and for future may increase 

Wherefore your pet r doth humbly pray yo r Maj tie3 Gra- 
cious favour in affordeing him releife either by your Roy- 
all Gracious Order for the money due, or by granting to 
him the said Country for Terme of yeares, or such part 
thereof to him & his heires forever as may be a just com- 



The Leverett Papers. 223 

pensation for his disbursments. And for the better satis- 
faccon of your Maj tie in the Justice and Equitie of your 
pet rs desires ; he doth farther pray, that your Ma tie will 
please to referr the consideration of your pet r3 case to the 
Et. Hono ble Com tee of your Ma ties privie Councell, to whome 
the consideration of the buisines of Nova Scotia is referred, 
or to whome yo r Ma tie shall in yo r Royal Wisdome see 
meete. 

And your petitioner shall pray &c. 



III. 

To Our Trusty and Welbeloved S r John Leverett Kn l 
Governour of Massachusetts bay in new England. 

Charles R. 

Trusty & welbeloved, wee greet you well. Whereas 
wee have been humbly informed by the peticon of John 
Wampas ah White, that he was about six months since 
put into prison here for a small debt, where he hath since 
remained to his utter ruine, & that he hath a certain par- 
cell of land in Massachusetts bay, the which he hath 
held for many years, having taken the oaths of Allegiance 
& Supremacy as our subject, and having humbly be- 
sought us to interpose with you, that he may bee restored 
to his s d lands, or have liberty to sell the same for his 
present reliefe and the payment of his debts ; wee taking 
into our gracious consideration the miserable condition 
of the pet r have thought fitt to recomend him to you, 
that he may have Justice done him & what favour the 
matter will fairly beare. And soe wee bid you farewell. 
Given att our Court att Whitehall the 22 th day of August 
1676 in the 28 th yeare of our reigne 

By his Ma ties comand. 

Williamson. 

[Labeled, " Received 2 Jan. 1677."] 



224 The Leverett Papers: 

IV. 

Robert Atkyn to John Leverett. 

To his much honor' cl freind Major Genrall John Leverett 
of Boston in New England These. 

Worthy S r 

My respected freind & ould acquaintance & schoole 
fellow. &c. I am very hartily joyfull. to heare of you. 
and from you. & that God is pleased to lengthen out yo r 
dayes to stand vp in the roome of good old Xtians gone 
into another better habitation I hope it is for best good 
both to yo r selfe & to the place you are in, we here are 
full of loosenes & prophanes debauchery & what not 
cryinge Synns. aboundinge & little restraint the mouths, of 
good men. restrained chariotts & horsemen laide aside 
malligned & dispised for the good they haue done or 
would continue to doe lycentiousnes much more pleasing 
to y e Generality of people then a strict holy course of 
Liveinge I doe not question but greatly hope but yo r ac- 
quaintance w th God is much & that yo r Lives is very holy 
& pleasing to him, I suppose you may haue heard of the 
death of Docter Tuckney sometime of o r toune w lh Mr. 
Cotton but blessed be God we haue good teachinge had 
we hearts to make a right improovem 1 by holy medita- 
tion and practis I have inclosed sent a regester of all 
yo r fathers children the Gierke thinkes he has omitted 
none, there is one Mr Thomas Vnderwood sometimes 
wollen drap r in London, who I think lives in Boston. & 
hes beene there 10 or 12 yeares that marryed old M r Til- 
sons daughter one of them but she is dead & since he went 
to New England hes marryed againe I would desire the 
favo r of you to convey this inclosed Ire to him & soe desire- 
ing fro my heart if God bestow place of cheife or cheifest 
trust vpon yo w consider yo w rule not for man but for y e 
lord who wilbe w th you & assist you & its the reall desire 
of him that he may soe be. who w lh his true respects to 
you subscribes himselfe. 

Yo r cordiall freind & humble servant 

Egbert: Atkyn. 

Boston. March ISth. 1672. 



The Leverett Papers. 225 

I opened this to take a coppy which I sent yo w some- 
time since least the originall should miscarry. 

[Labelled, " Register of Mr Tho Leveret of Boston in the County of 
Lincoln his Children from Aug 1612 to 1632 booked by the Register." 
" fro M r Atkyns of Boston w th register."] 



March 18 1672 



A True coppy of the regester of the Borough of Boston in 
the countty of Lincoln to certify whom it may concern. 

John y e Son of M r Thomas Leveret was babtized the 

16 day of Awgust 1612. 
Jaine y e Daughter of M r Tho : Leveret was babtized 

Awgust y e 9 1613 

Jaine y e Daughter of the same was babtized December 

y e 6 1614 

John y e Son of the same babtized July 7 1616 
Thomas y e Son of the same babtized July 30: 1618 
Ann y e Daughter of y e same babtized January 8 : 1619 
James y e sonne of y e same baptized June 28 1621 
Sarah y e Daughter of y e same baptized Septemb r 26 : 

1622 

Mary y e Daughter of y e same baptized Feb : 5 : 1623 
Jabes y e Son of y e same babtized Septemb r 6 : 1627 
Iserel y e Son of y e same babtized Septemb r 25 : 1628 
Elisha y e Son of y e same baptized July 3: 1630 
Nathaniel y e Son of y e same baptized April 12: 1632 

Witnes Dan: Jenkinson. 

[Labelled, " M r Ro : Atkin." " Register of y e baptisms of y e Chil- 
dren of Th s Leverett father of Jno. Gov. Leverett."] 



4th s. — vol. ii. 29 



DETAIL OF THE PATENT OF BEATJCHAMP 
AND LEVERETT. 



1629, March 13th. — The Grant or Patent was made 
by the Council of Plymouth, in England, to Beauchamp 
and Leverett, signed Robert Warwick. This describes all 
the land lying between Muscongus on the south, or 
southwest, and a straight line extending from thence ten 
leagues up into the main land, and ten leagues on the 
north and northeast of a river called Penobscot, &c. 

1694, May 9th. — Madokawando, Sagamore of Penob- 
scot, sold to Sir William Phipps part of the lands included 
in the grant made by the Council of Plymouth to Beau- 
champ and Leverett. 

1719, August 13tL — Spencer Phipps, Sir William's 
heir, conveyed the Indian title and grant to John Lever- 
ett, Esq., the late President, and heir to the aforesaid 
Thomas Leverett, which Thomas, on the demise of Beau- 
champ, by survivorship, became by law possessed of the 
whole grant ; and the said John Leverett, on the 14th of 
August, 1719, admitted Cooke and others, so as to make 
ten owners, which are denominated the Ten (original own- 
ers or) proprietors. The same year, the original ten ad- 
mitted twenty other partners, viz. Jahleel Brenton and 
others, called the Twenty Associates, who were to settle 
two townships and build two saw-mills for the Company. 
They immediately proceeded to make the settlements, and 
break up and cultivate as much land as would accommo- 
date a sufficient number of families for the said two town- 
ships ; and, in order to secure their intended settlements 
against the incursions of the Indians, built and furnished 
two large block-houses, with a covered way to the water- 



Detail of the Patent of Beauchamp and Leverett. 227 

side. The Associates also built a double saiv-mill, bought 
a sloop, and hired others, to transport people and their 
effects, and maintained a garrison, furnished with great 
and small artillery. In 1722, the Indians surprised, took, 
and burned one of the sloops, and attacked the block- 
houses, in which they were defeated by the garrison ; but 
the Associates were great sufferers, the Indians having 
taken seven, burnt their saw-mills, a large sloop, and 
sundry houses. The block-houses were well defended 
against a siege ; and in the course of twelve days' siege, 
laid by the Indians, twenty of the enemy were killed. 
The government having declared war against the Indians, 
Mr. Leverett, in behalf of himself and the other Associates, 
by a memorial in August, 1722, made a tender of the use 
of the block-houses to the government during the war. 
This checked the progress of the settlements. 

After the close of this war, the Associates, being resolved 
to bring forward and finish their settlements, were pro- 
ceeding to settle and improve the said lands with vigor, and 
had got a minister and a hundred and twenty families ready 
to go and settle, when another interruption took place. 
One David Dunbar, his then Majesty's Surveyor-General of 
the Woods, claimed a quitrent for the King, upon which 
the thirty partners agreed with Brigadier Waldo to go to 
England for the purpose of getting the said Dunbar re- 
moved ; for which services, and at his own expense, 
he was to have one half of the patent, — which he 
accomplished, and Dunbar was removed. There then re- 
mained by computation 300,000 acres belonging to the 
thirty. In 1734, Waldo entered into an indented agree- 
ment with the Twenty Associates to complete the settle- 
ments for one half of their proportion, which was 200,000 
acres. This would leave the Twenty Associates 100,000 
acres, which 100,000 acres he was to set off to them, their 
heirs and assigns, wherever the Twenty Associates should 
make their pitch, to be 5i miles on the sea, and about 30 
miles into the country, so as to include the quantity of 
100,000 acres, 2,000 of which was to be in islands. 
This same year his Excellency, Governor Belcher, issued a 
proclamation notifying all persons that the proprietors 
were about making a regular survey of their lands. 



228 Detail of the Patent of Beauchamp and Leverett. 

1738. — Isaac Little, Esq. was appointed to go to the 
land and explore the same, and report where would be the 
best place to make the pitch. 

The proprietors, however, did not then agree where to 
make their pitch, but it was postponed from time to time ; 
and in the year 1759 (in May) Brigadier Waldo died sud- 
denly, without the contract being fulfilled. The business 
continued unfinished from year to year, until the year 
1766, when one of the original Twenty Associates, viz. 
John Jeffries, and the heirs of others, by petition to John 
Gushing, Esq., a justice of the peace through the Com- 
monwealth, obtained a warrant to call a meeting of the 
proprietors, to be held on the 6th of September, 1766; 
when they met, and sixteen of the original twenty were 
represented. After being organized, a committee was 
chosen to confer with the heirs of Brigadier Waldo re- 
specting the 100,000 acres belonging to the proprietary, 
and report. They reported that the said heirs had agreed 
that the land should be set off; and the committee, viz. 
Hon. Benjamin Lynde, James Bowdoin, Robert Treat 
Paine, Esqrs., Henry Liddle, and Nathaniel Appleton, 
were fully authorized and empowered to execute deeds of 
indenture with the said heirs of Waldo, which was ac- 
cordingly done on the 7th of April, 1768. And from this 
date the proprietary called the Twenty Associates held the 
land and islands described in the deeds of severance then 
made between the Twenty Associates and Brigadier Wal- 
do's heirs. 

The proprietary, under the name of " the Twenty Asso- 
ciates of the Lincolnshire Company," proceeded to lay out 
and settle their lands, and gave the name of Cambden to 
the first township ; and the proprietors, by proposals issued 
for that purpose, gave great encouragement to settlers. 
David Fates, Esq. was employed to survey the sea-coast, 
and laid out a great part of the township into lots, a con- 
siderable part whereof was appropriated for settlers, who 
were admitted by petitioning to the clerk, and being first 
approved, and entering into contract, under hand and seal, 
to fulfil the conditions of settlement. The proprietors 
proceeded from year to year to encourage and place set- 
tlers upon their lands, until the interruption occasioned 
by the war with Great Britain in 1775. Upon peace 



Detail of the Patent of Beauchamp and Leverett. 229 

taking place, they resumed their plan, and in 1785 they 
recommenced the settling of another, now flourishing 
township, by the name of Hope, upon the most liberal 
terms. The depositions of David Fales, Esq. and Rob- 
ert Thorndike, and the testimony of James Malcom, 
Esq., and others who assisted in laying out Camden in 
1768, if necessary, can be adduced to prove the actual 
seizure and possession after severance of the land, which 
was before held in common. It was not until the year 
1773 that the ten proprietors had their parts set off by 
Waldo's heirs ; and instead of 100,000 acres, they accept- 
ed 90,100 acres in one entire tract, which is described in 
the deed of severance between them. So that the Twenty 
Associates held 100,000 acres, the ten proprietors 90,100 
acres, and Waldo's heirs the residue, which left them about 
400,000 acres, no part of which large tract or patent was 
ever claimed or disputed by any persons, corporation, or 
government, from the date of the patent, 1629, to the 
present time, 1808 ; and, of course, the proprietors have 
been in full possession upwards of one hundred and sev- 
enty-nine years. 

In the year 1783, October 28, a resolve passed the 
General Court, for all persons holding or claiming large 
tracts of land, to describe the boundaries, &c, and lodge 
the same in the Secretary's office, in order that it might 
be known what land the Commonwealth had. An ex- 
pression in the patent relative to the northeastern bounds 
rendering it uncertain whether it was intended to run 
easterly of Penobscot River or not, this made it necessary 
for the parties to ascertain the quantity by certain de- 
scribed lands ; and it was finally resolved that the paten- 
tees should be confirmed in a quantity of land equal to 
thirty miles square, and if the lines described should not 
contain that quantity, that then any deficiency arising 
should be made up ; and by two resolves of the 9th and 
16th of February, 1798, a further confirmation of said 
quantity was made, and what land should be appropriated 
to make up for the deficiency. Before the Twenty Associ- 
ates' lands were laid out into townships and plantations, 
the Legislature taxed the proprietary called the Twenty As- 
sociates for a number of years for what they held, the ten 
proprietors for theirs, and Waldo's heirs for the residue. 



INSTRUCTIONS FROM O. CROMWELL. 



Oliver Pr. 



Instructions to be observed by Major Robart Sedgwicke, 
commander of the Blacke Raven, and Captaine John 
Leverett whoe is joined with him for the carrying one 
the service herein required. 

You are to take under your care and direction for this 
present expedition, and according to the Instructions fol- 
lowing, the ships Black Raven, Hope, Church, and Augus- 
tine now in the River of Thames and at Portsmouth, and 
direct your course either to the Mattachusetts Bay in New 
England, or to Pequot harbor, New Haven, or other good 
port within any of those United Collonyes as providence 
shall order the winde and occurrencies most condeucing 
to the furtherance of the present designe. 

Upon your arivall (through the blessing of the Lord) 
in any of the aforesaid harbor, you are imediately to de- 
liver or send away the letters committed to you and direct- 
ed to the severall Governors of the Collonyes of the 
Mattachusetts, Plymoth, Connecticott and New Haven, 
with intumation to them from yourselfes of your arivall & 
expectation of a suddayne Answer to the contents of the 
said letters. 

If upon retorn from them, you fynde an inclination and 
readinys in them to joyne in the present undertakeing 
for vindicateing the English Right, and extirpateing the 
Dutch, and that such Numbers of men out of all or some 
of the Collonyes the determination whereof must be left 
to your owne wisdome with the advice of others to be im- 



Instructions from O. Cromwell. 231 

ployde in the service, be prepared by them with all such 
other Necessary es provision there attayneable, as may 
rationally conduce to that end, you are without neglect of 
any oppirtunitye to address yourselfes to the worke by 
ordering the ships for the Manhattos, and takeing care 
that the soldgers from the Collonyes may by a land march 
meet them there or bee taken into the ships as by advice 
may be judged most advantageous. You being corned to 
the Manhattos you shall by way of surprize, open force, 
or otherwise, as you by a counsill of war consisting of the 
comanders of the ships and armie shall judge most con- 
ducing to that end, endeavour to take in that place in 
the Name of his Highnes the Lord Protector of the Com- 
monwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland for the use 
of the said Commonwealth. And you have power to 
promise and give them faire quarter in case it be renclred 
upon summons without hostile opposition ; the like alsoe 
you shall doe to the fort of Auranea or any other place 
upon Hodson's river. 

If the Lord give his blessing to your undertakeing, that 
the forts and places be gayned, you shall not use crueltye 
to the Inhabitants, but encourage those that are willing 
to remayne under the English goverment and give liberty 
to others to transport themselves for Europe. Upon 
gaineing of the places you shall with like advise setie 
such garrisons and order affaires in such manner as what 
is so gayned may be preserved to the English Interest till 
forther directions be given therein, and shall provide that 
the charges to be expended for maintenance an preserva- 
tion therof may be borne out of the bever trade or other 
advantages the place affords, as likewise some suitable 
recompence be given to the soldgers employed in this ser- 
vice according to their severall proportions & deserts but 
of such thinges as shall be their gained if any such bee. 

In all your proseedings you shall endeavour to hould 
loveing correspondence & advise with the Governers of 
the English Colloneys and such as they shall committ trust 
to for your assistance that if possible noe breach or dis- 
affection may appeare in this undertakeing, wch. is onely 
designed for the secueritye of those plantations with the 
comfort of themselfes And posteritye. 



232 Instructions from O. Cromwell. 

The aforementioned service being performed, if tyme 
permitt and opertunitye be presented, you are to proseed 
to the gaineing in any other places from the Enemie wch 
upon advise with a counsell of warr may be judged feizea- 
ble and conduceing to the settlement of the peace and 
saiftye of the English plantations. If any thinge shall 
occure to hinder the undertaking or prosecution thereof, 
or when the worke is finished, the commanders of the sev- 
erall ships are to attend such directions as they either here 
receyve from the commissioners of the JNTavye or those to 
whome they are consygned in those parts for their future 
dispose. 

In the transaction of this busynes we shall depend 
much upon your wisedome & prudence to act according 
to interve[n]ing occasions and circomstances wch may be 
best be discerned and improved upon the place. We ex- 
pect from you a carefull observation of all pasages and 
proseedings of moment relateing to this service, and that 
an axact accompt be kept thereof and renclred into us as 
oppertunitye is presented. In case you flnde any such 
obstructions as therby any of the govermts. should be in- 
duced not to improve the publique power in furthering 
the service, you are to desiyer that volunteers should not 
onely be permitted but encouraged to engadge therein. 
By command of his Highnes 

Jo. Thurloe. 

Wliitehall 8 Feb. 1653 

This is a true coppy of his Highnes Comission com- 
pared with the original! this 13 March 54 

Jno. Leverett. 






Instructions from O. Cromwell 233 



To Capt n John Leveret Governour in chief of our Forts of 
St. John Port Royall, and Pentacoet in Acadia com- 
monly called Nova Scotia in America, and to his Lieu- 
tenant and other the officers there, or any of them. 

Oliver Pr. 

Whereas wee have committed unto our Trusty and wel- 
beloved Colonell Thomas Temple the charge custody and 
government of our Forts of St. John, Port Royall, and 
Pentacoet in Acadia commonly called Nova Scotia in 
America, and the Martiall stores and provisions there 
being or thereunto belonging ; — Our will and pleasure 
therefore is, That you deliver or cause to bee delivered unto 
the said Thomas Temple ymediatly upon his arrivall there, 
the full and peaceable possession of the said Forts, and 
of all the Ordnance, Gunnes, Ammunicon, and martial 
stores, and other provisions of Victualls, Clothes, Barkes, 
Boates, Shipps and other thinges "Whatsoever in the said 
Forts or any of them, being or of right belonging to this 
Commonwealth by a true and just Inventary and Ap- 
praisement at indifferent and just rates and values, and 
that the said Inventary and Appraisement you doe with 
all convenient speed send unto Us or our Councell to the 
end the same may bee entred of Record, and brought to 
Accompt in our Exchequer : For which this shalbe a 
sufficient warrant : Given under our Signet at White- 
hall the six and twentyeth day of September 1656. 

Cop. vera Ex 1 

pr. Ja: Nutley. 



4th s. — vol. ii. 30 



THE DUDLEY PAPEES. 



[The following letters were discovered among some ancient papers in 
the possession of the descendants of Governor Joseph Dudley. We are in- 
debted to J. W. Thornton, Esq., of Boston, for permission to take copies. 

The first paper, it will be seen, is addressed to Mr. Dudley, as 
" President of our Councill of New-England." Dudley's commission as 
President of New England is dated the 8th of October previous, but from 
Hutchinson, Vol. I. p. 341, it appears not to have been received by him 
until the 15th of May following, and then by the " Rose frigate," from 
London. It seems probable, therefore, that the commission was brought 
over with this order from James the Second, which we now publish, 
bearing his sign manual ; in which case there must have been some de- 
lay in the departure of the " Rose." Pepys was Secretary of the Admi- 
ralty under Charles the Second and James the Second. 

The reader will find something further concerning Captain George ami 
the " Rose frigate " in Hutchinson, Vol. I. p. 374, and in Chalmers's An- 
nals, pp. 469, 470. 

The letter from Solomon Stoddard to Mr. Dudley, who was then Gov- 
ernor under the Provincial Charter, is curious and interesting, partly as 
having been written about four months previous to the destruction of 
Deerfield, and partly for the recommendations therein contained, offered 
by a distinguished son of Harvard, of known piety and humanity. — 
Eds.] 



James the Second to Joseph Dudley, Esq., President of the 
Council of New England. 

To Joseph Dudley Esq, Presid 1 of our Councill of New- 
England, & to the President of our said Councill for 
the time being. 

James R. 

Whereas wee haue thought fitt to appoint Our Shipp 
the Rose Cap 1 John George Commander, to attend our 



The Dudley Papers. 235 

Collony of New-England ; Our will and pleasure is, That 
upon the arrivall of our said Shipp with you, you doe con- 
sider, and thence forward from time to time direct (by 
your written Orders on that behalfe to her Comander) 
how Our said Ship may bee best Employed for the publick 
Service of Our said Colonic, or any other Our Neighbour- 
ing Colonies, and upon the said publick Service thereof 
only ; it being Our pleasure, that shee bee in noe wise 
Employed to the serving of the private Occasions of any 
Person or Persons whatsoever ; On which Service of our 
said Colonic, Our said Shipp is to remaine until shee shall 
receive Our Orders for her returne, or untill by the con- 
sumption of her Victualls brought with her, and her Inca- 
pacity of being supplied with more by you, (the Value of 
which supplies, in case you give her any, shall bee fully 
answered to your Acco 1 here) or any other Occasion, you 
shall judge it necessary to give her your Order for her re- 
turne to England. For which this shall bee your Warr 1 . 
Given at our Court at Whitehall this 28 th day of Novem- 
ber 1685. 

By his Ma ts Command. 

S Pepys. 

[Labelled, " Order to y e President of y e Cou'ncill'of New England, 
ab l disposing of the Rose."] 



Reverend Solomon Stoddard to Governor Joseph Dudley. 

Excellent S r 

The Town of Deerfeild has suffered much formerly 
from the Indians, of late two of their young men are car- 
i-yed into Captivity, this makes a great impression on the 
Spirits of the people, & they are much discouraged. This 
puts me upon it to make two proposals to your excel- 
lency. 

The first is that they "may be put into a way to Hunt 
the Indians with dogs. Other methods that have been 
taken, are found by experience to be chargable, hazard- 
ous & insufficient : But if dogs were trained up to hunt 



236 The Dudley Papers. 

Indians as they doe Bears : we should quickly be sensible 
of a great advantage thereby. The dogs would be an ex- 
tream terror to the Indians : they are not much afraid of 
us, they know, they can take us & leave us. if they can 
but get out of gun-shot they count themselvs in no great 
danger, how many soever pursue them, they are neither 
afraid of being discouverd or pursued : But these dogs 
would be such a terrour to them, that after a little experi- 
ence, it would prevent their comming, & men would live 
more safely in their houses & worke more safely in the 
feilds & woods : In case the Indians should come near 
the Towne the dogs would readily take their track & lead 
us to them : Sometimes we see the track of one or two 
Indians but can't follow it. the dogs would discover it & 
lead our men directly to their enemies : for the want of 
which help we many times take a great deal of pains to 
little purpose. Besides if we had dogs fitted for that pur- 
pose our men might follow Indians with more safety, there 
would be no hazzard of their being shot at out of the 
bushes, they would follow their dogs with an undaunted 
spirit, not fearing a surprisal : & indeed the presence of 
the dogs would much facilitate their victory: the dogs 
would doe a great deal of execution upon the enemy, & 
catch many an Indian that would be too light of foot 
for us. 

If it should be thought by any that this way is unprac- 
ticable, & that the dogs will not learn to doe what we doe 
expect from them, these two things may satisfy them, one 
is that in a time of war with the Indians in Virginia, they 
did in this way prevaile over them, though all attempts, be- 
fore they betooke themselves to this method proved in vain, 
the other is that our Hunters give an Account that the 
dogs that are used to hunt Bears mind no other track but 
the track of a Beare : from whence we may conclude, that 
if the dogs were used to pursue Indians they would mind 
nothing else. 

If the Indians were as other people are, & did manage 
their warr fairly after the manner of other nations, it 
might be looked upon as inhumane to pursue them in 
such a manner. But they are to be looked upon as 
theives & murderers, they doe acts of hostility, without 



The Dudley Papers. 237 

proclaiming war. they don't appear openly in the feild to 
bid us battle, they use those cruelly that fall into their 
hands, they act like wolves & are to be dealt withall as 
wolves. 

There must be some charge in prosecuting this design, 
something must be expended for the purchasing sutable 
dogs & for their maintenance, the men also who spend 
their time in this service, must be .paid, but this will not 
rise in any proportion to the charge of maintaining a suta- 
ble number of Garrison souldiers. 

I have taken Advice with several of the principal per- 
sons amongst us, & they looke upon this way as the most 
probable expedient in this case. 

The other proposal is that the town of Deerfeild may 
be freed from Countey Rates during the time of the war. 
their circumstances doe call for commiseration : some- 
times they are allarmed & called off from their businesse, 
sometimes they dare not goe into the feild, & when they 
doe goe, they are fain to wait 'till they have a gard, they 
can't make improvement of their outlands as other Towns 
doe : the houses are so crowded sometimes with souldiers 
that men & women can doe little businesse within doors, 
& their spirits are so taken up about their Dangers, that 
they have little heart to undertake what is needfull for 
advancing their estates : it seems to me to be a thing ac- 
ceptable to God, that they should be considered & freed 
from Rates, your Excellency will not take it amisse that 
I take my accustomed freedome, & am so officious as to 
tender my advice before it be asked. The good Lord 
guide your Excellency & the Genr 1 Assembly : to doe that 
which shall be serviceable to this afflicted Country, which 
is the hearty prayer of your humble servant 

Sol: Stoddard 

Northampton Oct. 22 d . 1703 

Since I wrote : the father of the two Captives belong- 
ing to Deerfeild has importunately desired me to write to 
your Excellency, that you would endeavour the Redemp- 
tion of his children. I Request that if you have any op- 
portunity, you would not be backward to such a worke of 
mercy. 



CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN REV. THOMAS 
PRINCE AND REV. CHARLES CHAUNCY. 



[We are indebted to Isaac P. Davis, Esq., for furnishing the following 
correspondence. Prince's notes to Chauncy are preserved in copies 
made by the former upon the sheet on which Chauncy's letter to him 
was written. Many of the words are in a very abbreviated form, and we 
have taken the liberty, generally, to spell them out in full. — Eds.] 



[To the Rev. Charles Chauncy.] 
RevS r 

I desire to know % you judge there is any need of my 
asking your consent to my inviting a minister to preach 
my Lecture at the O. B. [Old Brick]. In answering 
which you will oblige 

Your humb. Servt. 
Jan. 30. 1744-5. T. P. 



To the Rev. M r Thomas Prince. 
Rev. Sir. 
In answer to your question, I would ask you another, 
viz, whether you would express a suitable regard to me, 
and some others who statedly attend the Thursday -lecture, 
and are united with you in carrying it on, to ask a gentle- 
man to preach it, whose conduct has been such (in our 
apprehentions) that, if he preaches, you know we cannot 
be present, but must be obliged to tarry at home % 

Your humble Servt 

Charles Chauncy. 
Wednes. Jan. 30. 1744-5. 



Correspondence of Messrs. Prince and Channel/. 239 

[To the Eev. Charles Chauncy.] 
Rev. S r 

I perceive the purport of your letter is, that if I got 
Mr. Wh. [Whitefleld] to preach, that you and some others 
are of such a separating spirit that you will not attend 
the public Lecture : which I am sorry to see. In such a 
season as this should you not rather set a contrary exam- 
ple while you are publickly condemning such a spirit in 
others % Mr. Wh. will hear you, but you will not hear 
him. Pray who appears most for separation or union % 
Methinks you should be glad of an occasion to show as 
good a spirit as he. 

[Thomas Prince.] 



DAVID TRUMBULL TO JEREMY BELKNAP. 



The Reverend Jeremy Belknap, Corresponding Secretary 
of the Massa : Historical Society, Boston. 

Sir, 

My Father, the late Governor Trumbull collected with 
care, the most important official papers which pass'd thro 
his hands, during the very interesting Period of the Revo- 
lution, with the intention that they should be preserv'd 
& deposited in some public Library, as materials for fu- 
ture Historians. 

Had the Massachusetts Historical Society existed during 
his Life, there is no doubt but He would have chosen to 
give them to an Institution whose Patriotic Views they 
would so directly subserve in preference to a Collegiate or 
other Library, where they probably would soon become 
" Food for Worms." 

His Heirs therefore, think they cannot so well fulfdl the 
Governor's intentions on this subject, as by Offering them, 
as I am commissioned to do — to the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. 

You will be pleas'd to communicate this Offer to the 
Society in Our names : — permitting us to suggest the pro- 
priety of their sending some person to make a selection 
of such papers as may be thought most usefull: — Should 
it be thought an object worth your personal attention. 
We shall be happy to give you the best evidences in our 
power of the Respect which we especially have for you. 
I am Sir 

Your most Obedient Servant 
David Trumbull. 

Lebanon 15th April 1794. 

Rev d J. Belknap. 



MEMOIR OF REV. ALEXANDER YOUNG, D. D. 



By Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS. 



It is not to gratify the promptings of a long and agree- 
able friendship, nor to accord a privilege which may be 
claimed for every " Associate " at his decease, that this 
brief memoir of Dr. Young has been prepared, but from a 
conviction that the amount and accuracy of his historical 
knowledge, and the length and diligence of his services to 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, justly entitle his 
name to honorable mention in its Collections. 

He was born in Boston on the 22d of September, in 
the year 1800 ; received his early education at the public 
Latin School of his native city, and entered Harvard Col- 
lege, thoroughly prepared, in 1816. His classmates in 
the University remember him as a faithful student and a 
pleasant companion. They also speak with respect of his 
integrity, his honorable feelings, his scholarly attainments, 
and his manly virtues. In the classical department, 
especially, he had few equals, and no superior. 

Having graduated, in 1820, with distinguished honors, 
he became an assistant teacher, under his former in- 
structor and esteemed friend, Benjamin A. Gould, Esq., 
in the same school in which he had been an exemplary 
and successful pupil. After a short term of service in this 
office, so congenial to his feelings and tastes, the still 
stronger love for those sacred studies to which he had 
determined to devote his life led him once more to Cam- 

4th s. — vol. ii. 31 



242 Memoir of Rev. Alexander Young. 

bridge, to avail himself of the rare advantages which 
the Divinity School there offered to students of theology. 
He began to preach immediately after leaving that insti- 
tution, in 1824, under circumstances of unusual promise. 
The pulpit of the New South Church, which had been 
occupied by some of the most distinguished ministers and 
honored men whose talents and virtues have adorned and 
blessed our favored city, was then without an incumbent. 
It was no small honor to a young man to be chosen, by 
such a congregation as those preachers had gathered 
around them, to stand in their place ; nor was the burden 
a light one which rested upon their successor. Only a 
man of strong character, sound learning, and more than 
ordinary gifts, would have ventured to undertake such a 
labor, or could have borne it, even for a short period, 
without discomfiture. It is sufficient evidence of the abil- 
ity and virtues of Dr. Young, that he retained his pastoral 
office, and his hold upon the respect and affection of his 
parishioners, for twenty-nine years, notwithstanding the 
working of the many causes which have recently tended 
to diminish the numerical strength of the Boston churches, 
and in spite of any particular discouragements which may 
have affected his own ministry. Whatever influence he 
had, was obtained without artifice ; it was fairly earned, 
and held without unmanly concessions. He resorted to 
no management to gain popularity ; he condescended to 
no extraordinary measures to increase his congregation ; 
he spurned the favor which is nursed by blandishments. 
His aim was not to excite his hearers by passionate ap- 
peals, to mystify them with transcendental idioms, to aston- 
ish them by a show of learning, or to win their applause 
by rhetorical tricks, but to feed their minds with sound 
thoughts, and instruct them by right words. His ser- 
mons were all carefully studied, written with clearness 
and accuracy of style and language, and delivered with 
great power of voice and energy of manner. He spoke so 
as to be understood, and the matter of his discourses was 
so good as always to reward the hearer for patient at- 
tention. 

Dr. Young loved his library with all his heart, and was 
never happier than when seated at his table with one of 



Memoir of Rev. Alexander Young. 243 

the " best authors " before him, or when, in the presence 
and under the spell of the wise and beautiful books which 
crowded his shelves, he was studiously composing a dis- 
course for the pulpit, or neatly transcribing golden sen- 
tences to instruct the understanding or refine the taste. 
His reading was both select and extensive, his knowledge 
of books remarkable, his memory retentive and exact, 
and his literary taste pure and elegant. The community 
owes him a debt of gratitude for the publication, in 1839, 
of a series of nine volumes, containing Selections from the 
Old English Prose-Writers, which introduced to many, 
who would otherwise have remained comparatively igno- 
rant of their value, some of the rarest literary treasures in 
our language. 

Few men among us have manifested a greater fond- 
ness for the study of the early annals of New England, a 
more hearty admiration of the characters of our Pilgrim 
Fathers, or a more thorough and minute acquaintance 
with the history of the planting and establishment of the 
Colonies. The two historical works, which he edited with 
marked ability and illustrated with copious notes, will 
bear his name to posterity, and secure for him lasting repu- 
tation as a laborious, accurate, and zealous chronicler. 
The first of these, which was published in 1841, — entitled 
The Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the Colony of 
Plymouth, from 1602 to 1625 ; now first collected from 
Original Records and Contemporaneous Documents, — has 
already gone through two editions. The second — con- 
taining Chronicles of the First Planters of the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay, from 1623 to 1636 ; now first collected 
from Original Records and Contemporaneous Manuscripts, 
and illustrated with Notes — is of scarcely inferior value 
and interest, and will be extensively circulated. The 
editor was one of the most useful members of the Histori- 
cal Society. None was more constant in attending its 
meetings, more interested in its business and discussions, 
or more able and ready to impart valuable and reliable 
information to those of his associates who were pursuing 
historical investigations. As a member of the Standing 
Committee, and as Corresponding Secretary, he rendered 
important service. 



244 Memoir of Rev. Alexander Young. 

Dr. Young filled several responsible offices, discharging 
the duties of all of them with great fidelity and punctual- 
ity. He was a member of the Board of Overseers of Har- 
vard College from 1837 to 1853, and Secretary of the 
Board from 1849 till he went out, in accordance with an 
act of the Legislature, passed in 1851, for terminating the 
period of membership of the fifteen lay and fifteen clerical 
members who at that time constituted the permanent por- 
tion of the Board. He was President of the " Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, Piety, and Charity," and 
a member of the " Massachusetts Congregational Charita- 
ble Society," the " Society for Propagating the Gospel 
among the Indians and others in North America," the 
" Bible Society," and the " Society for Promoting Theo- 
logical Education." 

In his religious opinions Dr. Young was a firm and 
zealous Unitarian. He was, however, as much opposed 
to latitudinarianism on the one side, as to bigotry and 
exclusiveness on the other. He rested his faith, and 
grounded his teachings, on the rock of Christ's divine 
authority, and not on the reasonings or speculations of 
man. He was honest and independent in declaring and 
defending what he believed to be the truths of revelation ; 
but he was no controversialist, and never assumed the at- 
titude of an assailant. The articles of his faith were 
clearly defined and firmly established in his own mind. 
He had formed them after careful and patient study of 
the Bible, and he was ready to give a reason for holding 
them. 

The character of Dr. Young was a marked one, — 
sound in its constitution, solid in its structure, clear and 
plain in its contour. He was independent, honest, cour- 
ageous, and steadfast. Though more remarkable for the 
stronger virtues than the gentler graces, yet all who knew 
him well discovered beneath the stout exterior a kindly 
disposition, a sympathetic nature, a humane and generous 
heart. For others' grief he had a tear; for others' joy, a 
congratulation. To his friends he was the very soul of 
truth ; to the upright he gave his hearty applause ; to the 
oppressed he extended a brother's hand ; against injustice, 
and every form of vice, he presented a stern countenance, 



Memoir of Rev. Alexander Young. 245 

and lifted up his voice in tones of indignation. As a man, 
we respected him; as a brother, we loved him; as a 
friend, we reposed in him with a perfect trust. Though 
others in the pulpit have attracted more admiration, none 
have worn the robe of our sacred office with greater dig- 
nity, or preserved it to the end more free from stain. 

For the following, which is believed to be a correct list 
of Dr. Young's publications in pamphlet form, I am in- 
debted to an appendix prepared by the Rev. G. E. Ellis 
to his sermon on the death of his former pastor, which 
has been published, in connection with that delivered by 
the Eev. E. S. Gannett, D. D., at the funeral of the sub- 
ject of this memoir. 

1. A Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. James W. Thompson, at 

Natick, February 17, 1830. 

2. An Address at the Ordination of the Eev. William Newell, at Cam- 

bridge, May 19, 1830. 

3. A Pamphlet, entitled, Evangelical Unitarianism adapted to the Poor 

and Unlearned. 1830. 

4. A Discourse on the Sins of the Tongue. 1829. Third edition, 

1845. 

5. A Discourse occasioned by the Death of William Parsons. March 

26, 1837. 

6. A Discourse on the Life and Character of the Hon. Nathaniel Bow- 

ditch. March 25, 1838. 

7. A Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. George E. Ellis, at Charles- 

town, March 11, 1840. 

8. A Discourse on the Life and Character of the Rev. John Thornton 

Kirkland. May 3, 1840. 

9. A Discourse occasioned by the Death of the Hon. Wm. Prescott, 

Dec. 15, 1844. 

10. A Discourse on the Twentieth Anniversary of his Ordination. Janu- 

ary 19, 1845. 

11. The Dudleian Lecture. May 13, 1846. [Published also in the 

Christian Examiner.] 

12. A Discourse occasioned by the Death of Benjamin Rich. June 8, 

1851. 

13. A Discourse occasioned by the Death of Mrs. Catharine G. Prescott. 

May 23, 1852. 



EXEMPLIFICATION OF THE JUDGMENT FOR 
VACATING THE CHARTER OF THE MASSA- 
CHUSETTS BAY IN NEW ENGLAND. 



[The following paper is copied from a contemporary manuscript in 
the archives of our Society. Judgment was entered against the Massa- 
chusetts Charter in 1684, in the latter part of the reign of Charles the 
Second. The " Exemplification of the Judgment" was issued the fol- 
lowing year by his successor, James the Second. The original is in 
Latin, engrossed on rolls of parchment, and is in the office of the Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth. On the back of one of the rolls is the fol- 
lowing indorsement : " An Exemplificacon for our Souaigne Lord the 
King Against the Governor of the Mattachusetts Bay in New-England." 
Signed, " Pengry." — Eds.] 



Preamble 3^VdtU tfj£ SttOUtt by the grace of God 

King of England Scotland France and Ireland 
Defender of the faith &c. 2^0 fill to whome these pres- 
ents shall come Greeting UMtt J)3tt£ itlgptttt'S a 

certaine Judgment given before Our most Deare Brother 
Lord Charles the second (of blessed memory) late king of 
England in his Chancery in the Terme of the holy Trin- 
ity in the six and Thirtieth yeare of his Reigne Betweene 
the said late King p u And the Governor and Comp a of 
Mattachusetts Bay in New England Def ts and remayning 
on Record in the files of the said Court in these Words 
Redtaii of the <SS X ^lt%8 before Our soveraigne Lord the 
proceedings. King that now is in his Chancery att Westm r 
in the County of Middx in the Terme of Easter in the six 
and Thirtieth yeare of the Raigne of Our Soveraigne Lord 
Charles the second by the grace of God of England Scot- 
land France and Ireland King Defender of the faith &c. 



Judgment vacating the Charter of Massachusetts. 247 

0UV StQtotVUiQHt H0t5 the King which now is 

hath charged his close Writt Directed to the The Writt t0 the 
Sheriffe of Middx in these words t&i)M*lt& ShffofMiddlesex 
ti)t 8CC0HV by the grace of God of England Scotland 
France and Ireland king Defender of the faith &c. 2TCI 
tJjfr Sheriffe of Middx greeting m$tVtU® Reciting the 
Our most Deare Father Lord Charles the first Grant - 
late king of England by his Letters Patents sealed under 
the great Seale of England bearing Date att Westm r the 
fowerth day of March in the fourth yeare of his Raigne 
Reciteing thereby, That whereas his most Deare Father 
Lord James late king of England &c by his Letters Pa- 
tents bearing date att Westm r the third Day of November 
in the Eighteenth Yeare of his Raigne had given and 
granted to the Councell Established att Plymouth in the 
County of Devon For the Plantacon Puleing Ordering 
and governing of New England in America and their Suc- 
cessors and Assignes for ever S§HJ tf)3t part of America 
lyeing and being in breadth from Forty Degrees Northern 
Latitude from the Equinoctiall Lyne to Eight and forty 
Degrees of the same Latitude inclusively and in length of 
& within all that breadth throughout the maine Lands 
from Sea to Sea together with the firme Land Soyles 
grounds Bayes Pivers Waters Fishings Mynes and Min- 
eralls as well Poyall Mines of Gold and silver as other 
Mines and Mineralls precious Stones Quarries and all and 
singular other Comodityes Jurisdiccons Royalties previ- 
ledges Franchises and preheminencys as well within the 
said Tract of Land upon the Continent as within Y e Islands 
and seas adjoyning ;|j)VOtof!tt& alwaies that the said 
Islands or any of the premisses thereby intended to be 
granted were not actually posses't or Inhabitted by any 
other Christian Prince or State or within the bounds Lym- 
itts and Territoryes of the Southerne Colony then before 
that time granted by the said late King James to be planted 
by divers of his Subjects in the southerne parts ^0 fjfttf £ 
f)OW $mmum 8tltt WJOfi all and singular the 
said Continent Lands Territoryes Islands hereditaments 
and precincts Seas Waters Fishings with all and all 
manner of Comodities Royalties, Liberties, preheminen- 
cys and proffitts which thence should further arise w th all 



248 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

and singular their appurtenances and every part and par- 
cell thereof to the said Councell their Successors and As- 
signes for ever 2C0 the sole and propper vse and behoofe 
of them the said Councell their Successors and Assignes 
for ever 2£$ fit held of him the said late King James his 
heires and Successors as of his Mannor of East Greenwich 
in the County of Kent in free and Common soccage and 
not in Capite nor by Knights service Rending and paying 
for the same to the said late King James his heires and 
Successors a Fifth part of the Oare of Gold & silver which 
from time to time and att all times should happen to be 
found acquired had and obtained in to or within any of 
the said Lands Lymitts Territoryes or precincts or in or 
within any part or parcell thereof for or in respect of all 
and all manner of Duties demands and services whatsoever 
to be made done and paid to the said late King James his 
heires and successors As by the said last recited Letters 
Patents of the said King James amongst divers other 
Clauses powers priviledges and Grants therein contained did 
more att large appeare Reciteing also That SSlf)Ct*t&$ 
the said Councell establish't att Plymouth aforesaid for 
the plantacon Ruleing Ordering and Governing of New 
England in America by their Deed indented under their 
Common seale bearing date the nyneteenth day of March 
then last past in the third yeare of the said late King 
Charles the first had given granted bargained sold en- 
feoffed aliened & Confirmed to S r Henry Rosewell and 
S r John Young kn ts Thomas Southcott John Humfrey 
John Endicott and Symon Whetcombe their heires As- 
signes and Associates for ever ^IJ that part of New Eng- 
land in America aforesaid which lay and extended be- 
tweene the great River there comonly called Monomack 
als Merriemack and another River there called Charles 
River being in the bottome of a certaine Bay there called 
Massachusetts als Mattachusetts als Massatusetts Bay And 
also all and singular those Lands and hereditaments what- 
soever lyeing within the space of Three English miles on 
the southerne part of the said River called Charles River 
or any or every part thereof. §Jt$tf Ul&$ all and singu- 
lar the Lands and hereditaments whatsoever lyeing and 
being w th in the space of Three English miles southwards 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 249 

of the most Southerly part of the said Bay called Massa- 
chusetts als Mattachusetts als Massatusetts Bay And also 
all those Lands and hereditam ts whatsoever which lye and 
are within the space of three English miles to the north- 
erne part of the said River called Monomack als Merrie- 
mack or to the Northerne part of any and every part 
thereof and all Lands and hereditaments whatsoever lye- 
ing within the Lymitts aforesaid to the north and South 
breadth and length of and within all the said breadth 
through the Continent there from the Atlantick and West- 
erne Sea and Ocean on the Easterne part to the Southerne 
Sea on the Westerne part And all Lands and soyle place 
and places Woods and Woodlands Bayes Rivers Waters 
Fishings and hereditaments whatsoever lyeing within the 
bounds and lymitts aforesaid and every part and par- 
cell thereof. iltl& Ul$0 all Islands lyeing in Amer- 
ica aforesaid in the said Seas or either of them on the 
Westerne or Easterne shores or parts of the aforesaid 
Tract of Land by the said Indenture menconed to be 
given granted bargained sold enfeoffed aliened and con- 
firmed or of any of them SKhU $l$0 all Mynes and 
Mineralls as well Mynes Royall of Gold and silver as 
other Mynes and Mineralls whatsoever in the afore- 
said Lands and premisses or any part thereof And all 
Jurisdiccons Rights Royalties Lyberties Imunities priv- 
iledges Franchises preheminencys and Comodities whatso- 
ever which the said Councell established att Plymouth in 
the County of Devon for the plantacon Ruleing Ordering 
and Governing of New England in America then had or 
ought to vse exercise & enioy in or with the said Lands 
& premisses by the said Indenture menconed to be given 
granted bargained sold enfeoffed and confirmed or in or 
within any part or parcell thereof 2£0 J)$U? &tl& tO 
flOlU the said part of New England in America which 
lyes and extends and is abutted as aforesaid and every 
part and parcell thereof And all the said Islands Rivers 
Bayes Waters Fishings Mines Mineralls Jurisdiccons Fran- 
chises, Royaltyes, Liberties priviledges Comodityes hered- 
itaments and premisses whatsoever w th the appurtenances 
to the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young Thomas 
Southcott John Humphrey John Endecott and Symon 
4th s. — vol. ri. 32 



250 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

Whetcombe their heires and Assignes and their Associates 
to the sole and propper vse and proffitt of them the said 
Sr Henry Eosewell S r John Young Thomas Southcott John 
Humfrey John Endecott and Symon Whetcombe theire 
heires and Assignes and their Associates for ever 2TJ)C 
ttftitf late King Charles the First Our most Deare Father 
att the humble suite and Peticon of the said S r Henry 
Rosewell S r John Young Thomas Southcott John Hum- 
frey John Endecott and Symon Whetcombe and others 
who had associated to them Did grant and Continue to 
the said S r Henry Rosewell S r Iohn Young Thomas South- 
cott John Humfrey John Endecott and Symon Whetcombe 
and their Associates after in the said Letters Patents 
named to witt S r Richard Saltonstall kn l Isaac Johnson 
Samuell Aldersey John Ven Mathew Cradock George 
Harwood Increase Nowell Richard Perry Rich d Belling- 
ham Nathaniell Wright Samuell Vassall Theophilus Eaton 
Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams John Browne Samuell 
Browne Thomas Hutchins William Vassall William Pin- 
chion and George Foxcroft their heires and Assignes ^U 
tf)t 8<lUf pUVt of New England in America lyeing and 
extending betweene the bounds and lymitts in the aforesaid 
recited Indenture expressed and all Lands and soyle place 
and places woods and Woodlands Bayes Rivers Waters 
Mynes Mineralls Jurisdiccons Rights Royalties Libertyes 
Imunityes priviledges franchises p r heminencyes and hered- 
itaments bargained sold enfeoffed aliened and Confirmed or 
menconed or intended thereby to be given granted bar- 
gained sold enfeoffed aliened and Confirmed ^0 |)&tt€ 
UV& tO f)0l5 the said part of New England in Amer- 
ica and other the premisses by the said Letters Patents 
menconed to be granted and Confirmed and every part and 
parcell thereof with the appurtenances vnto them the said 
S r Henry Rosewell S r Iohn Young S r Richard Saltonstall 
Thomas Southcott John Flumphrey John Endecott Symon 
Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven 
Mathew Cradock George Harwood Increase Nowell Rich- 
ard Perry Richard Bellingham Nathaniell Wright Samuell 
Vassall Theophilus Eaton Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams 
John Browne Samuell Browne Thomas Hutchins W m Vas- 
sall W m Pinchion and George Foxcroft their heirs & As- 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 251 

signes for ever To their sole and propper vse and proffitt 
for ever gCflffl TESBSfyVtllU furthermore the said late 
King Charles the First by his said Letters Patents for 
himselfe his heires and Successors did giue and grant to 
them the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young S r Rich- 
ard Saltonstall Thomas Southcott John Humfrey John En- 
decott Symon Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey 
John Ven Mathew Cradock George Harwood Increase 
Nowell Richard Perry Richard Bellingham Nathaniell 
Wright Samuell Vassall Theophilus Eaton Thomas GofFe 
Thomas Adams John Browne Samuell Browne Thomas 
Hutchins W m Vassall W m Pinchion and George Eoxcroft 
their heires and Assignes i||| tf}#t part of New England 
in America which lyes and extends betweene the said River 
called Monomack River als Merriemack River and the said 
River there called Charles River being in the bottome of 
the said Bay called Massachusetts als Mattachusetts als 
Massatusetts Bay And also all and singular those Lands 
and hereditaments whatsoever lyeing within the space of 
three English miles on the Southerne part of the said 
River called Charles River or any or every part thereof, 
And also all and singular those Lands and hereditaments 
Whatsoever lyeing and being within the space of Three 
English miles to the South on the most Southerly part of 
the said Bay called Massachusetts als Mattachusetts als 
Massatusetts Bay And also all those Lands and heredi- 
taments whatsoever which lye or are within the space of 
Three English miles to the north of the said River called 
Monomack als Merriemack or to the north of any and 
every part thereof And also all Lands and hereditaments 
whatsoever lyeing within the lymitts aforesaid to the north 
and south in breadth and length of and within all the said 
breadth through the Continent there from the Atlantick 
and Westerne Sea and Ocean upon the Easterne part to 
the South Sea upon the Westerne part and all Lands place 
and places Soyle Woods and Woodgrounds Bayes Rivers 
Waters and hereditaments whatsoever lyeing within the 
said bounds and lymitts and every part and parcell thereof. 
®0 ty&Ut fcttff tO f)OlV possesse and enjoy the said 
premisses to them the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John 
Young S r Richard Saltonstall Tho. Southcott John Hum- 



252 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

phrey John Endecott Symon Whetcombe Isaac Johnson 
Samuell Aldersey John Ven Mathew Cradock George 
Harwood Increase Nowell Richard Perry Richard Belling- 
ham Nathaniell Wright Samuell Vassall Theophilus Eaton 
Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams John Browne Samuell 
Browne Thomas Hutchins "William Vassall William Pin- 
chion and George Foxcroft their heires and Assignes for 
ever to their propper vse and behoofe for ever ^Utt 
HmXffrtXtHU also the said late king Charles the first Our 
most deare Father for the support of the Royall Authority 
of him his heires and Successors within the lymitts and 
bounds aforesaid in New England in America aforesaid 
and to the intent that the affaires and business which from 
time to time should happen touching the Lands and Plan- 
tacon aforesaid might be the better Ordered 3Sitl give 
grant and continue by his said Letters Patents to the said 
S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young S r Richard Saltonstall 
Thomas Southcott John Humphrey John Endecott Symon 
Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven 
Mathew Cradock George Harwood Increase Nowell Rich- 
ard Perry Richard Bellingham Nathaniell Wright Samuell 
Vassall Theophilus Eaton Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams 
John Browne Samuell Browne Thomas Hutchins W m Vas- 
sall W m Pinchion and George Foxcroft, And for himselfe 
his heires and Successors Did will and Order that they the 
said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young S r Richard Salton- 
stall Thomas Southcott John Humphry John Endecott 
Symon Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey John 
Ven Mathew Cradock George Harwood Increase Nowell 
Richard Perry Richard Bellingham Nathaniell Wright 
Samuell Vassall Theophilus Eaton Thomas Goffe Thomas 
Adams John Browne Samuell Browne Thomas Hutchins 
W m Vassall W m Pinchion and George Foxcroft and all 
such others who should then after be admitted and made 
free of the Company therein menconed from time to time 
and att all times then after should by virtue thereof be 
one body Corporate and Politique in Deed and name By 
the name of the Governor and Company of y e Mattachu- 
setts Bay in New England And them by the name of the 
Governor and Company of the Mattachusetts Bay in New 
England one body politiq and Corporate in Deed Fact and 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 253 

name for him his heires & Successors Did make Ordaine 
Constitute and appoint by the said Lres Patents And that 
by that name they should haue perpetual! Succession 
And that by the same name they and their Successors 
should be capable and able as well to plead & be implead- 
ed and prosecute to demand and answere and be answered 
in all and singular suites Causes Complaints and Accons 
of what kind or nature soever Htltf $gl$0 to haue take 
possesse acquire and purchase any Lands Tenements or 
hereditaments or any Goods or Chattells, and the same to 
grant Demise alien bargaine sell and dispose as any of his 
Subjects of this Kingdome of England or any other Cor- 
poracon or Body pollitique thereof might lawfully doe 
^H5 fttVttyWtttOrt that the said Governor & Company 
should alwaies haue a Comon seale to be vsed in all 
Causes and on all occasions of the said Company and alter 
change break and make a new the same from time to time 
att their pleasure iltltf tttVt!t£V1tf0t£ the said late 
king Charles y e First by the same Letters Patents for 
himselfe his heires & Successo rs did order and grant That 
from thenceforth there should be one Governo r One Dep- 
uty Governor and eighteene Assistants of the said Com- 
pany from time to time to be Constituted elected and 
selected out of the Freemen of the same Company for the 
time being in such manner and forme as therein was after- 
wards exprest Which Officers should apply themselues to 
take care for the best Disposicon and Ordering of the gen- 
erall business and Affaires of for and concerning the said 
Lands and premisses thereby menconed to be granted and 
the Plantacon there and Governing of the People there 
And for the better Execucon of his Royall Will and Grant 
upon that Acco 1 the said late King Charles the First Did 
thereby name ordaine make and constitute the said 
Mathew Cradock to be the first and then present Gover- 
nor of the said Company, And the s' 1 Thomas GofFe Dep- 
uty Governor And the said S r Richard Saltonstall Isaac 
Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven John Humfrey John 
Endicott Symon Whetcombe Increase JNTowell Richard 
Perry Nathaniell Wright Samuel Vassall Theophilus 
Eaton Thomas Adams Thomas Hutchins John Browne 
George Foxcroft W Vassall and W m Pinchion to be then 



254 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

p r sent Assistants of the same Company To continue in the 
said severall places respectively for such time and in such 
manner as in and by the said Letters Patents was after de- 
clared and appointed Uttft £ttttiftnil®l 4 £ the said 
late king Charles the First thereby for himselfe his heires 
and Successors Ordained and granted that the Governor of 
the said Company for the time being or in his absence by 
occasion of sickness or otherwise the Deputy Governor for 
the time being should haue authority from time to time 
upon all occasions to give Order for the assembling of the 
said Company and to call them together to Consult and 
advise of the businesse and affaires of the said Company 
And that the said Governor Deputy Governor and Assist- 
ants for the time being should once in every moneth or 
oftner if they pleas' d assemble and hold and keepe a Court 
or Assembly of themselues for the better Ordering and 
direccon of their Affaires And that any seaven or more 
of y e Assistants together with the Governor or Deputy 
Governor soe assembled should be called taken held and 
reputed to be a full and sufficient Court or Assembly of 
the said Company for the debating Ordering and dispatch 
of all such Businesses and occurrences which from time to 
time should happen touching or concerning the said Com- 
pany or Plantacon And that should be held by the Gov- 
ernor Deputy Governor and seaven or more of y e Assistants 
of the said Company for the time being upon every last 
Wednesday in the Termes of Hillary, Easter Trinity and 
Michaell respectively forever One great generall and sol- 
emne Assembly, Which fower Generall Assemblyes 
should be called the Foure great and generall Courts of 
the said Company In all and every or any of w ch said 
Great Generall Courts soe assembled the said late king 
Charles the First for him his heires and Successors did 
thereby Give and grant to the said Governor and Com- 
pany and their Successors That the Governor or in his 
absence the Deputy Governor of the said Company for the 
time being and such Assistants and Freemen thereof who 
should be present or the greater number of them so assem- 
bled (whereof the Governor or Deputy Governor and six 
Assistants att the least should be seaven) should haue full 
power and authority to elect, name, & appoint such and 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 255 

so many others whome they should think convenient and 
who would be willing to accept thereof to be Freemen of 
the said Company and Body and admitt them thereto and 
to elect and constitute other Officers whome they should 
think convenient and requisite for the Ordering Treating 
and Dispatch of the affaires of the said Governor and 
Company and their Successors and to make Laws and Or- 
dinances for the good and safety of the said Company and 
for the Governing and Ordering of the said Lands and 
Plantacon and of the People then inhabitting and to in- 
habitt there as to them from time to tyme should be 
thought convenient g|| that such Lawes & Ordinances 
should not be contrary or repugnant to the Laws and 
Statutes of this Kingdome of England Hn?T tot)£V$3$ 
the said late King Charles the first by his said Letters Pa- 
tents for him his heires and Successors had established 
and Ordained That once in every Yeare yearely for ever 
(to witt) in the last Wednesday in Easter Terme yearely, 
The Governor Deputy Governor and Assistants of the said 
Company and all other Officers thereof should be a new 
elected in the generall Court or Assembly to be held for 
that Day and time for the Yeare ensueing by such major 
part of the said Company for the time being then and 
there present as aforesaid And if itt should happen that 
the then present Governor Deputy Governor and Assist- 
ants by the said Letters Patents appointed or such who 
then after should be new chosen in their places or any of 
them or any other Officers to be appointed for the said 
Company Dye or be removed from his or their severall 
Offices or places before the said Generall day of Eleccon 
w ch the said late King Charles the first by the said Letters 
Patents Declared for any misdemeanor or default should 
be removed by the Governor Deputy Governor Assistants 
and Company or such major part of them to be assembled 
in any publique Court as aforesaid That then and in every 
such case it should and might be lawfull to and for the 
Governor Deputy Governor Assistants and Company afore- 
said or such major part of them soe to be assembled as 
aforesaid in any their Assemblyes to proceed to a new 
eleccon of one or more others of their Company into the 
place or places of such Officer or Officers so dyeing or 



256 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

removed according to their discretions And imediately 
upon & after such eleccon and eleccons made of such 
Governor Deputy Governor Assistant or Assistants or any 
other Officer of the said Company in manner and forme 
aforesaid, The authority Office & power then before 
given to the former Governor Deputy Governor or other 
Officer and Officers so removed in whose stead and place 
new should be so chosen as to him them and every of 
them should cease and determine JjJVDiHBfttf &ltal«it$f3 
and the Will and pleasure of the said late king Charles 
the First was that as well those who were by the said Let- 
ters Patents appointed to be the then present Governor 
Deputy Governor and Assistants of the said Company as 
those who should succeed them and all other Officers to 
be appointed and elected as aforesaid before their taking 
upon them the Execucon of their said Offices and places 
should respectively take their Corporall Oathes for the due 
and faithfull performance of their Duties in their severall 
Offices and places before such person or persons who 
should by the said Letters Patents be afterwards appoint- 
ed to administer and receive the same (To witt the said 
Mathew Cradock who w T as thereby nominated and ap- 
pointed the then p r sent Governor of the said Company 
should take the said Oathes before one or more of the 
Masters of the said late Kings Court of Chancery for the 
time being To which siad Ma r or Masters of his Chancery 
the said late king Did thereby giue full power and author- 
ity to take and administer the said Oath to the said Gov- 
ernor And after that the said Governor should be soe 
sworne then the said Deputy Governor and Assistants be- 
fore therein named and appointed should take the said 
severall Oathes respectively appurteyning to their Offices 
and places before the said Mathew Cradock then present 
Governor then before sworne as aforesaid And that every 
such person who att the time of the Annuall ellecon or 
otherwise by death or removall should be appointed to be 
a new Governor of the said Company should take the 
oathes belonging to the said place before the Deputy Gov- 
ernor or two Assistants of the said Company att least for 
the time being and a new Deputy Governor and Assistants 
and all other Officers then after to be chosen as aforesaid 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 257 

from time to time should take the oathes respectively be- 
longing to their places before the Governor of the s d Com- 
pany for the time being To which said Governor Deputy 
Governor & Assistants the said late king by his said Let- 
ters Patents did giue full power and authority to giue and 
administer the said Oathes respectively according to the 
true intent of the said late king before in the said Letters 
Patents Declared without any Comission or further Warr 1 
to be had and obtained from him his heires & $uccesso rs 
in that behalfe g(g Jj) ffje nafU Letters Patents to- 
gether with severall priviledges franchises libertyes and 
Imunityes to the said Governor and Company of Matta- 
chusetts Bay aforesaid made and granted therein specified 
before Vs in Our Chancery inrolled relacon being thereunto 
had more fully doth & may appeare ^ntl under colour of 
toljtttftg $l®0 wee are given to vnderstand Makein & Iaws 
That the said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts 
Bay assumeing on themselues vnder colour of the said 
Letters Patents power to assemble to make good and 
wholesome Lawes and Ordinances not repugnant or con- 
trary to the Laws and statutes of this Kingdome of Eng- 
land for the better governing & Ruleing of the Inhabitants 
within the bounds lymitts and premisses aforesaid in the 
said Letters Patents aboue specified & granted They the 
said Governor and Company vnder colour and pretext 
thereof respecting only their owne private gaine and proffitt 
contrary to the Trust in the Body Corporate and pollitique 
by Vs and the Lawes of this Pealme of Eng- they Levy Money 
land reposed Jjfymt assumed the vnlawfull ^ h ^^ h0 ^y 
and vnjust power and authority to Levy money of our Sub- 
jects and leige people to the vse of them the said Gover- 
nor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay aforesaid vnder 
colour of Lawes or Ordinances by them de facto Ordained 
and established without any other right title or Authority 
whatsoever And in prosecucon and execucon of such ille- 
gall and vnjust power and authority by them so vsurped, 
STJjtgJ V§t UM^ Governor and Company in their Gen- 
erall Court or assembly aforesaid held att New England 
aforesaid to witt att Westm r aforesaid in the County of 
Middx aforesaid did make & publish certaine Lawes by 
them de facto enacted for the leauying of severall sumes 
4th s. — vol, ii; 33 



258 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

of money of all our Subjects and leige people as well 
Freemen as not Freemen of the said Company and 
other strangers (meaning the places lymitts bounds and 
premisses aforesaid in the said Letters Patents aboue ex- 
vi Z . the Rate of pressed and granted) Inhabitants and those 
meVonhe agerf that come to them (that is to say) Of every man 
16 - of the age of sixteene yeares there inhabitting 

(Excepting the Magistrates and Elders of Churches) One 
shilling and eight pence a Head yearely to be paid, and 
also for all goods Merchandizes and provisions of all sorts 
(excepting Fish, Sheeps Wooll Cotton Wooll Salt and 
such other things as by former Lawes are exempted or 
otherwise provided for (meaning the Lawes and Ordi- 
nances by the Governor and Company aforesaid made) w ch 
from any Forreigne part or other Jurisdiccon should be Im- 
ported into any Ports Shores or elcewhere within that Ju- 
risdiccon (meaning the places lymitts bounds and premisses 
aforesaid in the said Letters Patents aboue specified and 
the Duty of \d p granted) for the vallue of every Twenty shillings 
d! aldiS import O ne P enn y in money, Which penny by Twenty 
ed- shillings should be paid by the Agent Factor 

Owner or other person by whome they are brought or to 
whome they are sent or Consigned And so according to 
that proporcon for all greater or lesser quantities whatso- 
ever, And also of all Merchants or Masters of Strangers 
The Duty of Tun- shipps who should arive with merchandize in 
nage - any the Ports of Boston or Charles Towne and 

make sale thereof or the greater part thereof by way of 
Custome or Imposicon according to the rate of six pence 
per Tunn for every ship to be paid out of the Merchandize 
And of all Masters of every such Shipp Tenn shillings and 
of every English shipp or other shipp laden in England 
by any English man arriveing in their Ports Ten shillings 
for every shipp aboue the Burthen of Two hundred Tuns, 
and six shillings eight pence for every Vessell vnder that 
Burthen, and divers other sumes of money of divers per- 
sons inhabitting or Trafficking in those parts SfojJ ttjclt 
tl)C said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay 
aforesaid vnder colour and pretence of the Orders and 
Ordinances aforesaid so by them for their private Lucre 
and gaine illegally made and without any other right title 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 259 

or authority whatsoever for the space of seaven yeares 
last past haue exacted and leauyed and caused to be ex- 
acted divers great sumes of money in the Whole amount- 
ing to Fifty Thousand pounds per ami of all the persons 
aforesaid inhabitting and trafficking within the places lym- 
itts bounds and premisses and the same money converted 
and disposed to their own vse, (That is to say att 
Westm r aforesaid) To the subversion of the good ruleing 
and Government of the Company aforesaid and to the 
great oppression and impoverishing of our Subjects inhab- 
itting and Trafficking there Htltff tfjtlt the 
said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts 
Bay aforesaid under colour & p r text aforesaid and respect- 
ing their private lucre and gaine in their publique Court 
or Assembly aforesaid held att New England aforesaid 
That is to say att Westm r aforesaid did make and publish 
one other Law or Ordinance by them de facto enacted to 
the effect following that is to say That there should be a 
Mint house erected att Boston (meaning a certaine Towne 
called Boston in New England aforesaid) And that the 
Master of the said Mint and all Officers there should be 
sworne and allowed of by the said Court or such who 
should be Authorized to that purpose And that all per- 
sons whatsoever should haue Liberty to bring into the 
said Mint all Bullion plate or Spanish money there to be 
melted and brought to Allay of sterling money by the 
Master of the said Mint and his sworne Officers from time 
to time by him and them to be Coyned into 9Ttl)£lttl 

mtttiSf ®if gwiftts an$ Ei)vn pmns ptitm 

which should be stamp'd w lh a Double Ring on either 
side w th this Inscription JH&$£&C(jtt$ttt$ and a Tree 
in the Center of the one side NCto %Bn$lUTltf w th the 

yeare of our Lord and the Figure XllJL TJM* JBIK ac- 
cording to the valine of each peece on the other side together 
w th a priuate mark which should be appointed every 
Three moneths by the Governor and knowne only to him 
and the sworne Officers of the Mint Mtl'S fttttJjt V the 
Master of the Mint aforesaid was by the Law and Ordi- 
nance aforesaid required to coyne all the said money of 
good silver of the just Allay of new sterling English 
money and for vallue Two pence in the shilling of lesser 



260 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

vallue then the then present English Coyne and the lesser 
peeces proporconably And that all such Coyne as afore- 
said should be acknowledged to be the Current money of 
that Commonwealth (meaning the said Governor and 
Company aforesaid) and to passe from man to man in all 
paym ts accordingly within that Jurisdiccon And that the 
said Master and Company of Mattachusetts Bay aforesaid 
in execucon of the Law and Ordinance aforesaid did erect 
the said Mint house att Boston That is to say att Westm r 
aforesaid and for the space of seaven Yeares last past with- 
out any other right and against Our Will did Coyne and 
cause to be coyned divers sumes of money And that the 
said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay afore- 
said vnder the colour and pretext aforesaid and respect- 
ing only their owne private Lucre and gaine in their publiq 
Court or Assembly aforesaid held att New England afore- 
said to witt att Westm r aforesaid Did make and publish 
one other Law or Ordinance by them de facto Enacted to 
the effect following that is to say That noe man should be 
vrged to take an Oath or subscribe to any Articles Cove- 
nants or Remonstrances of publique and Civill nature but 
such as the Generall Court (meaning the publique Assem- 
bly aforesaid) had Considered allowed and required And 
that noe oath of any Magistrate or other Officer should 
bind him any further or longer then hee was resident or 
reputed an Inhabitant of that Jurisdiccon (meaning the 
bounds and premisses in the said Letters Patents aboue 

specified and granted SlnJf fOCflgfttttCf) as 
o?S£5ty ll to V divers Inhabitants of that Jurisdiccon who had 

long continued amongst them receiving protec- 
con from that Governm 1 had as they were informed vttered 
Offensiue speeches whereby their fidelity to that Govern- 
ment might justly be suspected and also that divers stran- 
gers of Forreigne parts did repaire to them of whose 
fidelity they had not that assurance which was comonly 
required of all Governments Jftt &#$ tUtVtfOXt Or- 
dered by that Court and the authority thereof That the 
County Courts or any one Magistrate out of Court should 
haue power and were thereby authorized to require the 
oath of fidelity of all setled Inhabitants amongst them 
who had not already taken the same as also to require the 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 261 

Oath in the said Law or Ordinance vnderwritten of all 
strangers who after two moneths had their abode there, 
And if any person should refuse to take the respective 
oath hee or they should be bound over to the next County 
Court or Court of Assistants where if hee should refuse 
should forfeit Fiue pounds a week for every week hee 
should continue in that Jurisdiccon (meaning the said 
places lymitts bounds and the premisses aforesaid in the 
said Letters Patents expressed and granted) after his said 
refusall vnlesse hee could give sufficient security to the 
satisfaccon of the Court or Magistrate for his fidelity 
during his or their residence amongst them Which said 
Oath soe as aforesaid in the said Law and Ordinance sub- 
scribed followed in these words "SrOtt MM 
Doe acknowledge your selfe subject to the Laws 
of this Jurisdiccon dureing your Residence under this 
Government And doe here sweare by the great name of 
the ever Liveing CSrIlJl and engage your selfe to be true 
and faithfull to the same and not to Plott contrive and 
conceale any thing that is to the hurt or detriment thereof 
iltlBf tt)&t the said Governor and Company of Matta- 
chusetts Bay aforesaid for the space of seaven Yeares last 
past haue imposed and caused to be imposed to witt at 
Westm r aforesaid without any other right or Authority in 
that behalfe had or obtained and against Our Will the 
said Oath on all Inhabitants and Residents within the 
places lymitts bounds and premisses in the said Letters 
Patents aboue expres't and granted in contempt of our 
Lawes of this Kingdome of England and to the Disherison 
and apparent losse of our Eoyail State and contrary to the 
tenor and effect of the said Letters Patents By reason 
whereof our service of and for the Keeping of our peace 
and good rule and Government of our people there was 
and is much impeded to the great damage of our people 
residing there and to our noe small prejudice and griev- 
ance By reason whereof the said Governor and Com- 
pany of Mattachusetts Bay aforesaid haue forfeited the 
said Letters Patents fttlS IttZ&UUt Wee are 
willing that Justice should be done therein summons the 

smee therefore &minmm sou that 

by honest and lawfull men of your Bayliwick you cause 



262 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

to be knowne to the said Governor and Company of Mat- 
tachusetts Bay in New England aforesaid That they be 
before vs in Our Chancery aforesaid in the morrow of the 
Assention of our Lord next comeing whereever itt shall 
then be to shew cause if they haue or can why the said 
Letters Patents soe as aforesaid to them the said Gov- 
ernor and Company made and granted and the Inrollm 1 
thereof for the reasons aforesaid forfeited ought not to be 
Cancelled vacated annihilated and restored into our said 
Court of Chancery there to be cancelled And further to 
doe and receive what Our said Court shall consider in that 
behalfe And haue you there the names of them by 
whome you shall make itt to be knowne unto them and this 
Writt SSlttSICS Our selfe att Westm r the sixteenth day 
of Aprill in the six and thirtyeth yeare of Our Reigne <Htt 
Remm of the lljl)fcf| said morrow of y* Assention of our 
wriu. Lord before our said Soveraigne Lord the king 

that now is in his said Chancery here that is to say att 
Westm r aforesaid came S r Robert Sawyer kn l his Ma ts At- 
torney Generall who prosecutes this cause for our said 
Soveraigne Lord the King in his propper person and the 
SherifFe of Middx aforesaid, that is to say, S l " Peter Dan- 
iell kn l and Samuell Dashwood Esq r did command the said 
That the g & writt to be executed and returned in forme fol- 
NoEg y w h thin lowing that is to say That the said Governor 
their Baiiiwk. £ Company had nothing nor any of them had 
any thing in his Baylywick whereby he might make 
knowne unto them or any of them, nor were they or any 
of them found in the same SSCIjCttttflOll 
to e y ? Tfr of" our said Soveraigne Lord the king that now is 



Middlsx. 



& .xw ^.V,~ V^V. .LVXX^ 



charged his other close Writt in like manner 
directed to the said SherifFe of Middx in these words 
diaries tlie SeCOnfr by the grace of God King of 
Rechin- the England Scotland France and Ireland Defender 
Grant - ° of the Faith &c. EO the SherifFe of Middlesex 
.greeting W&LtitVtUU Our most Deare Father Lord 
Charles the First late King of England by his Letters 
Patents sealed vnder the greate seale of England bearing 
date att Westm r the fowerth day of March in the fowerth 
yeare of his Raigne Reciteing thereby 2T!lftt b)!tPtTlcI$ 
his most deare Father Lord James late King of England 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 263 

&c. by his Letters Patents bearing date att Westm r the 
third day of November in y e eighteenth yeare of his Raigne 
had given and granted to the Councell establish't att 
Plymouth in the County of Devon For the plantacon 
Puleing Ordering and governing of New England in 
America and their Successors and Assignes for ever glU 
tf)ftt ])&1?t of America lyeing and being in breadth from 
Forty degrees Northerne Latitude from the Equinoctiall 
Line to eight and forty degrees of the same Latitude in- 
clusively and in length of and within all that breadth 
throughout the Maine Lands from Sea to Sea together w th 
the flrme Land Soyles grounds Bayes Kivers waters Fish- 
ings Mynes and Mineralls as well Royall Mines of Gold 
and Silver as other Mynes and Mineralls pretious Stones 
Quarries, and all and singular other Comodityes jurisdic- 
cons Royalties priviledges Franchises and preheminencyes 
as well within the said tract of Land upon the Continent 
as within the Islands and seas adjoyning ;||)£Ot)illl& 
JflftlftilSI that the said Islands or any of the premisses 
thereby intended to be granted were not actually posses't 
or inhabitted by any other Christian Prince or State or 
within the bounds lymitts and Territoryes of the South- 
erne Colony before that time granted by the said late 
King James to be planted by divers of his Subjects in the 
Southerne parts ©0 Jjaiie tjoKT pOUBtUUt $£ etl= 
j$J> all and singular the said Continent Lands Territoryes 
Islands hereditaments and precincts Seas Waters Fishings 
with all and all manner of Comodityes Royalties Liberties 
preheminencyes and profflts which thence should further 
Arise with all and singular their appurtenances and every 
part and parcell thereof to the said Councell their Suc- 
cessors and Assignes for ever ST® the sole and propper 
Vse and behoofe of them the said Councell their Successors 
and Assignes for ever S!|| fif holden of him the said late 
King James his heires and Successors as of his Mannor 
of East Greenwich in the said County of Kent in free and 
Common soccage and not in capite or by knights service 
2&£H?JVI!!0 and paying for the same to the said late 
King James his heires and successors a fifth part of the 
Oare of Gold and silver which from time to time and att 
all times should happen to be found acquired had and 



264 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

obtained in to or within any of the said Lands lymitts 
Territoryes or precincts or in or w lh in any part or parcell 
thereof for or in respect of all and all manner of duties 
demands and services whatsoever to be made done and 
paid to the said late king James his heires and Successors 
<j?lU by the said last recited Letters Patents of the said 
King James amongst divers other Clauses powers privi- 
ledges and Grants therein conteyned did more att large 
appeare MttltitlQ also 2TJ)at teJjtVta^ the said Coun- 
cell establish't att Plymouth aforesaid for the plantacon 
ruleing Ordering and Governing of New England in 
America by their Deed indented vnder their Common 
seale bearing date the nyneteenth day of March then last 
past in the Third yeare of the said late king Charles the 
first had given granted bargained sold enfeoffed aliened 
and confirmed to S r Henry Rosewell and S r John Young 
knights Thomas Southcott John Humfrey John Endecott 
& Symon Whetcombe their heires Assignes and Associates 
for ever StU that part of New England in America afore- 
said which lay and extended betweene the great River 
there comonly called Monomack als Merriemack and 
another River there called Charles River being in the bot- 
tome of a certaine Bay there called Massachusetts als Mat- 
tachusetts als Massatusetts Bay And also all and singular 
those Lands and hereditam 13 whatsoever lying within the 
space of three English miles on the Southerne part of y e 
said River called Charles River or any or every part 
thereof &tltt al$0 ail UVLXf Singular the lands and 
hereditaments whatsoever lyeing and being within the space 
of three English miles southwards of the most southerly 
part of the said Bay called Massachusetts als Mattachu- 
setts als Massatusetts Bay And all those Lands and hered- 
itam ts whatsoever which lye and are within the space of 
Three English miles to the northern part of the said River 
called Monomack als Merriemack or to the northerne part 
of any and every part thereof and all Lands and heredita- 
ments whatsoever lyeing within the lymitts aforesaid to the 
north and south in Breadth and length of and within all 
the said breadth through the Continent there from the 
Atlantic k and Westerne sea and Ocean on the Easterne 
part to the Southerne sea on the Westerne part and all 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 265 

Lands and soile place and places woods and Woodlands 
Bayes Rivers Waters Fishings and hereditaments whatso- 
ever lyeing within the bounds and lymitts aforesaid and 
every part and parcell thereof And also all the Islands lye- 
ing in America aforesaid in the said Seas or either of them 
on the westerne or Easterne shores or parts of the aforesaid 
Tract of Land by the said Indenture menconed to be 
given granted Bargained sold enfeoffed aliened and con- 
firmed or of any of them And also all Mynes and Miner- 
alls as well Mynes Royall of Gold & Silver as other Mynes 
& Mineralls whatsoever in the aforesaid Lands and prem- 
isses or any part thereof and all Jurisdiccons rights Royal- 
ties Liberties Imunityes priviledges franchises p r heminen- 
cys and Comodityes whatsoever which the said Councell es- 
tablish't att Plymouth in the County of Devon for the plan- 
tacon Ruleing Ordering and governing of New England 
in America then had or ought to vse exercise and enjoy in 
or with the said Lands and premisses by the said Inden- 
ture menconed to be given granted bargained sold en- 
feoffed and confirmed or in or w tl in any part or parcell 
thereof ©13 fjaitt UW8 tO IjOlU the said part of New 
England in America which lyes and extends and is abutted 
as aforesaid and every part & parcel! thereof and all the 
said Islands Rivers Bayes Waters Fishings Mines Miner- 
alls Jurisdiccons franchises Royalties Liberties priviledges 
comodityes hereditam 13 and premisses whatsoever with the 
appurtenances to the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John 
Young Thomas Southcott John Humphry John Endecott 
and Symon Whetcombe their heires and Assignes and 
their Associates U® ti}t sole and propper vse and proffitt 
of them the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young 
Thomas Southcott John Humphrey John Endecott & Sy- 
mon Whetcombe their heires and Assignes and their Asso- 
ciates forever Sfjf U&lU late king Charles the first Our 
most Deare Father att the humble suite and Peticon of the 
said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young Thomas Southcott 
John Humfrey John Endecott and Symon Whetcombe and 
others who had Associated to them Did grant and confirme 
to the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young Thomas 
Southcott John Humfrey John Endecott and Symon Whet- 
combe and their Associates after in the said Letters Patents 
4th s. — vol. n. 34 



266 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

named. To witt, S r Richard Saltonstall kn l Isaac Johnson 
Samuell Aldersey John Ven Mathew Cradock George Har- 
wood Increase Nowell Richard Perry Richard Bellingham 
Nathaniell Wright Samuell Vassall Theophilus Eaton 
Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams John Browne Samuell 
Browne Thomas Hutchins William Vassall William Pin- 
chion and George Foxcroft their heires and Assignes gJH 
ti)t mitt DiTti Of ISTeto f5n0lan!r in America lyeing 
and extending betweene the bounds and lymitts in the afore- 
said recited Indenture expressed and all Lands and soyle 
place and places Woods and Woodlands Bayes Rivers 
Waters Mynes Mineralls jurisdiccons Rights Royalties Lib- 
ertyes Imunityes priviledges franchises preheminencies and 
hereditam 13 bargained sold enfeoffed aliened and confirmed 
or menconed or intended thereby to be given granted bar- 
gained sold enfeoffed aliened and confirmed JJo ||StW $Z 
tO f)0 X& the said part of New England in America and 
other the premisses by the said Letters Patents menconed to 
be granted and confirmed and every part and parcell thereof 
w th y e appurtenances vnto them the said S r Henry Rose- 
well S r John Young S r Richard Saltonstall Thomas South- 
cott John Humfrey John Endecott Symon Whetcombe 
Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven Mathew Cradock 
George Harwood Increase Nowell Richard Perry Richard 
Bellingham Nathaniell Wright Samuell Vassall Theophi- 
lus Eaton Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams John Browne 
Samuell Browne Thomas Hutchins William Vassall W ra 
Pinchion and George Foxcroft their heires and Assignes 
for ever To their sole and propper vse and proffitt for 
ever. gJn5 tot)tVtUU fttttpVIIIOVe the said late King 
Charles the first by his said Letters Patents for himselfe 
his heires and Successors Did give and grant to them the 
said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young S r Rich d Saltonstall 
Thomas Southcott John Humfrey John Endecott Symon 
Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven 
Mathew Cradock George Harwood Increase Nowell Rich- 
ard Perry Richard Bellingham Nathaniell Wright Samuell 
Vassall Theophilus Eaton Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams 
John Browne Samuell Browne Thomas Hutchins William 
Vassall W m Pinchion and George Foxcroft their heires 
and Assignes £Hl tf)&t part of New England in America 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 267 

which lyes and extends betweene the said River called 
Monomack River als Merriemack River and the said River 
there called Charles River being in the bottome of the said 
Bay called Massachusetts als Mattachusetts als Massatu- 
setts Bay And also all and singular those Lands and he- 
reditaments whatsoever lyeing within the space of three 
English miles on the Southerne part of the said River 
called Charles River or any or every part thereof, And 
also all and singular those Lands and hereditaments what- 
soever lyeing and being within the space of Three English 
miles to the South on the most Southerly part of the said 
Bay called Massachusetts als Mattachusetts als Massatu- 
setts Bay And also all those Lands & hereditam ts whatso- 
ever which lye or are within the space of Three English 
miles to the north of the said River called Monomack als 
Merriemack or to the north of any and every part thereof 
And also all Lands and hereditaments whatsoever lyeing 
within the Lymitts afores d to the north and south in 
Breadth and length of and within all the said breadth 
through the Continent there from the Atlantick and West- 
ern Sea and Ocean upon the Easterne part to y e South Sea 
upon the westerne part and all Lands place and places 
soyle Woods and Woodgrounds Bayes Rivers Waters and 
hereditaments whatsoever lyeing within the said bounds 
& Lymitts and every part and par cell thereof ^^ l)%&Ut 
UVtH tO ))0l& possesse and enjoy the said premisses to 
them the said S c Henry Rosewell S r John Young S r Rich- 
ard Saltonstall Thomas Southcott John Humfrey John 
Endecott Symon Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Al- 
dersey John Ven Mathew Cradock George Harwood 
Increase Nowell Richard Perry Richard Bellingham 
Nathaniell Wright Samuell Vassall Theophilus Eaton 
Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams John Browne Samuell 
Browne Thomas Hutchins W m Vassall W m Pinchion and 
George Foxcroft their heires and Assignes for ever 2T0 
their propper vse and behoofe for ever Hfttf WijtVtUU 
also the said late King Charles the first Our most Deare 
Father for the support of the Royall Authority of him his 
heires and Successo rs within the lymitts and bounds afore- 
said in New England in America aforesaid and to the in- 
tent that the affaires and business which from time to time 



268 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

should happen touching the Lands and plantacon afore- 
said might be the better ordered Did giue grant and con- 
firme by his said Letters Patents to the said S r Henry 
Rosewell S r John Young S r Rich d Saltonstall Thomas 
Southcott John Humfrey John Endecott Symon Whet- 
combe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven Mathew 
Cradock George Harwood Increase Nowell Richard Perry 
Richard Bellingham Nathaniell Wright Samuell Vassall 
Theophilus Eaton Thomas Goffe Thomas Adams John 
Browne Samuell Browne Thomas Hutchins William Vas- 
sall W m Pinchion and George Foxcroft And for himselfe 
his heires and Successors Did will and order That they 
the said S r Henry Rosewell S r John Young S r Richard 
Saltonstall Thomas Southcott John Humfrey John Ende- 
cott Symon Whetcombe Isaac Johnson Samuell Aldersey 
John Ven Mathew Craddock George Harwood Increase 
Nowell Richard Perry Richard Bellingham Nathaniell 
Wright Sam 11 Vassall Theophilus Eaton Thomas GorTe 
Thomas Adams John Browne Sam 11 Browne Thomas 
Hutchins W m Vassall W m Pinchion and George Foxcroft 
and all such others who should then after be admitted and 
made free of the Company therein menconed from time to 
time and att all times then after should by virtue thereof 
be one body Corporate and politique in Deed and name 
By the name of the Governor and Company of the Mat- 
tachusetts Bay in New England And them by the name 
of the Governor and Company of the Mattachusetts Bay 
in New England one Body pollitiq and Corporate in Deed 
fact and name for him his heires and Successors did make 
ordaine constitute and appoint by the said Letters Pa- 
tents And that by that name they should haue perpetu- 
all Succession And that by the same name they and their 
Successors should be capable and able as well to plead and 
be impleaded and prosecute to demand and answere and be 
answered in all and singular suites Causes complaints and 
accons of what kind or nature soever And also to haue 
take possesse acquire and purchase any Lands tenem ts or 
hereditaments or any goods or chattells, and the same to 
grant Demise alien bargaine sell and dispose as any of his 
subjects of this Kingdome of England or any other Cor- 
poracon or body politique thereof might lawfully doe. 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 269 

ataft fttftfjetStTOrt that the said Governor and Com- 
pany should alwaies haue a Comon seale to be vsed in all 
Causes and on all occasions of the said Company and alter 
change break and make a new the same from time to time 
att their pleasure ^tlU ftttt1fWtni0V£ the said late 
king Charles, the first by the same Letters Patents for 
himselfe his heires and Successors Did order and grant That 
from thenceforth there should be one Governor One Dep- 
uty Governor, and eighteene Assistants of the said Com- 
pany from time to time to be constituted elected and 
selected out of the Freemen of the same Company for the 
time being in such manner and forme as therein was after- 
wards expres't Which Officers should apply themselues to 
take care for the best disposicon and Ordering of the gen- 
erall Busines and affaires of for and concerning the said 
Lands and premisses thereby menconed to be granted and 
the plantacon there and Governing of the People there 
@lni for tfje tlttUt execucon of his Royall Will and 
Grant upon that Account The said late king Charles the 
first Did thereby name Ordaine make and constitute the said 
Mathew Cradock to be the first and then present Gover- 
nor of the said Company and the said Thomas Goffe Dep- 
uty Governor And the said S r Richard Saltonstall Isaac 
Johnson Samuell Aldersey John Ven John Humfrey John 
Endecott Symon Whetcombe Increase Nowell Richard 
Perry Nathaniel Wright Samuell Vassall Theophilus 
Eaton Thomas Adams Thomas Hutchins John Browne 
George Eoxcroft W m Vassall and W m Pinchion to be the 
then present Assistants of the same Company To continue 
in the said severall places respectively for such time and 
in such manner as in and by the said Letters was after 
declared and appointed MvCft tWCttftVVHQVt the said 
late king Charles the First thereby for himselfe his heires 
and Successors Ordained and granted That the Governor of 
the said Company for the time being or in his absence (by 
occasion of sickness or otherwise) the Deputy Governor for 
the time being should haue authority from time to time 
vpon all occasions to give Order for the Assembling of the 
said Company and to call them together to Consult and 
Advise of the business and Affaires of the said Company 
And that the said Governor Deputy Governor and Assist- 



270 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

ants for the time being should once in every Moneth or 
oftner if they pleased assemble and hold and keepe a Court 
or Assembly of themselues for the better Ordering and 
direccon of their affaires And that any seaven or more 
of the Assistants together with the Governor or Deputy 
Governor soe assembled should bee called taken, held and 
reputed to be a full and sufficient Court or Assembly of 
the said Company for the debating Ordering and dispatch 
of all such businesses and occurrences which from time to 
time should happen touching or concerning the said Com- 
pany or Plantacon And that should be held by the Gover- 
nor Deputy Governor and seaven or more of the Assistants 
of the said Company for the time being upon every last 
Wednesday in the Termes of Hillary, Easter, Trinity and 
Michaell respectively for ever, one Great general! and 
solemne Assembly Which Foure generall Assemblyes 
should be called the Foure great and generall Courts of 
the said Company fy% #U and every or any of which said 
great generall Courts soe assembled the said late King 
Charles the first for him his heires and Successors Did 
thereby give and grant to the said Governor and Com- 
pany and their Successors That the Governor or in his 
absence the Deputy Governor of the said Company for the 
time being and such Assistants and Freemen thereof who 
should be present or the greater number of them soe assem- 
bled (whereof the Governor or Deputy Governor and six 
Assistants att the least should be seaven) should haue full 
power and authority to elect name and appoint such and 
soe many others whome they should think convenient and 
who would be willing to accept thereof to be Freemen of 
the said Company and Body and admitt them thereto and 
to elect and constitute other Officers whome they should 
think convenient and requisite for the Ordering Treating 
and dispatch of the affaires of the said Governor and 
Company and their Successors and to make Laws and Or- 
dinances for the good and safety of the said Company and 
for the governing and Ordering of the said Lands and 
Plantacon and of the People then inhabitting and to in- 
habitt there as to them from time to time should be 
thought convenient So that such Laws and Ordinances 
should not be contrary or repugnant to the Laws and 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 271 

Statutes of his Kingdom of England g(tf& tl3fj£tM$ 
the said late King Charles the first by his said Letters Pa- 
tents for him his heires and Successors had established 
and ordained That once in every yeare Yearely for ever 
(to witt) in the last "Wednesday in Easter Terme yearely 
the Governor Deputy Governor and Assistants of the said 
Company and all other Officers thereof should be a new 
elected in the generall Court or Assembly to be held for 
that day and time for the Yeare ensueing by such major 
part of the said Company for the time being then and 
there present as aforesaid And if it should happen that 
the then present Governor Deputy Governor and Assist- 
ants by the said Letters Patents appointed or such who 
then after should be new chosen into their places or any of 
them or any other Officers to be appointed for the said 
Company dye or be removed from his or their severall 
Offices or places before the said generall day of Eleccon 
which the said late King Charles the first by the said Let- 
ters Patents declared for any misdemeanor or default should 
be removed by the Governor Deputy Governor Assistants 
and Company or such major part of them to be assembled 
in any publique Court as aforesaid That then and in every 
such case it should and might be lawfull to and for the 
Governor Deputy Governor Assistants and Company afore- 
said or such major part of them so to be assembled as 
aforesaid in any their Assemblyes to proceed to a new 
Eleccon of one or more others of their Company into the 
place or places of such Officer or Officers so dyeing or 
amoved according to their Discretions And imediately 
upon and after such eleccon and eleccons made of such 
Governor Deputy Governo r Assistant or Assistants or any 
other Officer of the said Company in manner and forme 
aforesaid the authority office and power then before 
given to the former Governor Deputy Governor or other 
Officer or Offic 1 " 3 soe removed in whose stead and place < 
new should be so chosen as to him them and every of 
them should cease and determine 3J)?0t)U)r£$f alwaies 
and the Will and pleasure of the said late King Charles 
the first was That as well those who were by the said Let- 
ters Patents appointed to be the then present Governor 
Deputy Governor and Assistants of the said Company as 



272 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

those who should succeed them and all other Officers to 
be appointed and elected as aforesaid before their takeing 
upon them the execucon of their said Offices and places 
should respectively take their corporall oathes for the due 
and faithfull performance of their duties in their severall 
Offices and places before such person or persons who 
should by the said Letters Patents be afterwards appoint- 
ed to administer and receive the same To witt the said 
Mathew Cradock who thereby was nominated and ap- 
pointed the then present Governor of the said Company 
should take the said oathes before [one] or more of the 
Masters of the said late Kings Court of Chancery for the 
time being To which said Master or Masters of his Chancery 
the said late king Did thereby give full power and author- 
ity to take and administer the said Oath to the said Gov- 
ernor And after that the said Governor should be soe 
sworne then the said Deputy Governor and Assistants be- 
fore therein named and appointed should take the said 
severall Oathes respectively appurteyning to their Offices 
and places before the said Mathew Cradock then present 
Governor then before sworne as aforesaid And that every 
such person who att the time of the Anuall eleccon or 
otherwise by death or removall should be appointed to be 
a new Governor of the said Company should take the 
oathes belonging to the said place before the Deputy Gover- 
nor or two Assistants of the said Company at the least for 
the time being and a new Deputy Governor and Assistants 
and all other Officers then after to be chosen as aforesaid 
from time to time should take the oathes respectively be- 
longing to their places before the Governor of the said 
Company for the time being To which said Governor Dep- 
uty Governor and Assistants the said late king by his said 
Letters Patents did giue full power and authority to giue 
and administer the said Oathes respectively according to 
the true intent of the said late King before in the said 
Letters Patents declared without any Comission or further 
Warr 1 to be had and obtained from him his heires and Suc- 
cessor in that behalfe As by the said Letters Patents to 
gether w th severall priviledges franchizes Liberties and Im- 
unityes to the said Governor and Company of Mattachu- 
setts Bay aforesaid made and granted therein specified 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 273 

before Vs in our Chancery inrolled relacon being thereunto 
had more fully doth and may appeare gltlfc causes of forfeit- 
iUl)££0&8 alS0 wee are given to vnderstand l,re viz - 
That the said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts 
Bay assuming on themselues vnder colour of the said 
Letters Patents power to assemble to make good and 
whollsome Laws and Ordinances not repugnant or con- 
trary to the Laws and Statutes of this Kingdome of Eng- 
land for the better governing and Euleing of the Inhabitants 
within the bounds lymitts and premisses aforesaid in the 
said Letters Patents aboue specified and granted They the 
said Governor and Company vnder colour and pretext 
thereof respecting only their owne private gaine and proffitt 
contrary to the Trust in the body Corporate and politique 
by Vs and the Lawes of this Eealme of Eng- Levying Money 
land reposed haue assumed the vnlawfull and without Authority. 
vnjust power and authority to leauy money of our Sub- 
jects and leige people to the vse of them the said Gover- 
nor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay aforesaid vnder 
colour of Lawes or Ordinances by them de facto ordained 
and established w th out any other right title or Authority 
whatsoever And in prosecucon and execucon of such ille- 
gall and vnjust power and authority soe by them vsurped 
They the said Governor and Company in their gen- 
erall Court or Assembly aforesaid held att New England 
aforesaid to witt att Westm r aforesaid in the County of 
Middx aforesaid did make and publish certaine Lawes by 
them de facto enacted for the leauying of severall sumes 
of money of all our Subjects & liege People as well 
freemen as not freemen of the said Company & other 
strangers (meaning the places lymitts bounds and prem- 
isses aforesaid in the said Letters Patents aboue ex- 
pressed and granted) Inhabitants and those The Rate of 20d 
that come to them That is to say of every man KS^ 
of the age of sixteene Yeares there inhabitting 16 - 
(excepting the Magistrates and Elders of Churches) One 
shilling & eight pence a head yearely to be paid and 
also for all goods merchandizes and provisions of all sorts 
(excepting Fish sheep's Wooll Cotton Wooll salt and 
such other things as by former Laws are exempted or 
otherwise provided for (meaning the Lawes and Ordinances 
4th s. — vol. ii. 35 



274 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

by the Governor and Company aforesaid made) which 
from any forreigne part or other Jurisdiccon should be im- 
ported into any Ports Shores or elcewhere within that Ju- 
risdiccon (meaning the places lymitts bounds and premisses 
aforesaid in the said Letters Patents aboue specified and 
a Duty of id P . granted) for the vallue of every Twenty shillings 
chaIdizl f SifoS one penny in money w ch penny by Twenty 
shillings should be paid by the Agent, factor, 
Owner or other person by whome they are brought or to 
whome they are sent or consigned And soe according to 
that proporcon for all greater or lesser quantities whatso- 
ever And also of all Merchants or Masters of Strangers 
a Duty of Tun- shipps who should arrive with merchandize in 
nage any of the Ports of Boston or Charles Towne and 

make sale therefor the greater part thereof by way of 
Custome or Imposicon according to the rate of Six pence 
per Tun for every ship to be paid out of the Merchandize 
And of all Masters of every such shipp Ten shillings And 
of every English ship or other ship laden in England 
by any English man arriveing in their Ports Tenn shillings 
for every ship aboue the Burthen of Two hundred Tuns 
and six shillings Eight pence for every Vessell vnder that 
Burthen, and divers other sumes of money of divers per- 
sons inhabitting or trafficking in those parts And that 
the said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay 
aforesaid vnder colour and pretence of the Orders and 
Ordinances aforesaid soe by them for their private lucre 
and gaine illegally made and without any other right title 
or authority whatsoever for the space of seaven Yeares 
last past haue exacted and leavyed and caused to be ex- 
acted divers great sumes of money in the whole amount- 
ing to Fifty Thousand pounds per ann of all the persons 
aforesaid inhabitting and Trafficking within the places 
Lymitts bounds & premisses and the same money converted 
and disposed to their owne vse that is to say att Westm r 
aforesaid To the subversion of the good ruleing and 
Government of the Company aforesaid and to the great 
oppression & impoverishing of our Subjects inhabit- 
ting and trafficking there ^LxCti that the 
said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts 
Bay afores d vnder collour and pretext aforesaid and respect- 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 275 

ing their private lucre and gaine in their publique Court 
or Assembly aforesaid held att New England aforesaid 
that is to say att Westm r aforesaid did make and publish 
one other Law or Ordinance by them de facto enacted to 
the effect following that is to say That there should be erect- 
ed a Mint house att Boston (meaning a certaine Towne 
called Boston in New England aforesaid, And that the 
Master of the said Mint and all Officers there should be 
sworne and allowed of by the said Court or such who 
should be authorized to that purpose and that all per- 
sons whatsoever should haue liberty to bring into the 
said Mint all Bullion Plate or Spanish money there to be 
melted and brought to Allay of Sterling money by the 
Master of the said Mint and his sworne Officers from time 
to time by him and them to be Coyned into Twelue 
penny Six penny and Three penny peeces which should 
be stamp'd with a double Ring on either side with 
this Inscripcon ^&U^UUl^nmitU and a Tree in the 
Center of the one side IjfaiSJ JBUf&lUffif with the 
Yeare of our Lord and the Figure XKK* TTK. KKK ac- 
cording to the valine of each peece on the other side together 
with a private mark which should be appointed every 
three moneths by the Governor and knowne only to him 
and the sworne officers of the Mint gltttt fUVtljtV the 
Master of the Mint aforesaid was by the Law and Ordi- 
nance aforesaid required to coyne all the said money of 
good silver of the just Allay of new Sterling English 
money and for valine two pence in the shilling of lesser 
vallue then the then present English Coyne and the lesser 
peeces proporconably And that all such Coyne as afore- 
said should be acknowledged to be the Current money of 
that Comonwealth (meaning the said Governor and Com- 
pany aforesaid) and to passe from man to man in all pay- 
ments accordingly within that Jurisdiccon ( Mtitf that the 
said Master and Company of Mattachusetts Bay aforesaid 
in execucon of the Law and Ordinance aforesaid did erect 
the said Minthouse att Boston that is to say att Westm r 
aforesaid and for the space of seaven Yeares last past with- 
out any other right and against Our Will did coyne and 
cause to be coyned divers sumes of money iCttft tt)3t the 
said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay afore- 



276 Judgment for vacating the Charter 

said vnder the colour and pretext aforesaid & respecting 
only their owne private Lucre and gaine in their publiq 
Court or Assembly aforesaid held att New England afore- 
said to witt att Westm r aforesaid did make and publish 
one other Law or Ordinance by them de facto enacted to 
the effect following that is to say That noe man should be 
vrged to take an oath or subscribe to any Articles Cove- 
nants or Remonstrances of publique and Civill nature but 
such as the Generall Court (meaning the publique Assem- 
bly aforesaid) had considered allowed and required And 
that noe oath of any Magistrate or other Officer should 
bind him any further or longer then hee was resident or 
reputed an Inhabitant of that Jurisdiccon (meaning the 
bounds and premisses in the said Letters Patents aboue 

imosmanoath s P ecined and granted ^Utl fOtagnUtCf) as 

oFISStyto their divers Inhabitants of that Jurisdiccon who had 
long continued amongst them receiveing Protec- 
con from that Government had as they were informed vt- 
tered offensive speeches whereby their fidelity to that Gov- 
ernment might justly be suspected and also that divers 
strangers of Forreigne parts did repaire to them of whose 
fidelity they had not that assurance which was comonly 
required of all Governments Jrtt tlJflS tJjtttfOVt or- 
dered by that Court and the authority thereof That the 
County Courts or any one Magistrate out of Court should 
haue power and were thereby authorized to require the 
oath of Fidelity of all setled Inhabitants amongst them 
who had not already taken the same as also to require the 
Oath in the said Law or Ordinance Vnderwritten of all 
strangers who after two moneths had their abode there 
And if any person should refuse to take the respective 
oath he or they should be bound over to the next County 
Court or Court of Assistants where if he should refuse 
should forfeit flue pounds a week for every week he 
should continue in that Jurisdiccon (meaning the said 
places lymitts bounds and the premisses aforesaid in the 
said Letters Patents exprest and granted) after his said 
refusall vnlesse he could give sufficient security to the 
Satisfaccon of the Court or Magistrate for his fidelity 
during his or their residence amongst them Which said 
Oath soe as aforesaid in the said Law & Ordinance sub- 



of the Massachusetts Bay. 277 

scribed followed in these words *$T0tt 9t M 
doe acknowledge your selfe subject to the Lawes 
of this Jurisdiccon dureing your residence vnder this 
Government, And doe here sweare by the great name of 
the ever Liveing CSrOt? and engage your selfe to be true 
& faithfull to the same and not to plott contrive and 
conceale any thing that is to the hurt or detriment thereof 
And that the said Governor and Company of Matta- 
chusetts Bay aforesaid for the space of seaven Yeares last 
past haue imposed and cause to be imposed to witt att 
Westm r aforesaid without any other right or authority in 
that behalfe had or obtained and against our Will the 
said oath on all Inhabitants and Residents within the 
places lymitts bounds and premisses in the said Letters 
Patents aboue expres't & granted in contempt of Our 
Laws of this Kingdome of England and to the disherison 
and apparent losse of our Eoyall State and contrary to the 
tenor and effect of the said Letters Patents By reason 
whereof Our service of and for the keeping of our peace 
and good Pule and Government of Our people there was 
and is much impeded to the great damage of Our People 
residing there and to our noe small prejudice and griev- 
ance By reason w^hereof the said Governor and Com- 
pany of Mattachusetts Bay aforesaid haue forfeited the 
said Letters Patents And because Wee are Willing 
that Justice should be done therein 2KHct ttltVtf&Xt 
COttt&ftir jJOtt (as Wee haue otherwise com- Directionsto 
anded) that by honest and lawfull men of yo r G™ n com- 
Baylywick you cause to be knowne to the pany - 
said Governor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay in 
New England aforesaid that they be before Vs in Our 
Chancery aforesaid in eight dayes of the Holy Trin- 
ity next comeing wherever it shall then be to shew 
cause if they haue or can why the said Letters Pa- 
tents soe as aforesaid to them the said Governor and 
Company made and granted and the Inrollment thereof 
for the reasons aforesaid forfeited ought not to be can- 
celled vacated annihilated and restored into our said 
Court of Chancery there to be cancelled And further to 
doe and receive what our said Court shall consider in 
that behalfe and haue you there the names of them by 



278 Judgment vacating the Charter of Massachusetts, 

whome you shall make it to be knowne unto them and this 
Writt WlXtVLtU Our selfe att Westm r the Twelveth day 
of May in the six and Thirtieth yeare of our reigne Att 
Return of the which said eight dayes of the holy Trinity 
writt. before our said soveraigne Lord the king that 

now is in his Chancery here that is to say att Westm r 
aforesaid came the said S r Robert Sawyer knight his Ma ts 
Attorney Gen 11 who prosecutes this cause for our said 
Soveraigne Lord the king in his propper person and the 
SherifFe of Middx aforesaid did comand the said other 
Writt in like manner to be executed and returned in forme 
That ye Govr following that is to say That the said Governor 
NoSng y in ia the and Company had nothing nor any of them had 
Bailiwick. an y thing in his Baylywick whereby hee might 
make knowne unto them or any of them nor were they nor 
any of them found in the same Whereupon the aforesaid 
S r Robert Sawyer knight the kings Attorney Gen 11 who 
prosecutes this cause for our said Soveraigne Lord the 
king prayed Judgm 1 and that the said Letters Patents soe 
as aforesaid to the said Governor and Company made and 
granted and the Inrollment of the same for the reasons 
aforesaid forfeited be Cancelled vacated and annihilated 
and restored into the Chancery of our said Soveraigne 
Lord the king there to be Cancelled And the said Gov- 
ernor and Company the fourth Day of the Plea of Eight 
daies of the holy Trinity aboue menconed before the said 
king in his Chancery here That is to say att Westm r afore- 
said being solemnly called did not appeare but made de- 
fault whose Default is recorded by the said Court here. 
judgment. That &f)tVtf#Vt by the said Court here itt is ad- 
tents L & l inroie^nt judged That the aforesaid Letters Patents soe 
be vacated. as a f oresa id to them the said Governor and 
Company made and granted and the Inrollment thereof be 
vacated Cancelled and annihilated and into the said Court 
restored there to be cancelled 8C|)C t$ WQV of which said 
Judgm 1 Wee haue thought fitt to be exemplified by these 
presents Jill fejfttlt$ whereof Wee haue caused these 
our Letters to be made Patent 2J2UtttT$ U Our selfe att 
Westm r the Thirteenth Day of October in the First Yeare 
of Our Reigne. 

Pengry. 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL, 1660-1 TO 1692. 



[These Orders in Council, concerning New England, were copied 
from the original books of the Privy Council by George Adlard, Esq., 
and communicated by J. W. Thornton, Esq. — Eds. J 



At Whitehall, the 13 th of February, 1660. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majestie. 

Upon reading a Narrative from the Officers concemingethe 
and Commissioners of his Ma ts Customs, setting ^f f ll ng mv\il 
forth That some Merchants trading for New Eng- lion - 
land, finde themselves much grieved in respect of the strict- 
nesse of the Act for Navigation (lately passed in Parlia- 
ment,) requiringe Bond to bee given heere, for such Comod- 
ityes as shalbee there laden, That the same shalbee brought 
to some part of England, Ireland or Wales &c And the 
Comodityes of that Country, being generally Clove-Boards, 
Pipe-staves and other Tymber, Fish, and such other 
Gruff []] Comodityes do better vend in other parts then 
heere in England, and, by proceed thereof, Comodityes of 
greater value from Spain and other parts haue been usu- 
ally imported into England, and his Ma tie thereby much 
advantaged in his Revenew. Upon due consideracion 
whereof, and at the humble suit of some Merchants, now 
outward bound, upon that Trade, It is thought fitt, and 
accordingly this day Ordered by this Board (his Majestie 
present in Council,) That the Eight hon bl the Lord High 
Treasurer of England do giue power and authority to the 
Officers and Commissioners of his Ma t3 Customes in this 



280 Orders in Council. 

Port of London, That they take Bond of the Merchants 
tradeing to those parts, onely to returne the Proceed of 
those Comodityes that they shall there lade, and not binde 
them up to returne the Comodityes in specie, the said 
Clause in the said Act of Navigacion notwithstanding. 
And further, That the Lord High Treasurer bee (and ac- 
cordingly hee is) hereby desired to write his effectuall Let- 
ters to the Governour of that Plantation, givinge him the 
same liberty to take the like Bond there, as being most 
conducible to the benefit and advantage of Trade, and 
Improvement of his Majesties Revenew. — [Charles II. 
Vol. II. p. 126.] 

At Whitehall the 17 th of May 1661. Present, The King's 
most excellent Majesty. 

committee for It was then ordered by his Majestie in Coun- 
New-Engiand. cel i ? That the Lord chancellor, the Lord Treas- 
urer, the Lord Privy Seale, the Duke of Albemarle, the 
Duke of Ormond, the Lord Chamberlaine, the Earle of 
Anglesey, Lord Viscount Say & Seale, Lord Hollis, Lord 
Cornwalleis, Sir Edward Nicholas, and Sr. William Mor- 
ice Kn ts principall Secretaires of State, should bee a Com- 
mittee touching the settlement of the Government of 
New-England, and to that end that they or any 4 or more 
of them should first meete at Worcester-house upon Tewes- 
day next at 3 in the afternoone, then to consider of draw- 
ing up and framing such Letters, Proclamations or Orders 
as they shall judge fitt to offer to his Majestie to signe or 
publish in reference to the settlement of the Government 
of that Plantation. And afterwards the said Committee 
to meete at such time & place as they shall from time to 
time appoint, untill they haue perfected that affaire. 



Charter of Corpo 



Whereas M r Attorney Generall had formerly 
ration for New directions to prepare a Charter of Corporation 
for New England, and to insert therein such 
names as hee should receive Order for ; Whereupon the 
names of the persons hereafter mencioned beeing this day 
read and approved of at the Board ; It was thereupon 
Ordered in Councell that M r Attorney Generall should 



Orders in Council. 



281 



speedily prepare the said Charter of Corporation, and in- 
sert therein the names of the said persons hereafter named 
accordingly. 

Members of the Corporation of New England now in being. 



Alderman Francis Warner 
Erasmus Smith Esq 
Henry Ashurst, Treasurer 
Richard Hutchinson 



Josuah Woolnough 



Lord Chancellor 
Lord Treasurer 
Lord Privy Seale 
Duke of Albemarle 



George Clarke 
Thomas Speed 
Thomas Bell 
John Rolfe, Gent. 



To be added. 



Lord Steward 

Lord Chamberlaine 

Earle of Anglesey 

Lord Viscount Say & Seale 



Names of New Members. 



Robert Boyle Esq 

S r William Thompson "] 

S r William Bateman j , 

S r Anthony Bateman [> \ 

S r Theophilus Bydolph 

S r Lawrence Bromfield ^ 

Alderman Tempest Milner 

Alderman William Love 

Alderman William Peake 

Thomas Foley Esq 

D r Thomas Cox 

D r John Micklethwaite - 

D r Trench 

D r Charles Doyly 



Deputy Thomas Staynes 

Deputy John Juryan 

Deputy William Antrobus 

John Bathurst 

Harman Sheafe 

Thomas Gillibrand 

James Hayes 

John Benbow 

Lawrence Brinsley 

Barnabas Meares 

John Acrod 

John Dockett, Gent. 

Edward Biscowen, merchant 

Martin Nowell, Gent 



[Charles II. Vol. II., 216-17.] 



At Whitehall the 22d of May 1661. Present, The King's 
most excellent Majestie. 



It was this day Ordered by his Majestie in Co i d miuee 



Addicion to ye 
ommittees foi 

Councell, That S r George Carteret Kn l Vice S&wEnJ 
Chamberlaine of his Majesties Household bee land - 
4th s. — vol. ii. 36 



282 Orders in Council. 

added to the Committees for Forreigne Plantations, and 
to the Committee for the affaires of New England. — 
[Charles II. Vol. EL, 222.] 

At Whitehall the 7 th of August, 1661. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majestie. 

It was this day Ordered by his Majestie in Councell that 
(in regard of the approaching Progresse, the businesse 
of New England & other affaires requireing dispatch) 
the Councell henceforward meete thrice a weeke, (viz 1 ) 
Munday Morning, Wednesday Morning, & Fryday Morn- 
ing. 
Mr Boyie to be It was this day Ordered by his Majestie in 
coT^orTcio / for Councell that M r Attorney Generall be, and ac- 
Go°speu a in g New cordingly hee is hereby required and authorized 
England. ^o prepare a draught of Letters Patents to 

passe under his Majesties great Seale of England, consti- 
tuting Robert Boyle Esq (one of the Members of the Cor- 
poration of New England) to be Governor of that Corpo- 
ration for Propagating the Gospell there, with such clauses 
and Instructions as in like case are usuall. — [Charles II. 
Vol. II., 321.] 



At Whitehall, the 26 lh of February, 1661. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majestie. 

It was ordered, That all persons that have 
any Commissions from those in New-England 
interested in the affayres of that Plantation, and all others 
who can give any Accompt in Reference to his Majes tie's 
Service, and the good and benefitt of those parts, doe 
attend the Board on Thursday next, the 6 l of March en- 
sueing, at 3 in the afternoon. And particularly, That 
Colonell Thomas Temple, & M r Wentrop, & such as they 
shall advise & thinke fitt be summoned and required then 
& there, at the tyme aforesaid, to give their attendance 
also. _ [Charles II. Vol. II., 558.] 



Orders in Council 283 



At "Whitehall the 2 d of July 1662. 

The Petition of the Company for Propaga- 0rder for a Br y e 
tion of the Gospell in New England and Parts {?oni?N^vlS* 



adjacent of America was this day read at the eTV'myTord 
Board, showing that heretofore by the blessing Chancellor - 
of God on the endeavours of some of the English Nation 
many of the heathen Natives of New England were con- 
verted to the Faith of Christ, which being knowne in Eng- 
land, it invited the Pretended Powers that then were to 
constitute a Corporation for the carrying on of that worke ; 
And to graunt Liberty for a generall Collection to be made 
throughout England and "Wales, whereby divers sumes of 
money were raysed and Land purchased for the settling an 
yearely revenue for that end, wherein such a considerable 
Progresse hath been made, that very many of the Indians 
haue been civilized and brought to like the English Man- 
ners and Government, 1 and many haue been brought to the 
Profession of the Gospell, And the whole New Testament 
and a good part of the Old (whereof the rest is makeing 
ready for the Presse) hath been there printed in the Indian 
Language ; That his Majestie graciously considering the 
consequences of so glorious a worke, hath lately erected a 
Corporation to carry on and perfect the same, who at their 
first entrance do find that for the space of Two yeares 
last past the charges have much exceeded the Incomes ap- 
propriated to that worke, and that the He venue is much 
too small at present to carry on the same according to his 
Majesty's pious intentions, especially in regard of the great 
Charge that wilbe requisite, partly for recovering the great- 
est part of their He venue injuriously deteyned from them, 
and partly for the perfecting so costly and yet necessary a 
worke as the perfecting the translation and printing of the 
Bible, and partly for the maintenance of Schooles for the 
breeding up of the Indian children, not only in the Prin- 
ciples of Christianity, but to the Knowledge of good Liter- 
ature and Trades, whereby they be not only taught the 
true religion, but civilized also and brought to submitt to 
his Majesties gracious government, And therefore most 
humbly prayed that his Majestie would be pleased to 
graunt a Briefe for a generall collection to be made 



284 Orders in Council 

throughout England & Wales, for the purpose aforesaid. 
Which their Lo ps takeing into their serious consideracion, 
and being desirous to give all encouragement possible to 
the said Corporation, for the carrying on of the said worke, 
so well begun, did think fitt to recommend it to the R l 
Hon ble the Lord Chancellor, who is prayed to take the 
same into his particular care, and give order for a Briefe 
accordingly.— [Charles II. Vol. III., 39.] 

At Whitehall, the 25 th of September, 1662. At the Com- 
mittee for Plantations. 

The settlement of the Plantations in New England seri- 
ously debated and discoursed, and the Lord Chancellor 
declared then that his Majestie would speedily send com- 
missioners to settle the respective Interests of the severall 
Colonies. The Duke of Yorke to consider of the choice 
of fitt men. 

A Patent of Corporation to be graunted to Rhode Isl- 
and. — [Charles II. Vol. III., 147.] 

At Whitehall, the 6 th of February 1662 

Mr of the ord- It was this day ordered by the board that Sir 
comfeffor New William Compton, Knight M r of his Majesties 
England. Ordnance be added to the Committee appointed 

for the affaires of New England. — [Charles II. Vol. III., 
294.] 

At Whitehall, the 10 th of Aprill, 1663. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majestie. 

a letter concern- A letter from New England and severall In- 
nIvv 11 England, of strum ents and Papers, being this day read at 
read at the Board. ^ Board, his Majestie, (present in Councell) 
did declare that he intends to preserve the Charter of that 
Plantacion, and to send some Commissioners thither speed- 
ily to see how the Charter is maintayned on their part, and 
to reconcile the differences at present amongst them. — 
[Charles II. Vol. III., 384.] 



Orders in Council. 285 

At Whitehall December the 22 th 1675. Present, The 
Kings most excellent Majesty. 

Upon reading this day at the Board a Report S^SSKftiS 



of the Right Hon We the Lords Committees for £° c w ?n ^f™ 
Trade and Plantacions, touching the Interest of Hr^weTS 
M r Mason and M r Gorges in the Provinces of SrSKmr 
New Hampshire and Mayne in the words fol- Gorges - 
lowing, — 

May it please your Majesty, 

Wee haue in pursuance of your Majesties Order in 
Councill of the thirteenth of January last past had sev- 
erall meetings Examinacions, and Debates touching the 
pretencions of M r Mason and M r Gorges, to the Provinces 
of New Hampshire and Mayne in New England, and they 
insist upon many evidences for their right, insomuch that 
it was the humble advice of your Majestie's late Councill 
of Plantacions, by their reports of the twelfth of August 
1671. That your Majesty should Send over Commission- 
ers in Order to Settle the many differences arising about 
Boundaries &c But when wee seriously considered this 
point of sending Commissioners, and how farr your Majes- 
tie's authority might bee therein also concerned Wee 
thought it not soe expedient (the Charge also considered) 
to imbarque your Majesty in a matter of doubtful conse- 
quence, nor doe Wee think it proper (how faire soever the 
proofes of the Petitioners' titles and Sufferings appeare) to 
advise your Majesty to determine any thing Ex-parte, and 
without hearing what the Bostoners can say, who have not 
had any Agents appearing for them to make answer in 
their behalfe, Therefore what Wee humbly propose to 
your Majesty is, That, upon hearing of the Peticions of 
M r Mason and M r Gorges read in Councell, your Majesty 
would resolve to send the Copyes thereof to the said peo- 
ple of Boston, letting them Knowe, That you cannot dis- 
pence with the doing of Justice, or bearing much longer 
the complaints of your subjects, yet being unwilling to 
determine in a matter of soe much weight, without first 
hearing what they can say why your Majesty should not 
give the Petitioners relief; Your Majesty thinkes fit to 
transmit Copyes of the said Peticions and Complaints, that 



286 Orders in Council. 

they may consider well the Allegations thereof, and both 
instruct and send over in the space of [ ] monethes, 

some Agents sufficiently impowered to answer for them, 
and to receive your Majesties Determination in this mat- 
ter, depending for judgment before you. 

All which is most humbly submitted. 
Whitehall, 20'* Decemb. 1675. 

His Majesty in Councill was pleased to approve of the 
said report And it is hereby Ordered, that one of the prin- 
cipall Secretarys of State doe prepare a letter for his 
Majesties signature, willing and requiring the present 
Governour and Magistrates of the said towne of Boston 
and Massatusets Colony, to Send over their Agent or 
Agents fully instructed, within the space of six monethes 
from the receipt thereof, to answer the Petitions and Com- 
plaints of the said M r Mason & M r Gorges, Copyes whereof 
are to bee transmitted unto them, That soe his Majesty 
may put an end to this matter, which hath soe long de- 
pended for judgment before him. — [Charles II. Vol. XII., 
77-8.] 

At Whitehall, February the 11 th 1675. Present, The 
Kings most excellent Majesty. 

New B Engiand S Upon tlie memoriall of the Ambassador Ex- 
pSt'of e the° m " traordinary of the States Generall of the United 
Dutch Ambr. Provinces, representing that Capt 11 Jurian Aren- 
son, Commander of the Shipp, Flying Horse of Curassao, 
having received a Commission from the Governor of that 
Island, made himselfe Master of the Forts of Penatscop, 
and S l John, belonging to the French, situated upon the 
river of Pountegolt in the North of America in New 
France, and having left part of his men there, for the de- 
fence of the said places, and to trade with the Inhabitants 
thereabouts, the English of Boston did by force of armes 
attack the men left in Garrison in the said places, made 
them Prisoners, and razed the Fortifications, upon no other 
consideration but because they would not suffer any Hol- 
landers there ; Praying his Majestie to cause exemplary 
punishment to be inflicted upon the Offenders, and to send 
requisitt Orders for the speedy setting at liberty the Pris- 



Orders in Council. 287 

oners, and restitution of the said Forts, with satisfaccion 
for damages. It is this day Ordered, that a Copie of the 
said Memoriall be sent unto the Magistrats of Boston in 
New England who are hereby required to return their an- 
swer to the said Complaint, That so his Majestie under- 
standing the nature of the Fact may give such order as is 
agreeable to Justice therein. And the Eight Hon ble M r 
Secretary Williamson is to prepare a letter for his Majes- 
ties Signature accordingly. — [Charles II. Vol. XII., 119.] 

At Whitehall, June the eighth, 1677. Present, The King's 
most excellent Majesty. 

Upon reading this day at the Board a Eepre- Mr Randolph > g 
sentacion from Edward Randolph, employed by IKn^eV 
his Majesty concerning severall Matters relating Jg d gSS 1 of 
to the State of New England, and the Govern- Trade - 
ment thereof, His Majesty was pleased to Order in Coun- 
cell, That the said representation bee referred to the Eight 
Hon ble the Lords Committees of this Board for Trade & 
Plantations, to consider of the same, and to take the Opin- 
ion of such of his Majesties Judges as they shall thinke 
fit concerning such Heads of the said Representation as 
relate to matters of law, And it was further Ordered, That 
his Majesties learned Councell in the Law doe attend their 
Lordships about this Affayre. — [Charles II. Vol. XIII., 
40.] 

At Whitehall, this 9 th of Aprill, 1678. Present, The 
King's most excellent Ma ty 

Upon reading this day at the Board the Pe- The Agents of 
ticion of S r Edmond Andros, Knight, Seigneur £j*Jg!S? A £ 
of Someres, L l and Gouernour of New Yorke, dros his Peticion - 
and other Territoryes in America, under his royall High- 
ness, Complaining that notwithstanding his great proffers 

and Services done to the neighbouring Colonyes of 

New England, in the late Indyan Warr, and his subjection 
of the Eastward Indyans, at his royall Hyghnesses great 
charge, and particularly in his strict prohibition of the 
Sale of Powder, and other ammunition, Yet the Colony of 
Massachuset's Bay, in their Declaration of Warr there, 



288 Orders in Council. 

printed in 1675 ; and in Bookes of the sayd Warr printed 
since doe declare and asperse all his Majestyes subjects in 
Albany, with having recruited Philip, and other their In- 
clyan enemyes, with ammunition from that place, and haue 
since refused to alledge the least colour for this thing, or 
give satisfaction (tho' required) for this publique imputa- 
tion, and still allow and countenance the vending the sayd 
bookes amongst them, And therefore for Secureing the 
sayd people from the penaltyes which may be inflicted 
on them by the sayd Massechusetts for this imputed crime 
(If found amongst them) humbly prayd his Majesty to 
cause Inquiry to be made of the truth of this matter, while 
the Agents of the sayd Colony are yet here, And there- 
upon to give such Order for the punishment of the Offend- 
ers, as to his Majesty should seeme meete, His Majesty was 
pleased to Order, And it is accordingly Ordered, That a 
Copy of the said Peticion be given to the sayd Agents of 
the Massachusetts, who are required forthwith to returne 
their answer to this Complaint unto this Board, That 
thereupon his Majesty may declare his further pleasure. — 
[Charles II. Vol. XIII., 285.] 

At Whitehall, this 24 lh of Aprill, 1678. Present, The 
Kings most excellent Majesty. 

gianc^o°be A ad- It was this day Ordered, by his Majesty in 
Agems'of New he Couiicill, That the Right Hon ble the Lords of the 
England. Committee for Trade and Plantations, doe ad- 

minister the Oath of Allegiance to the two Agents from 
New England now here. — [Charles II. Vol. XIII., 307.] 

At Whitehall, this 4 th of December, 1678. Present, The 
Kings most excellent Majesty. 

Whereas Randall Holden and John Green, 
New e Enliand to Deputyes for the towne of Warwick and Col- 
ony in Road Island, did this day represent 
unto his Majesty in Councill, that some persons within 
the Corporation of the Massachusetts Bay, had by a 
printed paper affixed in publique places in New Eng- 
land, layd claime to a Tract of Land, called the King's 
Province, which of right belongs to his Majesty, and to 



Orders in Council. 289 

the Jurisdiction of Road Island. And the sayd printed 
Paper having been also read at the Board, His Majesty was 
pleased to Order That a copy of the sayd paper be sent 
unto William Stoughton and Peter Bulkely, Agents for 
the Massachusetts Colony, who are hereby directed to 
attend his Majesty in Councill on Friday the 6 Ul instant, 
and there to show by what authority or title the sayd 
claymants pretend unto the sayd lands, mentioned in the 
sayd Paper, and the sayd Agents are likewise Ordered at 
the same time to informe the Board what obedience has 
been rendred within the Massachusetts Colony to his 
Majestyes letters of the 27 of Aprill 1678. enjoyning the 
Magistrates and other inhabitants thereof to take the Oath 
of Allegiance unto his Majesty, according to the forme 
there enclosed. — [Charles II. Vol. XIII., 464.] 

At Whitehall, the 20 th of June, 1679. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majestie. 



The Right Hon ble the Lords of the Commit- 



Letter to the Col- 



tee of Trade and Forreigne Plantacions did this Se^fS 
day present to his Majestie in Councell a Re- En s land - 
port in the words following, — 

May it please your Majestie. 

Wee having taken the busines of New England, as it 
concernes the Colony of the Massachusetts, into our Con- 
sideration, and finding the present conjuncture is not very 
favourable for settling and establishing what concerns your 
Majestie's service there in such method as were to be wish't 
and towards which worke we haue prepared and are prepar- 
ing many Materialls now under the care of S r Robert South- 
well, and finding the Agents, after a long attendance here, 
very impatient to return home, Wee presume to offer your 
Ma tie for your approbation, such a Draught of a Letter to 
be writ unto that Colony, as may keep things in a fair and 
probable way of amendment, untill a fitter season shall 
present more effectually to reassume the care of this whole 
matter. And the said Letter * is as followeth, — 

* We omit this letter, as it is printed in Hutchinson's Collection of Papers, 
pp. 519-522. — Eds. 

4th S. — VOL, II, 37 



290 Orders in Council. 

His Majestie having taken into consideration the said 
report is graciously pleased to approve the same, and One 
of his Majesties Principall Secretaires of State is hereby 
authorized and directed to prepare a Letter for his Majes- 
ties Royall Signature accordingly. — [Charles II. Vol. XV., 
293-6.] 

At Whitehall the 2 d of July, 1679. 



A letter to be 
writ to New Ensr- 



There being this day presented to the Board 
wmilmllrrisof a Eeport from the R l Hon ble the Lords of the 
Patuxet. Committee for Trade & Plantations in these 

words following, viz. 

May it please your Majesty 

Wee haue receiued your Majesties Reference in Councill 
of the 23 d of May last concerning the pretensions of Wil- 
liam Harris of Patuxet in New England and Partners, — 
And in obedience thereunto, Wee humbly report, That the 
Petitioner did by his Petition presented to your Majesty in 
Councill on the 11th of June 1675, set forth the great 
wrong done him and his partners by severall Persons who 
deteyned the Lands which they had" purchased from the 
Indians, Whereupon your Majesty was pleased to com- 
mand by your Eoyall Letters, the Governors of the severall 
Colonies in New England to appoint some honest, able and 
indifferent Persons to be joyned together, with full and 
sufficient authority to cause the differences and troubles 
arising to the Petitioner and his Partners, concerning the 
lands of Patuxet, to be brought to a fair Tryall, and that 
by an indifferent and upright Jury all might be finally de- 
termined according to Justice. In pursuance whereof the 
said Commissioners having met and the Jury appointed by 
them having given five Verdicts in favour of the Petitioner 
and his partners, a state of those proceedings signed by 
severall of the Commissioners was returned to your Ma- 
jesty, by the Governors of your Colonies of the Massa- 
chusets & Rhode Island, for your Majesties determination 
upon that whole affair ; but at the same time a Petition 
was offered unto your Majesty by Randall Holden & John 
Green in behalf of themselves and other your Subjects, 
the Inhabitants of the towne of Warwick, and other adja- 



Orders in Council. 291 

cent places, belonging to your Colony of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantation, complayning of the injustice of 
the second Verdict given against them. And in consider- 
ation of the complainants humble appeal unto your Majes- 
ty, together with the reasons and evidences alleaged by 
them in justification of their right in the Lands possessed 
by them, as not appearing to be any part of the Lands of 
Patuxet, which only by your Majesties Commission were to 
be brought to a tryall, Your Majesty was pleased to order 
on the 2 nd of Jan y last, That the Inhabitants of the towne of 
Warwick should not be disturbed in the quiet possession 
of the said lands, And that all things relating thereunto 
should remain in the same state they were in before the 
meeting of the said Commissioners, untill William Harris 
& Partners should before your Majesty in Councill make 
out a sufficient title thereunto. 

And whereas the said Holden & Green were no sooner 
departed, but the Petitioner William Harris hath made his 
appearance, beseeching your Majesty to take such course 
as might finally determine the matters complayned of by 
him, Wee are humbly of Opinion, That by reason of the 
distance of places & absence of the Parties it wilbe a 
matter of too great difficulty for your Majesty to give such 
judgment therein as may equally decide their respective 
pretensions. 

And whereas the said Holden & Green did offer their 
Exceptions against the Colonies of the Massachusets & 
Conecticut, upon divers past differences between them, 
And that on the other side the Petitioner William Harris 
thinks he has just cause to except against the Colony of 
Rhode Island, as being particularly interested in the pres- 
ent controversy. Wee therefore humbly offer, That your 
Majestie's royall commands be again sent to the Governor 
and Magistrates of your Colony of New Plymouth, author- 
izing and requiring them to call before them the said 
Randall Holden and John Green, and other persons in 
whose behalf they haue lately appealed unto your Majesty, 
And having in due manner examined the pretentions of 
the said Harris unto the Lands possessed by them, do re- 
turne unto your Majesty a particular state thereof, and 
their opinions thereupon, with all convenient speed. 



292 Orders in Council. 

And whereas your Majesty hath already thought fit to 
Order, That the said William Harris and Partners, be 
peaceably and quietly possessed of the Lands of Patuxet, 
adjudged unto them by the first and three last verdicts 
given in pursuance of your Majestyes late commission, 
Wee further offer, That the Governor and Magistrates of 
the Colony of Rhode Island, to whose Jurisdiction the said 
Lands apperteyne, be strictly charged and required to put 
the said William Harris and Partners into the quiet pos- 
session thereof, and to take care that Execution be given 
for their damage and Costs, allowed by the said verdicts 
and judgments of Court, within the space of three 
Monethes at furthest, after the receipt of your Majesties 
Comands, And that in default thereof, sufficient powers 
may be sent unto the neighboring Colony of New Plym- 
outh to cause the same to be duly executed without delay. 
All which is most humbly submitted. 
Shaftesbury Pr. Bridgwater, Fauconberg. 

Tho. Dolman. 

Which Report having been this day read at the Board 
and approved of, — Their Lordships were pleased to Order, 
That one of his Majesties principall Secretarys of State 
do prepare Letters for his Majesties royall signature as well 
to the Governor & Magistrates of his Majesties Colony of 
New Plymouth to examine the Pretensions of the said 
William Harris unto the Lands possessed by Randall Hol- 
den, John Green and others, and returne a particular State 
thereof with their Opinions to his Majesty, with all con- 
venient speed, As to the Governor and Magistrates of the 
Colony of Rhode Island to put him the said Harris and 
Partners, in the peaceable and quiet possession of the 
Lands of Patuxet, adjudged to them by the Verdicts afore- 
said, given in pursuance of his Majesties late Commission, 
together with the Costs and damages, according to the 
tenor of the abovemencioned Report. — [Charles II. Vol. 
XV., 320-1.] 

At Whitehall, the 20 th of September 1682. Present, The 
Kings most excellent Ma lie 

The Nc A S !aS an t d o The Lords Committees of this Board for 
commSsio a n, full to Trade and Forreigne Plantations having this 



Orders in Council. 293 



day reported to his Majestie in Councill that gJS at K f 3£ 

Massac: 
Colony. 



the Agents or Messengers lately arrived from n 



the Massachusets Bay in New England, not 
having brought sufficient powers for the regulation of his 
Majesties Government there, according to his Majesties 
former commands, Their Lordships proposed that his 
Majesty would be pleased to order them forthwith to pro- 
cure the Same. Upon consideration whereof his Majestie 
in Councill was pleased to Order & it is hereby Ordered 
accordingly, That the said Agents or Messengers doe forth- 
with procure from his Majesties Governor & Company of 
the Massachusetts Bay, sufficient Commission and full 
powers to agree upon the regulation of that Government; 
and to consent to such matters as shalbe thought neces- 
sary, pursuant to his Majestie's letters to that Colony ; and 
in the mean time the said Agents continue their attend- 
ance here ; And in case of neglect or failure in the partic- 
ulars aboue mentioned, His Majestie was pleased to declare 
his pleasure that he would cause a Quo Warranto to be 
brought against the said Governour & Company for the 
abuses of their Charter, upon the first day of Hillary 
Terme next. — [Charles II. Vol. XVL, "545 - 6.] 

At Hampton Court, the 13 th of June, 1683. Wensday 
morng. Present, The Kings most excellent Majesty. 



The Hight Hon ble the Lords of the Commit- £ u b r ™ 



Warranto to 



hti 



tee for Trade & Forraign Plantations having ll 



of the Massachu- 
m New 



this day presented to the Board a Report, in the fn|iSd y 
words following, viz. 

May it please your Majesty 

Your Majesty having by an Order in Councill dated the 
20 lh of September last, directed the Agents from the Gov- 
ernor and Company of the Massachusets Bay in New Eng- 
land to procure sufficient Commission and full power to 
agree upon the regulation of that Government, and to 
consent to such matters as should be thought necessary in 
pursuance of your Majesty's Letters to that Colony ; And 
in Case of neglect or faylure therein, a Quo Warranto 
should be brought against the said Governor and Com- 



294 Orders in Council. 

pany, upon the first day of Hilary Terme then next ensu- 
ing. Wee were this day attended by the said Agents, and 
by M r Randolph, Officer of your Majesty's Customs in New 
England; And having seen and examined the powers 
transmitted to the said Agents in answer to your Majesty's 
Commands, Wee are most humbly of Opinion that inas- 
much as the said powers being not generall but limited, 
are not full nor sufficient to enable the said Agents to con- 
sent unto such Matters as may be thought necessary for 
the due regulation of that Government; Your Majesty 
would now be pleased to order your Attorny Generall 
forthwith to bring a Quo Warranto against the said Gov- 
ernor and Company, for the abuses of their Charter, accord- 
ing to your Majesty's pleasure signifyed to them. 

All which is most humbly submitted. 

Which having been read and considered, His Majesty was 
pleased to approve thereof; And did Order, that Sir Rob- 
ert Sawyer, Kn l his Majesty's Attorny Generall do forth- 
with bring a Quo Warranto against the said Governor and 
Company of the Massachusets Bay for the abuses of their 
Charter, as is advised in the said report. And for the 
more effectuall prosecution thereof, M r Randolph is here- 
by required to attend his Majesty's said Attorny with 
such Articles Witnesses and Proofs, as he is able to pro- 
duce against the said Government. — [Charles II. Vol. 
XVIL, 1.] 

At Whitehall, this 20 th of July, 1683. Fryday Morng. 

The New Eng- Upon reading the peticion of Joseph Dudley 
miued?o n re 3 tu P rne an d John Richards, Agents or Messengers from 
home. j^g Governour and Company of the Massachu- 

setts Bay in New England ; Setting forth, That a Quo 
Warranto being issued against the Charter and Govern- 
ment of that Colony, they are not willing to undertake the 
deffence & mannagement thereof, And therefore praying 
they may be permitted to returne home, to take care of 
their private affaires. And the Right Hon ble The Lords of 
the Committee for Trade, and Forreigne Plantacions, hav- 
ing this day reported their Opinions to the Board, that 
leaue may be given them to returne home, there being 



Orders in Council. 295 

no occasion for their longer stay here ; It was accord- 
ingly Ordered, As it is hereby Ordered, That the sayd 
Joseph Dudley and John Richards Essq rs be discharged 
from their further attendance here, And that they may re- 
turne to New England so soon as M r Edward Randolph 
(who is forthwith going thether upon his Majestyes service, 
by his Majestyes Commands) shall be embarkt for his sayd 
Voyage. 

The Right Hon ble the Lords of the Commit- Mr Randolph t0 
tee for Trade and Forreigne Plantacions having g^ *£ e Ji§2: 
this day presented to the Board, a report con- l J,' s ut Scha" 
cerning New England, together with the Draft ter> &c - 
of a Declaration from his Majesty to the Governour and 
Company of the Massachusetts Bay, upon issueing a Quo 
Warranto against the Charter of that Colony, And the 
sayd report and Declaration being read, and considered at 
the Board. It was Ordered, as it is hereby Ordered, That 
M r Edward Randolph be sent to New England with the 
Notification of the sayd Quo Warranto, which he is to de- 
liver to the sayd Governour and Company of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay. And thereupon to returne to give his Ma- 
jesty an account of his proceedings therein. And one of his 
Majesty's principall Secretary's of State is likewise to pre- 
pare the sayd Declaration for his Majesty's Signature, in 
order to be sent to New England, and delivered to the 
Governour and Company, by the sayd Edward Randolph 
as aforesayd. And it is hereby further Ordered, That his 
Majesty's printers doe forthwith print and deliver unto the 
sayd Edward Randolph two hundred Copyes of the afore- 
said Declaration ; As also one hundred copyes of all the 
proceedings at the Councell Board, concerning the Charter 
of London, which were printed by order of his Majesty at 
this Board, to be dispersed by him in New England, as he 
shall thinke best for his Majesty's Service. — [Charles II. 
Vol. XVIL, 21-22.] 

[James II.] At Windsor, the 20 th of June 1686. Pres- 
ent, The King's most excellent Majesty. 

The right hon ble the Earle of Sunderland, lfl? n P ^ m c ™ d 



296 Orders in Council. 

Government" o? 8 Lord President of the Councill, having at the 
New England. desire of the Lords of the Committee for Trade 
& Plantations this day humbly moved his Majesty, to de- 
clare his pleasure whether the Fort & Country of Pema- 
qnid in New England, shall remaine under the Government 
of New Yorke, or be annexed to New England ; His Ma- 
jesty taking the same into consideration, was pleased to 
declare & Order, That the said Fort and Country of Pema- 
quid, in regard of his [?] distance from New Yorke, be for 
the future, annexed to, and continued under the Govern- 
ment of New England. — [James II. Vol. I., 291.] 



At Whitehall, the 27 th of October, 1686. Wensday after- 
noon. Present, The King's most excellent Majesty. 

drS E to m ^ufate Whereas the R l Hon ble the Lords of the Com- 
S^S/JeTS mittee for Trade & Plantations did by their re- 
New England. port tll i s day read at the Board, represent, That 

they haue lately had under consideration, a Proposall 
made unto them for re-establishing a Mint in his Majestys 
Territpry of New England, under the Government of 
S r Edmond Anclros, And having consulted the Officers of 
his Majesty's Mint here in that behalf, Their Lordships do 
not find the same to be for his Majesty's Service, but offered 
it as their opinions, That for the benefit of Trade and 
Commerce in those parts, Sir Edmond Andros may haue 
power by Proclamation to regulate the Peices of Eight and 
other Forraign Coynes imported thither, to such current 
value, as he shall find most requisite for his Majestys ser- 
vice, and the Trade of his subjects there. Which his 
Majesty taking into consideration was pleased to approve 
of their Lordship's opinion, and accordingly did order, 
That Sir Edmond Andros be, and he is hereby authorized 
and empowered by Proclamation to regulate Peices of 
Eight, and other Forrain Coynes within the said Territory 
of New England to such currant value, as he shall judge 
most requisite for his Majesty's Service, and the Trade of 
his Subjects there. — [James II. Vol. I., 329.] 



Sr Edmond An- 
dros to take under 
the Governmt of 
New Engld, the 
Colony of Conect- 
icut. 



Orders in Council. 297 

At Hampton Court, the 18 th of June, 1687. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majesty. 

A report from the R l Hon ble the Lords of the 
Committee for Trade and Forraign Plantations, 
touching the annexing of the Colony of Con- 
ecticut to the Government of New England, 
being this day read at the Board, as followeth 

May it please your Majesty, 

Wee haue considered a letter directed to the Eight 
Hon ble the Earle of Sunderland from the Generall Court 
of your Majesty's Colony of Conecticut in New England, 
wherein they represent their desires to continue in the 
same Station they are at present, if it shall so please your 
Majesty, But that if your Majesty shall thinke fit other- 
wise to dispose of them, they do in all duty declare their 
readines to submit to your Royall commands ; Hoping 
that your Majesty may be more enclined to annex them to 
the Government of New England, then to any other, 
Whereupon Wee most humbly offer our opinion, That 
your Majesty be pleased to send your instruccions to Sir 
Edmond Andros, forthwith to signify your Majesty's good 
liking and acceptance of their dutifull Submission, and to 
take them under his Government ; in such manner and 
under the same regulations as are directed by your Majes- 
ty's Commission and Instructions to Sir Edmond Andros, 
for the good government of the other Colonys ; Assuring 
them of your Majesty's particular regard and royall protec- 
tion, And that he do admit and cause to be sworne of your 
Majestys Councill in New England, Robert Treat Esq, the 
present Governor and John Allen Esq, the present Secre- 
tary of Conecticut, for the better carrying on your Majes- 
ty's Service in that Colony. 

All which is most humbly submitted. 
June 19.[1] 1687. 

His Majesty was pleased to approve of the said report, 
and did Order, That the R l Hon ble the Earle of Sunderland, 
Lord President of the Councill and principall Secretary of 
State, do cause instructions to be prepared for his Majes- 
ty's royall Signature, according to the said report, and 

4th s. — vol. ii. 38 



298 Orders in Council. 

transmitted to Sir Edmond Andros, for taking the said 
Colony of Conecticut under his Government. And re- 
quiring him to cause Robert Treat Esq, the present Gov- 
ernor, and John Allen Esq, the present Secretary of Conect- 
icut, to be sworne and admitted of his Majesty's Councill 
of New England, for the better carrying on the Service of 
the said Colony. — [James II., 467.] 

[4 Nov r Ordered that " Samuel Shrimp ton, William 
Brown Jun r , Simon Linds and Richard Smith " be admitted 
of the " Councill in New England," on the recommenda- 
tion of Sir Edmund Andros. — p. 519.] 

At Whitehall, the 23 d March 1687. Present, The King's 
most excellent Majesty. 

fo^ E e d Svefnor ro of The draught of a Commission forSir Ed- 
New ySS mond Andros, Kn l to be Governor of New Eng- 
New jerseys. land, New York and New Jerzeys, having been 
presented by the R l Hon ble the Lords of the Committee for 
Trade and Plantations, the same was read and approved, 
His Majesty in Councill is thereupon pleased to order that 
the R l Hon ble the Earl of Sunderland, principall Secretary 
of State do prepare a Warrant for his Majesties Roy all 
Signature, in order to the passing of the said Commission 
under the Great Seale. — [James II. Pt. II., 637.] 



[1688-9.] New Charter to be granted to New England, 
& Com/ 3 to govern for y e present, instead of Sir Edmond 
Andros. — [William & Mary, Vol. I., 21.] 

At Hampton Court, the 18 th of Aprill, 1689. Present, The 
King's Most excellent Majesty. 

New England, The Earle of Shrewsbury is directed upon 
& C LtGo?e mo r r n to inquiry from those who haue the most consid- 
be named. erable interest in New England, New York, and 

the Jerzeys, to present to the King the names of such as 
may be thought fitt at this time to be Governor and Lieut. 
Governor of those Parts. — [William & Mary, Vol. I., 77.] 



Orders in Council. 299 

At Whitehall, the 25 th of July, 1689. Present, The King's 
most excellent Majesty. 



Upon reading the Petition of . Sir Edmond 



Sr Edmond An- 



Andros Kn\ late Governor of New England, £™ s one f s £%* 
and others, seized by some people in Boston SntSer^ythe 
and detained under close confinement there, firstShi P- 
humbly praying that they may be either set at liberty, or 
sent in safe custody into England, to answer before his 
Majesty what may be objected against them. His Majesty 
in Councill is pleased to order, as it is hereby ordered, that 
the said Sir Edmund Andros and others their Majesty's 
subjects in New England that have been in like manner 
seized by the said people in Boston, and are deteined by 
them under Confinement, be forthwith sent on board the 
first Ship bound hither, to answer before his Majesty what 
may be objected against them, and that they be civilly 
used in their passage from New England, and safely con- 
veyed to his Majesty's presence. And one of his Majesty's 
Principall Secretaries of State is to prepare Letters to such 
as for the time being take care for the preserving the 
peace, and administering the laws in their Majesty's Col- 
ony of the Massachusets Bay in New England, for his 
Majesty's Roy all Signature accordingly. — [William & 
Mary, Vol. I., 198.] 



At Whitehall the 24 th of Aprill 1690. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majesty. 

The R l Hon ble the Lords of the Committee |L&Xrsi£ 
for Trade and Plantations having this day pre- agli£t d 't£mS 
sented a report to his Majesty in Councill, in missed&c - 
the words following, viz 1 . 

May it please your Majesty 

Your Majesty having by your letters, dated the 30 th day 
of July last, to the present Government of the Massachu- 
setts Bay in New England, Signified your pleasure that 
Sir Edmund Andros, late Governor of that Territory, and 
others that had been seized by the people of Boston, upon 
the late Revolution, and deteined there under confinement, 



300 Orders in Council. 

for the space of ten Months, should according to their 
humble request made to your Majesty in Councill, be sent 
into England by the first opportunity, to answer before 
your Majesty what might be objected against them. Wee 
haue accordingly, on the tenth instant, been attended by 
Sir Edmund Andros and others, lately imprisoned in New 
England, As also by Sir Henry Ashurst, M r Elisha Cook, 
M r Increase Mather, and M r Thomas Oakes, who then de- 
clared themselves unto us to be Agents for the said Gov- 
ernment of the Massachusetts Bay. But by reason of the 
late arrivall in England of some of them, desired they 
might be allowed further time to produce their Creden- 
tials and charge against the said Sir Edmund Andros and 
others foresaid ; which charge having been brought in on 
the Munday following, Wee were, according to our direc- 
tions attended on Thursday last by Sir Edmund Andros 
and such as were lately Imprisoned in New England, and 
by Counsel learned on both sides. At which time the 
Counsel learned for the people of the Massachusets Bay, 
as they termed themselves, having been asked by us 
whether any person were ready to sign or own the said 
charge, no person could then be found or was named unto 
us, upon Our inquiry to sign or own the same. So that 
as wee saw no matter of complaint, or objection against 
Sir Edmund Andros and others aforesaid, to proceed upon, 
Wee do therefore most humbly offer our Opinion to your 
Majesty, that the said Sir Edmund Andros and other Per- 
sons lately Imprisoned in New England, and now attend- 
ing your Majesty, be forthwith discharged and set at 
liberty, And that the said Paper or Charge, which has not 
been signed or owned, may be dismissed, inasmmch as 
nothing has been objected against the said Sir Edmund 
Andros and others, by the present Government of the 
Massachusets Bay, or their Agents, at the times appointed 
by us, in pursuance of Your Majesty's pleasure signified 
to them in that behalf. Which is nevertheless most hum- 
bly submitted. 

Councill Chamber, the 11 th Aprill 1690. 

His Majesty in Councill is pleased to approve of the 
said report, and to Order that the Paper or Charge therein 



Orders in Council. 301 

mentioned, as not being signed or owned by any Person, 
be dismissed, as it is hereby dismissed this Board. And 
that Sir Edmund Andros, late Governor of New England, 
and others that haue been seized by the people of Boston 
upon the late Revolution, and now attending his Majesty, 
be forthwith discharged, as they are hereby discharged and 
set at liberty, according to the said report. — [William & 
Mary, Vol. L, 428.] 

At Kensinton, the first of January, 1690. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majesty. 

"Whereas it is humbly desired by the persons tSndfaS 
imployed on behalf of the Massachusetts Col- ggSj* th K t 
ony in New England ; that in regard they were ferr ' d 
Incorporated by the Letters Patents of King Charles the 
first, the heads whereof are hereunto annexed, And for 
that the said Corporation did afterward purchase from the 
Heir of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the Province of Maine, 
granted to the said Sir Ferdinando Gorges by Letters Pa- 
tents of the said King Charles the first, an Abstract 
whereof is also hereunto annexed, and enjoyed the same 
till the late Judgement against them. That their Majestys 
would be pleased to re-establish their Corporation, and 
grant them their Lawes and former Priviledges, as in the 
severall Papers annexed is at large set forth. His Ma- 
jesty in Councill is pleased to referr this matter to the 
R} Hon bIe the Lords of the Committee for Trade and Plan- 
tations, who are to examine the same, and to report their 
Opinion thereupon to this Board. — [William & Mary, 
Vol. II. 95.] 

At Whitehall the 9 th of Aprill, 1691. 

An address to his Majesty from divers of the New England Ad . 
Gentry, Merchants and others inhabiting in Se S coS£iu?eo°f 
Boston, Charles Town, and Places adjacent in pl, Th a e tio o S ri g inaii 
New England, having been this day humbly £?S?piISaK 
presented by Sir Purbeck Temple and read at the 0ffice - 
Board. It is thereupon ordered in Councill, That the con- 
sideration thereof be referred to the lit 1 Hon llle The Lords 
of the Committee for Trade and Plantations, And that a 



302 Orders in Council. 

Copy of the said Address be sent to the Agents of New 
England, who are to give their Lordships an account in 
writing of the present State of the Massachusetts Colony, 
on Thursday next at Five in the afternoon, when their 
Lordships are to meet, And all persons concerned in New 
England are to haue notice to attend, and particularly Sir 
William Phipps, who is then to bring to the Committee a 
relation of the late proceedings and Expedition of the 
People of New England against Canada, under his com- 
mand. — [William & Mary, Vol. II., 149.] 

At Whitehall, the 30 th of Aprill, 1691. Present, The 
King's most excellent Majesty. His Poyall Highness 
Prince George of Denmark, Presid 1 of the Council. 

Massachusetts His Majesty hauing upon the application of 
England^ cS the Agents of the Massachusetts Bay in New 
terto be prepared, England, thought fit to referr the draught of a 



but his Majesty ^"gxcuxvi, m"ug 
will name & ap- 
point the Gover 



'- new Charter for that Colony, unto the K, 1 Hon blc 



nor 



the Lords of the Committee of Trade & Plan- 
tations, And their Lordships having, upon consideration 
thereof, this day reported to His Majesty that they hum- 
bly conceived it necessary that before there be any further 
proceedings relating to that Charter, His Majesty would 
declare whether it be His royall pleasure to haue a Gov- 
ernor or single representative of his own appointment, 
from time to time, to give his consent to all Laws and Acts 
of Government, as in Barbados and the other Plantations, 
or whether his Majesty would leave the power of making 
laws to the People, or Officers appointed by them. And 
his Majesty upon debate of this matter having been ac- 
quainted that the former Charter of the Massachusetts 
Bay stood legally vacated, And that the Agents of that 
Colony had desired a new Charter from his Majesty, with 
divers variations from the former Charter ; His Majesty 
was thereupon pleased to declare in Councill, That he did 
resolve to send a Governor of his own nomination and ap- 
pointment for the administration of the Government of 
the Massachusetts Colony, as in Barbados and other Plan- 
tations. And did further order, as it is hereby ordered, 
That the U l Hon ble the Lords of the Committee of Trade 



Orders in Council 303 

& Plantations do forthwith prepare the draught of a new 
Charter upon that foundation, for the speedy settlement of 
the said Colony. — [William & Mary, Vol. II., 161.] 

Att Whitehall, the 17 th of September, 1691. Present, The 
Queens most excellent Majesty. His royall Highness 
Prince George of Denmark. 

The draught of a Charter prepared by the New England> 
Lords of the Committee of Trade and Planta- gJ^SBE 
tions for the Province of Massachusetts Bay in te^ se u" s der Ch the 
New England having been this day read at the Great Seale - 
Board, It is thereupon ordered by Her Majesty in Coun- 
cill that the R 1 Hon ble the Earle cf Nottingham, her Ma- 
jestie's Principall Secretary of State do prepare a Warrant 
for her Majesties Royall Signature, for passing the said 
Charter under the Great Seale of England, in the usual 
manner. — [William & Mary, Vol. II., 241.] 

At Whitehall the 12 th of October, 1691. 

Whereas the H l Hono ble the Lords of the Com- Sir Edmond An . 
mittee for Trade & Plantations did this day iT/ et tSTheGo r vr 
represent to the Board, That having considered mSsSuLus 1116 
the Petition of Sir Edmond Andros, late Gov- Bay - 
ernor of New England, They are of opinion, That the Gov- 
ernment of the Massachusetts Bay being now settled, the 
Peticioners accompts may be referred to the examination 
of the Governor and Councill of that Province, It was 
thereupon accordingly ordered by their Lordships That the 
accompts of money disbursed by the Peticioner for the 
Publique service, during his late Government of New Eng- 
land, Be and they are hereby referred to the examination 
of the Governor and Councill of the Massachusetts Bay, 
who are to cause payment to be made to him in course out 
of the Publique revenue there, of what shall appear to haue 
been expended, and justly due to the Peticioner, in the Pub- 
lique service, during his Government of New England. — 
[William & Mary, Vol. II., 256.] 

[1691. A similar reference made at the same SJer%ew T Engd 
sitting, of the Accompts of M r John Usher, late ^%%£%£ 



304 Orders in Council. 



Ma^sacSusel lhe Treasurer of New England, and his Security to 
fyTo^changed!" be changed. " And whereas Elisha Cooke and 
Thomas Oakes, two of the said Agents, haue 
certifyed under their hands, the good liking of the Security 
proposed by the Peticioner viz. M r Thomas Brindley and 
M r Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston," &c. Accompts re- 
ferred to the Gov r & Council of Massachusetts Bay. — 
William & Mary, Vol. II., 255.] 

At Whitehall, the 16 th of February 1692. 

Letter to be sent Letters having already been sent to the Gov- 
RhSTfafi? t ernor of the Massachusetts Bay, the Governors 
assist New Yorke. f Virginia, Maryland & Pensilvania, directing 
them, upon the application of the Governor of New 
Yorke, to assist him with men or otherwise, for the secur- 
ing of that Province from any Attempts of their Majesty's 
enemies in those parts, the like Letters may be sent from 
his Majesty to the Colonies of Connecticut & Rhode Isl- 
and, in New England. 

iSkSSSi* The Ri g ht H °n ble the Lords of the Commit- 
co°undii f TNew tee for Trade and Plantations having this day 
Yorke. moved in Councill, That M r Joseph Dudley and 

M r William Pinhorn, whom Col. Fletcher, Governor of 
New York, hath suspended from being of the Council, for 
not residing within the Province, nor having any Estate 
there, may be removed from their places in the Councill, 
in case they will not reside within the province of New 
York, It was thereupon ordered, That the R l Hon ble The 
Earle of Nottingham, Principall Secretary of State be de- 
sired to prepare Letters for his Majesties royall Signature, 
directing that the said Joseph Dudley and William Pin- 
horne be accordingly removed from their places in the 
Councill of New Yorke, in case they will not reside within 
that Province. — [William & Mary, Vol. III., 95.] 



GOVERNOR BRADSTREET TO SIR LIONEL 

JENKINS. 



[This and the two following letters were received from the same 
source as the " Orders in Council " next preceding. After the lat- 
ter had been printed, a note was put into our hands by Mr. Thornton, 
addressed to him by Mr. Adlard, in which he says : "As I understand 
the Publishing Committee of the Massachusetts Historical Society have 
the Privy Council Records, with the intention of inserting them in the 
next volume of their Transactions, I should be glad if you would call on 
some member of the Committee and request them to print the whole, in- 
stead of only a portion. That which they have is part and parcel of the 
portion printed by Mr. Drake [in the Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter, Vol. VIII. pp. 135- 145]. The hiatus that appears between the two 
portions does not arise from any omission on the part of the transcriber, 
but is the omission in the Records of the Privy Council, arising from the 
interregnum between the death of Charles the First and the Restoration. 
Cromwell did not keep up the Records, having in fact no Privy Council 
that could be so called. From entries occasionally made, few and far 
between, [from 1641 to the death of Charles,] it appears that the Council 
Register Books were taken from place to place, wherever Charles was 
driven ; and the only entries made were strictly of a local English char- 
acter, and had no reference to American affairs. I have reason to 
believe that neither Mr. Bancroft nor any other American historian has 
had access to these records or registers ; and as they were selected and 
carefully transcribed by myself, I think they cannot but be looked upon 
by all as a valuable contribution to American history. I trust you will 
succeed in having them printed entire, which will render them so much 
the more valuable, as being one consecutive series, and the only one, I 
believe, that has ever been collected." It was, of course, too late to com- 
ply with Mr. Adlard's request ; indeed, this volume was nearly completed 
before the portion from which we have printed was put into our hands, 
and of these we have felt obliged to omit a few entries. In printing these 
early papers in this volume, the purpose has been to give the orthogra- 
phy of the original. Many of the letters and words in the manuscripts 
have a dash or a circumflex over them, to denote that the word is a con- 
traction ; but we have not been able generally, for want of type, to de- 
note these. — Eds.] 

4th s, — yol. ii. 39 



306 Governor Bradstreet to Sir Lionel Jenkins. 



To the Right Hon ble S r Lyonel Jenkins Kn l One of His 
Ma ties Principal Secretaires of State. 

Boston, New England, May 29 t/l 1682. 

Eight Hon b!e 

These are (with our most humble service to your Hon r ) 
to accompany our worthy Friends Joseph Dudley & John 
Richards Esq rs who are by the Govern" & Company of this 
Colonie, appointed their Agents, to attend His Majesties 
service & Comands, being well Knowne unto us, to be of 
approved Loyaltie to His Majesties Interest, as well as 
Intelligent in the affaires of this His Colonie. "We have 
formerly acquainted Your Hon r with those difficulties, we 
haue mett with in this Matter, Sz therewithall with our 
Resolutions (as soon as possible w T e could obtaine a remo- 
vall of y m ) to yield obedience to His Ma ties comands 
therein. We also informed Your Hon r more lately how 
impossible it was for us to appeare, by the time limited in 
His Ma lie3 Gracious L re of Octo r 21. 1681. This is the first 
Ship from this Port, since y l time, excepting That by w c h 
we gaue yo r Hon r that Information, w c h was ready to Saile 
w 11 we Received His Ma lies Said Gracious L re . So that we 
humbly hope (the Reality of our Intentions now appear- 
ing) His Ma lie will Graciously please not to impute the 
Lapse of time to us, as a Neglect, but look upon it as an 
effect of those Obstructions with which we haue been 
attended. 

Rt. Hon ble . As His Ma ties Princely Clemency and Good- 
nesse assures us of His Gracious Aspect upon our Agents, 
so we humbly beg Yo r Hon rs Favour to them (God having 
been pleased to set You in a place of so great Eminencie 
near unto His Ma lie ) By meanes of wh they may have ac- 
cesse into His Ma lies Presence, and be greatly furthered 
and happily conducted in their Negociation and seasona- 
bly dispatched, to the Hon r & Satisfaction of his Sacred 
Ma lie & the Advantage & Settlement of this people. Here- 
by we Shall be greatly obliged to pray for the long contin- 
uance of Yo r Honour and prosperity in this Life and future 
Happiness. 



Increase Mather to the Earl of Nottingham. 307 

"We are, Right Hon rble , Your Hon rs most obliged and 
most humble Servants, The Govern" & Council of the 
Mattachusetts in New England. 

(Signed,) Simon Bradstreet 

Gov r 



INCREASE MATHER TO THE EARL OF NOT- 
TINGHAM. 



To The R 1 Hon ble the Earle of Nottingham his Maj Ues 
Principall Secretary of State, — Att Whitehall. 

My Lord, 

I have only to assure yo r Lordsh p that the Generality of 
their Maj ties Subjects (soe far as I can understand) doe 
with all thankfulness receive the favours which by the new 
Charter, are granted to them. The last worke [weeke ?] the 
Generall Assembly (which yo r Lordsh p Knows is our New 
England Parliament) convened at Boston I did then exhort 
them to make an address of thanks to their Maj tles w ch I 
am since informed the Assembly have unanimously agreed 
to doe as in duty they are bound. I have also acquainted 
the whole Assembly how much not myself onely but they 
and all this Province are obliged to yo r Lordsh p in partic- 
ular which they have a gratefull sence of, as by letters 
from themselves yo r Lordsh p will perceive. 

If I may in anything serve their Maj ties Interest here, I 
shall on that account think myself happy and shall always 
studdy to approue myself, 

My Lord, Yo r most humble Thankfull and 

Obedient Servant, 
Increase Mather. 

Boston, K E. June 23, 1692. 



LETTER OF GOVERNOR JOSEPH DUDLEY. 



Boston, Nov r 16 th 1716. 
S r 

When His Majesty thought fit about a year since to dis- 
miss me from the Government of this Province I had No- 
tice given me from Whitehall, how much I was oblig'd to 
you in offering to recomend one of my Sons for the Lieut. 
Governour's Comission. 

This I understand to be design'd as a mark of the 
King's favour for my thirteen Years successfull services to 
the Crown here, & though it was not done then, yet now 
I am to give you my humble Thanks for naming M r Dumer 
to that employment, who marry'd my Daughter, & for his 
many worthy qualities is as dear to me as if he were my 
own Son. 

I beg S r you'l believe that though I have Sentiments of 
great gratitude for this honour done to one of my family, 
yet had it not been, my loyalty & good Behaviour to the 
Governm 1 should have been equally apparent to every 
Body. The King has for ever endear'd the hearts of his 
loyal Subjects in these Provinces by appointing so prudent 
& good a Man as Col. Shute to Rule over them. 

I am now grown Old, & having liv'd to see His Ma- 
jesty triumph over his Enemies, & the Administration of 
the Kingdom settled in a wise & faithfull ministry, I think 
I have liv'd long enough : I humbly pray Almighty God 
to preserve your Life for the Great good of the Nation, & 
remain, S r Your Most faithful Humble Servant 

(Signed,) J. Dudley. 

[No address, but indorsed, " Boston, Nov. 16, 1716, M r Dudley late 
Governour.] 

END OF VOL II. OF FOURTH SERIES.